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Dietary patterns more closely resemble actual eating behaviours because multiple food groups, not a single food group or nutrient, are considered. The present study aimed to identify and assess changes of dietary patterns in Fukushima residents.
Dietary data were collected using a short-form FFQ in annual Fukushima Health Management Survey between 2011 and 2013 after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Year- and sex-specific dietary patterns were determined by the principal component analysis.
Evacuation and nonevacuation zones in Fukushima, Japan.
Eligible participants aged ≥16 years answered the FFQ (n 67 358 in 2011, n 48 377 in 2012 and n 40 742 in 2013).
Three identified dietary patterns were assessed similarly in men and women and among years: typical, juice and meat. In total participants, the Spearman’s correlation coefficients between two survey years were 0·70–0·74 for the typical, 0·58–0·66 for the juice and 0·50–0·54 for the meat pattern scores. Adjusted for sociodemographic factors, evacuees had lower typical pattern scores, higher juice pattern scores and the same meat pattern scores compared with non-evacuees. The means of typical pattern scores in evacuees and it of juice pattern scores in non-evacuees continued declining over years. Similar profiles of dietary patterns and trends of pattern scores were observed in participants (n 22 805) who had provided three dietary assessments.
Changes of dietary patterns have been observed between 2011 and 2013. Careful investigation of those with low intake of typical pattern foods and promotion of them, particularly in evacuees, are needed.
The trajectory of the Kuroshio, the western boundary current in the north Pacific, influences regional climate. It intrudes into the South China Sea (SCS) through the Luzon Strait, resulting in the exchange of water, nutrients, heat, and salt between the Pacific and SCS. It has been reported that the trajectory of the Kuroshio has varied with decadal climate changes. However, there has been no report of an observation-based estimate of the variation in the Luzon Strait transport. Here, a 50-year, high-resolution coral skeletal radiocarbon (Δ14C) dataset from 1946 to 1994 is reported from Currimao, northwest of Luzon Island. Δ14C has been used as a sensitive tracer of seawater, and our data indicates a significant increase in Δ14C from 1946 to 1994 related to atmospheric nuclear bomb testing, with more rapid increase in the SCS than in the Pacific. The unusual, rapid Δ14C increase in the 1950s found in our SCS corals together with seasonal variation in Δ14C will helps constrain physical oceanographic models for the western Pacific, including the SCS.
In this paper, Berger spheres are regarded as geodesic spheres with sufficiently big radii in a complex projective space. We characterize such real hypersurfaces by investigating their geodesics and contact structures from the viewpoint of submanifold theory.
This study sets out to determine the influence of age at the time of surgery as a risk factor for post-operative length of stay after bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis.
All patients undergoing a Glenn procedure between January 2010 and July 2015 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Demographic data were examined. Standard descriptive statistics was used. A univariable analysis was conducted using the appropriate test based on data distribution. A propensity score for balancing the group difference was included in the multi-variable analysis, which was then completed using predictors from the univariable analysis that achieved significance of p<0.1.
Over the study period, 50 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients were separated into two cohorts of ⩾4 months (28 patients) and <4 months (22 patients). Other than height and weight, the two cohorts were indistinguishable in their pre-operative saturation, medications, catheterisation haemodynamics, atrioventricular valve regurgitation, and ventricular function. After adjusting group differences, younger age was associated with longer post-operative length of hospitalisation – adjusted mean 15 (±2.53) versus 8 (±2.15) days (p=0.03). In a multi-variable regression analysis, in addition to ventricular dysfunction (β coefficient=8.8, p=0.05), Glenn procedures performed before 4 months were independently associated with longer length of stay (β coefficient=−6.9, p=0.03).
We found that Glenn procedures performed after 4 months of age had shorter post-operative length of stay when compared to a younger cohort. These findings suggest that balancing timing of surgery to decrease the inter-stage period should take into consideration differences in post-operative recovery with earlier operations.
The dynamics of bubble clouds induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound is investigated in a regime where the cloud size is similar to the ultrasound wavelength. High-speed images show that the cloud is asymmetric; the bubbles nearest the source grow to a larger radius than the distal ones. Similar structures of bubble clouds are observed in numerical simulations that mimic the laboratory experiment. To elucidate the structure, a parametric study is conducted for plane ultrasound waves with various amplitudes and diffuse clouds with different initial void fractions. Based on an analysis of the kinetic energy of liquid induced by bubble oscillations, a new scaling parameter is introduced to characterize the dynamics. The new parameter generalizes the cloud interaction parameter originally introduced by d’Agostino & Brennen (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 199, 1989, pp. 155–176). The dynamic interaction parameter controls the energy localization and consequent anisotropy of the cloud. Moreover, the amplitude of the far-field, bubble-scattered acoustics is likewise correlated with the proposed parameter. Findings of the present study not only shed light on the physics of cloud cavitation, but may also be of use for the quantification of the effects of cavitation on outcomes of ultrasound therapies including high-intensity focused ultrasound-based lithotripsy.
We first provide a necessary and sufficient condition for a ruled real hypersurface in a nonflat complex space form to have constant mean curvature in terms of integral curves of the characteristic vector field on it. This yields a characterization of minimal ruled real hypersurfaces by circles. We next characterize the homogeneous minimal ruled real hypersurface in a complex hyperbolic space by using the notion of strong congruency of curves.
In this paper, a colloidal solution of copper nanoparticles was prepared from a Cu ion aqueous solution with the protein casein surfactant by a liquid phase reduction method at low temperature below 373K. For the casein concentration ranging from 6g/L to 75g/L, the formation of copper nanoparticle colloid were observed. As a result, the peak was observed at the ranging of 450 to 650 nm corresponding to the copper nanoparticle colloid plasmon absorption. As the surfactant concentration increases, the absorption spectrum tends to blue-shift and the particle diameter decreases. Thus, it indicated that the optical property and particle diameter of copper nanoparticle colloidal solution will be controlled by the protein casein surfactant concentration.
Political parties’ behavior in coalition formation is commonly explained by their policy-, vote-, and office-seeking incentives. From these perspectives, the 20-year partnership of Japan's ruling conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and its pacifistic Komeito junior coalition partner is an anomalous case. The longevity, closeness, and nature of their unlikely partnership challenges core assumptions in existing theories of coalition politics. LDP–Komeito cooperation has sustained for two decades despite vastly different support bases and ideological differences on fundamental policy issues. LDP leaders also show no signs of abandoning the much smaller Komeito despite enjoying a single-party majority. We argue that the remarkable durability of this puzzling partnership results primarily from the two parties’ electoral incentives and what has effectively become codependence under Japan's mixed electoral system. Our analysis also demonstrates that being in a coalition can induce significant policy compromises, even from a much larger senior partner. Beyond theoretical implications, these phenomena yield important real-world consequences for Japanese politics: especially, a far less dominant LDP than the party's Diet seat total suggests, and Komeito's remarkable ability to punch significantly above its weight and constrain its far larger senior partner, even on the latter's major national security policy priorities.
The excavation of several structures at the site of Hasankeyf Höyük in south-east Anatolia has revealed evidence for the continuity of hunter-gatherer lithic technology into the early stages of the Neolithic in the tenth to ninth millennia BC. In particular, the Nemrik point, previously seen as a hallmark of the early Neolithic, can now be shown to have been in use in a local tradition of hunter-gatherer lithic technology. Overall, the continuity in time and space at Hasankeyf Höyük indicates a long-term persistence of lithic technologies, which contrasts with the pattern of change in the Levant and which suggests different pathways to the Neolithic in different parts of the Fertile Crescent region in the Near East.
The apparent diffusion coefficients of La, Nd, Eu, Dy, Er, and Lu in compacted bentonites were investigated at various bicarbonate concentrations. The apparent diffusion coefficients of these lanthanides tended to decrease with increasing dry density. At bicarbonate concentrations below 0.25 M, lanthanum had the largest diffusion coefficient (ca. 10-13 m2/s) at 1.0 Mg/m3, and the diffusion coefficient decreased with increasing atomic number. On the other hand, at bicarbonate concentrations above 0.25 M, lutetium had the largest diffusion coefficient, and the diffusion coefficient decreased with decreasing atomic number. In particular, lanthanum and neodymium had diffusion coefficients below 10-14 m2/s, even at 1.0 Mg/m3. The diffusion coefficient of europium was around 10-13 m2/s at 1.0 Mg/m3 and was influenced less by the bicarbonate concentration. The diffusion coefficient of lutetium increased from 2 × 10-14 to 10-12 m2/s as the bicarbonate concentration was increased to 1.0 M. The concentration of carbonate ion in the pore water of bentonite is estimated to be much lower than that in solutions in contact with bentonite from the viewpoints of solubility and chemical species of lanthanides.
The genus Neomonoceratina, which dominated the ostracod assemblage in the uppermost part of the Akasaki Formation (Miroku Group) of the Kyushu Island, Japan, is associated with the benthic foraminifer Ammonia cf. beccarii, mollusca Terebralia? sp. and Anomia sp., and the oogonium of Charophyceae, indicating a marine-to-brackish estuarine environment involving inflowing freshwater. This is the first record of Eocene coastal-estuarine ostracods from the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent and demonstrates that different pre-Neogene coastal-estuarine ostracod assemblages flourished in this region. The assemblages comprised five ostracod species (including one novel species) assigned to the genera Neomonoceratina, Paijeiborchella, Propontocypris and Parakrithella. These species exhibited genus-level links with the Eocene borehole cores along the continental shelf of the East China Sea and other areas of Kyushu. Fossil data of characteristic Eocene coastal-estuarine genera collected worldwide indicate that different characteristic genera inhabited each region. For example, Neomonoceratina originated on the Indian subcontinent by the Early Paleocene period at the latest, along with the northern drift of the Indian subcontinent. These species subsequently diversified west and east with the equatorial current and counter-current via the Tethys and reached the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent among the various eastwards-migrating species, where one genus ultimately adapted to the coastal-estuarine environment. Notably, the coastal-estuarine ostracod assemblage of the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent differs completely from that of the Tethys during the Eocene period. Our results suggest that coastal-estuarine ostracod assemblages are a powerful tool for palaeogeographic reconstruction.
This study aimed to compare the physical activity level and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between older survivors residing in temporary housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE; temporary housing group) and older individuals residing in their own homes (control group) and to clarify whether mobility function and muscle strength were correlated with physical activity among older temporary housing residents.
Subjects were recruited to the temporary housing group (n=64, 19 men and 45 women) or control group (n=64, 33 men and 31 women) according to their residence. Physical activity was assessed by the number of walking steps determined by using a triaxial accelerometer, mobility function by the Timed Up and Go test, muscle strength by the grasping power test, and HRQOL by the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Survey v2.
In the temporary housing group, reduced physical activity and correlation between physical activity and mobility function in men, and muscle strength in both men and women, were observed. There was no significant difference in HRQOL between groups except for bodily pain in women.
Support for older evacuees should focus on maintaining their physical activity level as well as on HRQOL to avoid deterioration of health in these survivors. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:701–710)
Little is known about the associations between family satisfaction with end-of-life care and caregiver burden. We conducted a researcher-assisted questionnaire survey to clarify the impact of caregiver burden on family satisfaction and to determine the types of burden that decrease family satisfaction.
Bereaved family caregivers of patients with advanced cancer who received our outreach palliative care service were retrospectively identified. Family satisfaction with the end-of-life care provided by the palliative care service and caregiver burden were quantified using the Japanese versions of the FAMCARE Scale and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), respectively.
Our study subjects included 23 family caregivers. The mean scores on the FAMCARE Scale and the ZBI for the total population were 72.8 ± 11.2 and 22.8 ± 17.3, respectively, indicating moderate-to-high satisfaction and low-to-moderate burden. Caregiver burden had a strong negative correlation to family satisfaction with end-of-life care (Spearman's rho [ρ] = −0.560, p = 0.005), which remained after adjustment for potential confounders (standardized beta [β] = −0.563, p = 0.01). Several burden items—including loss of control, personal time, social engagement with others, feeling angry with the patient, feeling that the patient wants more help than he/she needs, and a wish to leave the care to someone else—were associated with decreased satisfaction. The major cause of dissatisfaction for family members included the information provided regarding prognosis, family conferences with medical professionals, and the method of involvement of family members in care decisions.
Significance of results:
Caregiver burden can be a barrier to family satisfaction with end-of-life care at home. A home care model focused on caregiver burden could improve end-of-life experiences for patients and family caregivers.
This study analyzes how the colonial rice trade in prewar Japan affected its rice market, considering several government interventions in the two rice futures exchanges in Tokyo and Osaka. We explore the interventions in the futures markets using two procedures. First, we measure the joint degree of efficiency in the markets using a time-varying vector autoregression model. Second, we examine historical events that possibly affected the markets and focus on one event at a time. The degree of efficiency varies over time within our sample period (1881-1932). The observation, together with historical analysis, leads to the following conclusions: (1) the two major markets in Tokyo and Osaka were nearly efficient; (2) government interventions involving the delivery of imported rice from Taiwan and Korea often reduced futures market efficiency; finally, (3) this relationship continued as long as the quality difference between imported and domestic rice existed. The government interventions that promoted domestic distributions of the colonial goods resulted in confusion in the commodity markets, and decreased efficiency of the markets in the metropole.