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The vitality or, alternatively, vitiation of the international arbitral process is a pressing subject today. The explosion of inter-State, investor-State, and international commercial arbitration attest to the significant expansion of the field in recent years. This second edition combines the historical analysis of the first edition with a survey of the continued salience and contemporary developments for each of the three problems identified: (i) the severability of the arbitration agreement; (ii) denial of justice (and now other possible breaches of international law) by governmental negation of arbitration; and (iii) the authority of truncated international arbitral tribunals. The international arbitral process continues to be fortified against unilateral attempts to derail it, and this book will be an invaluable guide for today's practitioners and scholars alike.
This book describes the changes in the brain and in cognitive functions that occur with aging in the absence of a neurological, psychiatric, or medical disease. It discusses aging-related changes in many brain functions, including memory, language, sensory perception, motor function, creativity, attention, executive functions, emotions and mood. The neural mechanisms that may account for specific aging-related changes in cognition, perception and behavior are explored, as well as the means by which aging-related cognitive decrements can be managed and possibly ameliorated. Consequently, this book will be of value to clinicians, including neurologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians, primary care physicians, psychologists and speech-language pathologists. In addition, researchers and graduate students who want to learn about the aging brain will find this an indispensable guide.
Life patents are a form of intellectual property protection being enshrined and strengthened in bi-lateral and multi–lateral trade agreements. The Church’s teaching and societal engagement to protect human rights has grown in response to the expanded use of patents on living matter, including human genes, DNA and stem cells, as well as microorganisms, plants and animals. This analysis is based on three assets of the work of the Church in the United States: 1) the teaching of the Church; 2) relationships with the Church in other nations; and 3) on–the–ground experience in developing nations, especially through the Conference’s relief and development agency, Catholic Relief Services (CRS). The paper explores two questions: What lessons can be learned from the Church’s engagement with life patents as they touch the rights of persons who are poor, indigenous or marginalized? How can the Church appropriately defend the rights of persons at the margins of the global economy, insuring their just and fair treatment, and their access to the life–saving benefits of life patents?
Field trials were conducted at Pontotoc, Mississippi, Chase, Louisiana, and Clinton, North Carolina in 2017 and 2018 to determine the effect of pendimethalin rate and timing on sweetpotato crop tolerance, yield, and storage root quality. Treatments consisted of five pendimethalin rates (266, 532, 1065, 1597, and 2130 g ai ha-1) by two application timings (0 to 1 or 10 to 14 d after transplanting). Additionally, a nontreated check was included for comparison. Crop injury (stunting) was minimal (< 4%) through 6 wk after transplanting (WAP) and no injury was observed from 8 to 14 WAP, regardless of application timing or rate. The nontreated check yielded 6.6, 17.6, 5.5, and 32.1 × 103 kg ha-1 of canner, no.1, jumbo, and total grades, respectively. Neither pendimethalin application timing nor rate influenced jumbo, no.1, marketable or total sweetpotato yield. Overall, these results indicate that pendimethalin will be a valuable addition to the toolkit of sweetpotato growers.
The diet of most adults is low in fish and, therefore, provides limited quantities of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FAs), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA, DHA). Since these compounds serve important roles in the brain, we sought to determine if healthy adults with low-LCn-3FA consumption would exhibit improvements in neuropsychological performance and parallel changes in brain morphology following repletion through fish oil supplementation.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 271 mid-life adults (30–54 years of age, 118 men, 153 women) consuming ⩽300 mg/day of LCn-3FAs received 18 weeks of supplementation with fish oil capsules (1400 mg/day of EPA and DHA) or matching placebo. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery examining four cognitive domains: psychomotor speed, executive function, learning/episodic memory, and fluid intelligence. A subset of 122 underwent neuroimaging before and after supplementation to measure whole-brain and subcortical tissue volumes.
Capsule adherence was over 95%, participant blinding was verified, and red blood cell EPA and DHA levels increased as expected. Supplementation did not affect performance in any of the four cognitive domains. Exploratory analyses revealed that, compared to placebo, fish oil supplementation improved executive function in participants with low-baseline DHA levels. No changes were observed in any indicator of brain morphology.
In healthy mid-life adults reporting low-dietary intake, supplementation with LCn-3FAs in moderate dose for moderate duration did not affect neuropsychological performance or brain morphology. Whether salutary effects occur in individuals with particularly low-DHA exposure requires further study.
Mixed presentations, defined by simultaneous occurrence of depressive and manic symptoms, are difficult to treat. Antidepressants, although commonly used, have weak evidence of efficacy and may increase risk of mood destabilization. The aim of this pooled post hoc analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of cariprazine in the treatment of bipolar depression with or without concurrent manic symptoms.
Patients from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies who met DSM-IV-TR or DSM-5 criteria for bipolar I disorder with a current major depressive episode were identified to have concurrent manic symptoms by baseline Young Mania Rating Scale total score ≥4. Efficacy was assessed in cariprazine 1.5 and 3 mg/day dose groups versus placebo; analyses included the least squares mean change from baseline to week 6 in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score.
Of 1383 patients randomized to treatment, 808 (58.4%) had concurrent manic symptoms. For patients with manic symptoms, mean reduction in MADRS total score from baseline to week 6 was significantly greater for both cariprazine 1.5 and 3 mg/day compared with placebo, with least squares mean differences (LSMDs) versus placebo of −2.5 (p = .0033) and −2.9 (p = .0010), respectively; for patients without manic symptoms, the LSMD was significant for 1.5 mg/day (−3.3; p = .0008), but not for 3 mg/day (−1.9; p = .0562).
The results of this post hoc analysis suggest that cariprazine may be an appropriate treatment option for patients with bipolar I depression with or without manic symptoms, with higher doses potentially more effective in patients with manic symptoms.
Although currently available antidepressants increase monoamine levels soon after the start of treatment, therapeutic benefits are often delayed by several weeks and the majority of patients with major depressive disorder fail to achieve an adequate response to first- or second-line therapies targeting monoamines. The recent approval of the NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) antagonist esketamine given intranasally for treatment-resistant depression has reinforced the need for agents with rapid onset with alternate mechanisms of action. Dextromethorphan/bupropion, an investigational medicine currently in development, is one such candidate.
Genetically informative research designs are becoming increasingly popular as a way to strengthen causal inference with their ability to control for genetic and shared environmental confounding. Co-twin control (CTC) models, a special case of these designs using twin samples, decompose the overall effect of exposure on outcome into a within- and between-twin-pair term. Ideally, the within-twin-pair term would serve as an estimate of the exposure effect controlling for genetic and shared environmental factors, but it is often confounded by factors not shared within a twin-pair. Previous simulation work has shown that if twins are less similar on an unmeasured confounder than they are on an exposure, the within-twin-pair estimate will be a biased estimate of the exposure effect, even more biased than the individual, unpaired estimate. The current study uses simulation and analytical derivations to show that while incorporating a covariate related to the nonshared confounder in CTC models always reduces bias in the within-pair estimate, it will be less biased than the individual estimate only in a narrow set of circumstances. The best case for bias reduction in the within-pair estimate occurs when the within-twin-pair correlation in exposure is less than the correlation in the confounder and the twin-pair correlation in the covariate is high. Additionally, the form of covariate inclusion is compared between adjustment for only one’s own covariate value and adjustment for the deviation of one’s own value from the covariate twin-pair mean. Results show that adjusting for the deviation from the twin-pair mean results in equal or reduced bias.
Despite knowing for many decades that depressive psychopathology is common in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FES), there is limited knowledge regarding the extent and nature of such psychopathology (degree of comorbidity, caseness, severity) and its demographic, clinical, functional and treatment correlates. This study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of depressive disorder and caseness, and the pooled mean severity of depressive symptoms, as well as the demographic, illness, functional and treatment correlates of depressive psychopathology in FES.
This systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression was prospectively registered (CRD42018084856) and conducted in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines.
Forty studies comprising 4041 participants were included. The pooled prevalence of depressive disorder and caseness was 26.0% (seven samples, N = 855, 95% CI 22.1–30.3) and 43.9% (11 samples, N = 1312, 95% CI 30.3–58.4), respectively. The pooled mean percentage of maximum depressive symptom severity was 25.1 (38 samples, N = 3180, 95% CI 21.49–28.68). Correlates of depressive psychopathology were also found.
At least one-quarter of individuals with FES will experience, and therefore require treatment for, a full-threshold depressive disorder. Nearly half will experience levels of depressive symptoms that are severe enough to warrant diagnostic investigation and therefore clinical intervention – regardless of whether they actually fulfil diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder. Depressive psychopathology is prominent in FES, manifesting not only as superimposed comorbidity, but also as an inextricable symptom domain.
Limpets and barnacles are important components of intertidal assemblages worldwide. This study examines the effects of barnacles on the foraging behaviour of the limpet Patella vulgata, which is the main algal grazer in the North-west Atlantic. The behaviour of limpets on a vertical seawall on the Isle of Man (UK) was investigated using autonomous radio-telemetry, comparing their activity patterns on plots characterized by dense barnacle cover and plots from which the barnacles had been removed. Limpet behaviour was investigated at mid-shore level, but two different elevations were considered. This experiment revealed a significant effect of barnacle cover on the activity of P. vulgata. Limpets on smooth surfaces spent a greater proportion of total time active than did limpets on barnacles. Movement activity was also greater in areas that were lower down in the tidal range. In general, limpets were either predominantly active during diurnal high or nocturnal low tides and always avoided nocturnal high tides. Individuals on barnacles at the higher elevation concentrated their activity during nocturnal low water. All the other groups of limpets (smooth surfaces on the upper level and all individuals on the lower shore) had more excursions centred around daylight hours with an equal distribution of activity between periods of low and high water. Inter-individual variability was, however, pronounced.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (red oak borer; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a native wood borer that colonises and develops in oaks (Quercus Linnaeus; Fagaceae) across southeastern Canada and the eastern United States of America. It is rarely considered a pest because it normally occurs at low population density levels in stressed or dying oak trees. In the late 1990s and early 2000s there was a large, historically unique outbreak of E. rufulus in the Ozark mountains of Arkansas and Missouri, United States of America. This outbreak provided an opportunity to investigate within-tree spatial distribution of attacks during unusually high insect population levels. Fifty trees from northern Arkansas were felled and destructively sampled. The locations of attack sites by female E. rufulus were standardised across varying heights and diameters for comparison across trees. Attack sites showed a significant clustered pattern within trees. Attack sites were aggregated towards the lower and middle bole, and on the south-facing side of trees. This pattern has been seen in other insects, including wood borers, and is potentially related to differences in temperature. These patterns of ovipositional behaviour in outbreak situations have implications for E. rufulus resource partitioning and facultative intraguild predation among larvae.
In a 1953 speech, on the centenary of Martí's birth, Ortiz had called for ‘un riguroso examen de conciencia y un sincero acto de contrición’ (1955b: 248). While intense introspection was evident, as we have seen, there had been no agreement on the kind of collective contrition that was called for or, indeed, whether fallibility and ‘sin’ could and should be expunged. Beyond analysis, Castro and the generación del centenario's authoritative attempt to take the national narrative by storm in July 1953 had ended in a bloody catastrophe which seemed to prove that the aberrant legacy of the machadato had merely lain dormant during the relatively pacific and democratic interlude of the 1940s. As state-sponsored brutality joined corruption and graft after March 1952, the socio-psychological cycle in Cuba seemed to have come full circle, from Zayas the crook to Machado the butcher to Batista the coup-monger. Arendt's most pessimistic predictions about eternally frustrated and eternally vengeful humankind seemed to be coming dismally true in Cuba. But in May 1955, in an almost inexplicable display of apparent compassion (stimulated perhaps by a sense of unassailability), Batista announced an amnesty and Castro and the other Moncada survivors suddenly found themselves free. But neither side was prepared to seek the kind of oblique, side-of-the road compromise that Martí (and Luján) had seemed to point to. Although pardoned by the amnesty, Castro was far from forgiven, with rumours that ‘a car riddled with bullets already existed – ready for his body to be found within (killed “fighting the police”)’ (Thomas 2001: 563–4). Castro himself showed little willingness to forget (or forgive) the extra-judicial assassination of his comrades. Whereas other analyst-authors moved on from their reflections on Martí's legacy to constantly berate Batista with their pens, Castro seemed unwilling to relinquish the sword he had taken up in 1953: ‘The general atmosphere in Havana in mid-1955 was antipathetic to him. Having staked all on the politics of action and, if need be, violence, the amnesty itself and the mood of compromise which it had created played against him’ (ibid.: 563).
As the 1920s progressed, Ortiz's suspicion of a teleological pursuit of integrated national identity seemed well founded. The venal President Zayas made way in 1925 for the soon-to-be much worse Machado and future victory for the embattled pueblo seemed as far away as ever. In 1927, a year often considered a mere ‘preamble, footnote or epilogue’ to the national narrative (Wright 1988: 109), the twenty-fifth anniversary of independence marked another turning point in in Cuba's twentieth-century trajectory and provoked renewed reflection on the Republic's past, present and future: ‘¿Qué hemos hecho en estos veinte y cinco años de cruento aprendizaje cívico?’, asked the editors of vanguard magazine revista de avance, which first appeared in March 1927 (1:4: 97). This chapter examines some of the answers offered by analyst-authors of Cuba's collective identity. It will show that the ‘liminalists’ once again faced the ‘reaggregationists’ over the pages of the national narrative, but will point to a significant discursive shift in this confrontation. From 1923's concentration on spatial, racial or cultural otherness, we will now see the debate displaced towards the notion of temporal alterity; in 1927 the Other comes not from elsewhere, but from ‘elsewhen’. This chapter examines the Cuban vanguard's assault on the old guard's aesthetic, ideological and discursive dominance on the island at a watershed moment, a moment Celina Manzoni describes as ‘la confluencia […] de una conciencia estética y de una conciencia social capaces de constituir una cultura nueva a partir de la ruptura de la tradición’ (2001: 21). This chapter will suggest, however, that this ‘ruptura’ was only half the collective story. We will see examine evidence of definite attempts to elucidate a ‘nihilistic’ collective sensibilidad wholly unencumbered by the past, but we will also uncover counter-narratives that point to psycho-cultural continuity across any schismatic divide.
Old guard vs vanguard
Although their endeavours in the Wars of Independence had transformed the veteranos into almost unimpeachable national heroes in 1898, the United States’ usurpation of the laurels of victory, the ratification of the despised Platt Amendment and the self-serving peacetime behaviour of some of the campaign's most senior commanders cast a gloomy pall over the heroic legacy of the independentista struggle.
Despite the fact that by 1923 the sugar industry had clambered to its feet after the catastrophic danza (with a bumper crop to be sold at the highest prices since independence, bar the extraordinary summer of 1920), the persistent political self-interest, economic subservience and ethical collapse ensured that the gloomy mood of neo-colonial impotence lingered. Taunted by a stubborn Spanish economic influence, bullied by an overbearing United States and undermined by a cynical Cuban political elite, the task of constructing the civitas of an independent nation and the sensibilidad to match seemed doomed to failure. But just as Cuba's ‘vitalidad como nación’ (Ortiz 1923d: 87) seemed about to expire, a spark of stubborn resistance was ignited: ‘reform was in the air, and it was a presence that offered the prospect of nothing less than a total regeneration of the republic’ (Pérez Jr 2006: 236). 1923 was an annus mirabilis for the Cuban Republic, a turning point in which the sensibilidad of the age shifted suddenly from lassitude and bitter frustration to the kind of ‘heightened pitch of self-consciousness’ that Turner describes as typical in liminal transitions (1969: 167). A series of financial scandals involving the widely disliked (and sexagenarian) president coincided with the coming of age of a new generation of analyst-authors of the national narrative. Whilst recognising and analysing this generational clash, this chapter will rather suggest that the prime discursive confrontation in 1923 was not based on age at all. Instead, the reflection on identity typical of the liminal phase of the rite of passage took place on the spatial plane, around very different interpretations of Cuban insularity and its implications for nationhood, and on the ethical plane, around very different attitudes towards the ‘sins’ and ‘sicknesses’ afflicting Cuban sensibilidad and the possibility (even desirability) of a collective pardon or cure.
Fuelled by an intolerance of neo-colonial corruption and by an appetite for collective catharsis, the so-called Generación del ‘23 was undoubtedly in the vanguard of this anguished introspection:
En los años del gobierno de Alfredo Zayas, llegan a la madurez los cubanos nacidos entre 1895 y 1902, esto es, una nueva generación que ni tiene complicidad con el deterioro creciente de la República intervenida ni está comprometida, como sucedía con la masa de los libertadores, a seguir determinados cabecillas, caudillos o líderes.
This book has examined seven important moments in Cuba's twentieth century as points in a rite of national passage. It has shown that at each point historical circumstance, cultural and generational coincidence, a sense of ethical discomfort and the perceived need to remodel civic structures all led to an impulse to re-orient collective sensibility and begin a new chapter in Cuba's national narrative; in other words, to undertake the socio-structural ‘separation’ that anthropologists identify as the first phase in the rite of passage. After this initial separation came the interstitial, introspective and all-important limen, and the ideological adversaries we have followed throughout pulled on their gloves and prepared to fight, either brazenly confident that victory would ultimately be theirs, or resigned to the fact that the luchita could last some time. For the former, whom we have called ‘the reaggregationists’, a sense of forward momentum, the coalescence of a cohesive archetype and the tearing out of unsatisfactory pages from the collective narrative were all essential to move beyond such moments of existential flux and on to a near happyever- after future. The latter, whom we have called ‘the liminalists’, rather advocated a more pragmatic acceptance of flux, saw history turning in everrepeating circles and the national narrative as an honest document of Cuba's oftentimes mala vida. Two fundamentally different ontologies of identity were therefore revealed and scrutinised here under the analytical light of liminality. The reaggregationists followed Arnold van Gennep through a temporal and cathartic limen in which all antecedent sins were atoned for and absolved, all maladies made better, all devils banished from the collective alma for ever as Cuba moved towards a post-liminal promised land in which the near perfect pueblo rallied around their Revolutionary shepherd. On the contrary, and contrarily, those prepared to dwell always and forever en la luchita saw the introspection and ambivalence of liminal turning points not as a phase at all, but as a congenital and irrevocable condition (as it is for Victor Turner).