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This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has migrated to regions that were initially spared, and it is likely that different populations are currently at risk for illness. Herein, we present our observations of the change in characteristics and resource use of COVID-19 patients over time in a national system of community hospitals to help inform those managing surge planning, operational management, and future policy decisions.
The prevalence of psychotic experiences (PEs) is higher in low-and-middle-income-countries (LAMIC) than in high-income countries (HIC). Here, we examine whether this effect is explicable by measurement bias.
A community sample from 13 countries (N = 7141) was used to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of a frequently used self-report measure of PEs, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), in LAMIC (n = 2472) and HIC (n = 4669). The CAPE measures positive (e.g. hallucinations), negative (e.g. avolition) and depressive symptoms. MI analyses were conducted with multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses.
MI analyses showed similarities in the structure and understanding of the CAPE factors between LAMIC and HIC. Partial scalar invariance was found, allowing for latent score comparisons. Residual invariance was not found, indicating that sum score comparisons are biased. A comparison of latent scores before and after MI adjustment showed both overestimation (e.g. avolition, d = 0.03 into d = −0.42) and underestimation (e.g. magical thinking, d = −0.03 into d = 0.33) of PE in LAMIC relative to HIC. After adjusting the CAPE for MI, participants from LAMIC reported significantly higher levels on most CAPE factors but a significantly lower level of avolition.
Previous studies using sum scores to compare differences across countries are likely to be biased. The direction of the bias involves both over- and underestimation of PEs in LAMIC compared to HIC. Nevertheless, the study confirms the basic finding that PEs are more frequent in LAMIC than in HIC.
The seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibody was evaluated among employees of a Veterans Affairs healthcare system to assess potential risk factors for transmission and infection.
All employees were invited to participate in a questionnaire and serological survey to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as part of a facility-wide quality improvement and infection prevention initiative regardless of clinical or nonclinical duties. The initiative was conducted from June 8 to July 8, 2020.
Of the 2,900 employees, 51% participated in the study, revealing a positive SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of 4.9% (72 of 1,476; 95% CI, 3.8%–6.1%). There were no statistically significant differences in the presence of antibody based on gender, age, frontline worker status, job title, performance of aerosol-generating procedures, or exposure to known patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) within the hospital. Employees who reported exposure to a known COVID-19 case outside work had a significantly higher seroprevalence at 14.8% (23 of 155) compared to those who did not 3.7% (48 of 1,296; OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 2.67–7.68; P < .0001). Notably, 29% of seropositive employees reported no history of symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among employees was not significantly different among those who provided direct patient care and those who did not, suggesting that facility-wide infection control measures were effective. Employees who reported direct personal contact with COVID-19–positive persons outside work were more likely to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Employee exposure to SARS-CoV-2 outside work may introduce infection into hospitals.
To determine risk factors for mortality among COVID-19 patients admitted to a system of community hospitals in the United States.
Retrospective analysis of patient data collected from the routine care of COVID-19 patients.
System of >180 acute-care facilities in the United States.
All admitted patients with positive identification of COVID-19 and a documented discharge as of May 12, 2020.
Determination of demographic characteristics, vital signs at admission, patient comorbidities and recorded discharge disposition in this population to construct a logistic regression estimating the odds of mortality, particular for those patients characterized as not being critically ill at admission.
In total, 6,180 COVID-19+ patients were identified as of May 12, 2020. Most COVID-19+ patients (4,808, 77.8%) were admitted directly to a medical-surgical unit with no documented critical care or mechanical ventilation within 8 hours of admission. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and vital signs at admission in this subgroup, the largest driver of the odds of mortality was patient age (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06–1.08; P < .001). Decreased oxygen saturation at admission was associated with increased odds of mortality (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06–1.12; P < .001) as was diabetes (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21–2.03; P < .001).
The identification of factors observable at admission that are associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients who are initially admitted to non-critical care units may help care providers, hospital epidemiologists, and hospital safety experts better plan for the care of these patients.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Self-determination theory is a generalized theory of behavior that focuses on motivation quality and psychological need satisfaction as preeminent behavioral determinants. The theory distinguishes between autonomous and controlled forms of motivation. Autonomous motivation reflects willingly engaging in behaviors for self-endorsed reasons, whereas controlled motivation reflects engaging in behavior for externally or internally pressured or controlled reasons. Satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness is necessary for optimal functioning and well-being, and influences the form of motivation, autonomous or controlled, experienced by individuals when acting. Autonomous motivation is consistently related to sustained behavior change and adaptive outcomes. Interventions to promote autonomous motivation have targeted psychological need support provided by social agents (e.g., leaders, managers, teachers, health professionals), particularly autonomy need support. Interventions using need-supportive techniques have demonstrated efficacy in promoting autonomous motivation, behavior change, and adaptive outcomes. Research has identified behaviors displayed, and language used, by social agents, or communicated by other means, that support autonomous motivation. Autonomy-support training programs have been developed to train social agents to promote autonomous motivation and behavior change. Future research needs to examine the unique and interactive effects of specific autonomy-support techniques, provide further evidence for long-term efficacy, and examine “dose” effects and long-term efficacy.
Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive function in older adults. Although understudied in middle-aged adults, the relationship between alcohol and cognition may also be influenced by genetics such as the apolipoprotein (ApoE) ε4 allele, a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. We examined the relationship between alcohol consumption, ApoE genotype, and cognition in middle-aged adults and hypothesized that light and/or moderate drinkers (≤2 drinks per day) would show better cognitive performance than heavy drinkers or non-drinkers. Additionally, we hypothesized that the association between alcohol use and cognitive function would differ by ApoE genotype (ε4+ vs. ε4−).
Participants were 1266 men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA; M age = 56; range 51–60) who completed a neuropsychological battery assessing seven cognitive abilities: general cognitive ability (GCA), episodic memory, processing speed, executive function, abstract reasoning, verbal fluency, and visuospatial ability. Alcohol consumption was categorized into five groups: never, former, light, moderate, and heavy.
In fully adjusted models, there was no significant main effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive functions. However, there was a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and ApoE ε4 status for GCA and episodic memory, such that the relationship of alcohol consumption and cognition was stronger in ε4 carriers. The ε4+ heavy drinking subgroup had the poorest GCA and episodic memory.
Presence of the ε4 allele may increase vulnerability to the deleterious effects of heavy alcohol consumption. Beneficial effects of light or moderate alcohol consumption were not observed.
Biogenic nanoscale vanadium magnetite is produced by converting V(V)-bearing ferrihydrites through reductive transformation using the metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. With increasing vanadium in the ferrihydrite, the amount of V-doped magnetite produced decreased due to V-toxicity which interrupted the reduction pathway ferrihydrite–magnetite, resulting in siderite or goethite formation. Fe L2,3 and V L2,3 X-ray absorption spectra and data from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism analysis revealed the magnetite to contain the V in the Fe(III) Oh site, predominately as V(III) but always with a component of V(VI), present a consistent V(IV)/V(III) ratio in the range 0.28 to 0.33. The bacteriogenic production of V-doped magnetite nanoparticles from V-doped ferrihydrite is confirmed and the work reveals that microbial reduction of contaminant V(V) to V(III)/V(IV) in the environment will occur below the Fe-redox boundary where it will be immobilised in biomagnetite nanoparticles.
A single radiocarbon date derived from the Buhl burial in south-central Idaho has frequently been used as a data point for the interpretation of the Western Stemmed Tradition (WST) chronology and technology because of the stemmed biface found in situ with the human remains. AMS dating of bone collagen in 1991 produced an age of 10,675 ± 95 14C BP, immediately postdating the most widely accepted age range for Clovis. The Buhl burial has been cited as evidence that stemmed point technology may have overlapped with Clovis technology in the Intermountain West. We discuss concerns about the radiocarbon date, arguing that even at face value, the calibrated date has minimal overlap with Clovis at the 95.4% range. Furthermore, the C:N ratio of 3.69 in the analyzed collagen is outside of the typical range for well-preserved samples, indicating a postdepositional change in carbon composition, which may make the date erroneously older or younger than the age of the skeleton. Finally, the potential dietary incorporation of small amounts of anadromous fish may indicate that the burial is younger than traditionally accepted. For these reasons, we argue that the Buhl burial cannot be used as evidence of overlap between WST and Clovis.
Although trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) is the frontline treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one-third of patients are treatment non-responders. To identify neural markers of treatment response to TF-CBT when participants are reappraising aversive material.
This study assessed PTSD patients (n = 37) prior to TF-CBT during functional magnetic brain resonance imaging (fMRI) when they reappraised or watched traumatic images. Patients then underwent nine sessions of TF-CBT, and were then assessed for symptom severity on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. FMRI responses for cognitive reappraisal and emotional reactivity contrasts of traumatic images were correlated with the reduction of PTSD severity from pretreatment to post-treatment.
Symptom improvement was associated with decreased activation of the left amygdala during reappraisal, but increased activation of bilateral amygdala and hippocampus during emotional reactivity prior to treatment. Lower connectivity of the left amygdala to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, and right insula, and that between the left hippocampus and right amygdala were also associated with symptom improvement.
These findings provide evidence that optimal treatment response to TF-CBT involves the capacity to engage emotional networks during emotional processing, and also to reduce the engagement of these networks when down-regulating emotions.
Around thirty of cases of public self-immolation occurred in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Lithuania between 1968 and 1972 in the background of protest movement against the Soviet ledinvasion. Rather than an act of a political protest, in a moment of absurdity of the existence, or a rational solution aimed to finish a desperate life situation, could a self-immolation also testify a suicidal behaviour and a failure of adaptation mechanisms of the victims concomitant a mental disorder?
We have selected and studied four most mediated cases of this period. Press articles available in English, French and Czech, biographical writings and czech archived data concerning Palach J. R. Kalanta, J. Zajic and R. Siwiec allowed us to retrospectively analyse the circumstances of the acting out, their apparent or hidden motivations and identify their suicidal risk factors.
All the four victims were men, young single students, aged between 18 and 21 years, excepted from R. Siwiec, aged 60 years. None had a psychiatric history or abuse of alcohol. All four, in the opposition of the communist system, were surrounded by a supporting family background. The public character of their act highlights the opposition against a totalitarian system and is questionning the possible intentionality of their behavior or the identification process of the young adults in post-adolescence.
Immolation by fire of Soviet opponents in Central Europe should be revised in the light of the likely depression and narcissistic vulnerabilities of these subjects.
Associations have been described between lower IQ and serious mental illness. Associations between common mental disorders (CMDs) and IQ have received little research. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between verbal IQ and CMD symptoms and diagnoses, and to investigate the role of potential mediating and confounding factors.
Data were analysed from a British national survey with an analysed sample of 8054 people aged 16–74 years. Associations between verbal IQ (NART) and mental symptoms/disorders (CIS-R) were analysed with covariates including education, social class, income, debt, problem drinking, life events, physical health and relationship quality.
CMD was associated with lower IQ. This association was stronger for depressive disorder/symptoms than for generalised anxiety disorder/symptoms. The most important covariates were education, social class, income and relationship quality.
The association between lower IQ and CMD is partly accounted for by adverse social/socioeconomic conditions. Stronger associations for depression than anxiety may indicate an effect of IQ on the way mental distress is communicated.
The objective of this systematic review was to investigate which specific and especially neurocognitive factors related to schizophrenia, were associated with homicide risk.
A systematic English-French Medline literature search of cohort studies, case-control studies and transversal studies published from January 1999 to December 2009 was performed combining the MeSH terms “schizophrenia”, “homicide”, “violence”, “mental process”, “cognition”, “risk”, “risk factors”,. Abstract selection was based on the STROBE checklist for observational studies and on the consort statement for clinical trials.
Of the 366 selected studies, 65 observational or prospective studies, 10 systematic reviews and meta-analysis and 2 interventional studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. Firstly, we highlighted that historical (past violence, juvenile detention, physical abuse, parental arrest record), dispositional (male gender, young age, low socioeconomic status) and contextual (recent divorce, unemployment, victimisation) factors could be considered as general homicide-related factors. Clinical factors (clinical paranoid, delusions of persecution or thought insertion, substance abuse, disorganized thinking, long duration of untreated psychosis, stopped monitoring or treatment) were more schizophrenia-specific factors for homicide. Most of the excess risk appears to be mediated by substance abuse. Secondly, our results suggested that schizophrenics with a history of aggressive behaviour compared to those without such history, had better performances on global neuropsychological tests exploring executive functions but performed more poorly as considering orbitofrontal functions.
We suggest that every comprehensive psychiatric assessment should explore the risk of homicide, including historical, dispositional, contextual, clinical and neurocognitive (low insight capacity, impaired frontal functions) factors of violence.
A female spouse homicide occurs in France every two days, in majority of cases after an episode of physical violence against the woman. Our objective was to determine socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of the male authors of a spouse homicide.
We have studied 210 records of psychiatric expertise of homicides perpetrated between 1995 and 2005 in West of France. We have analyzed the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of the authors of a female intimate partner homicide (n = 30) and compared to the authors of a non female intimate partner homicide (n = 180).
The authors of a female intimate partner homicide were older (38.4 years old (yo) versus 32.7 yo, p = .019) and had significantly more frequently a personal history of violence (50% versus 28%, p = .045) than the authors of a non-female intimate partner homicide. Compared to the non-female spouse homicides, female spouse homicides were not associated with other criminal behaviours (6.7% versus 21.7%, p = .055). A mental disorder was found in the minority of cases (13.3% versus 18,.3%, p = .506). Paranoid delusional disorder was the most frequent severe mental disorder in the authors of female intimate partner homicide (10%).
Our results confirm the general and the specific risk factors of violence in female intimate-partner homicide. Legal and health care professionals should be aware that women are vulnerable to intimate partner violence and homicide from both nonmarital and former partners as well as from current husbands. the history of domestic violence should be researched by the clinicians.
Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. in bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in general population who has high score of hypomanic personality will be more likely to develop bipolar disorders.
The goal of this study is to study abilities in a ToM task in general population with different level of hypomanic personality.
This study examines 323 participants (23.25 ±7.74 years). Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated by the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) (Eckblad & Chapman, 1986). It is a self-report scale subdivided in 3 factors: social vitality, mood vitality and excitement. ToM was explored using Yoni task (Shamay-Tsoory & Aahron-Peretz, 2007) French adaptation. This test permits to distinguish the affective and the cognitive components of ToM.
Forward multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score of ToM task. in women’s group, no subscales of the HPS have been included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities.
The ToM task’s score is linked to the hypomanic score but only in men sample and only for the Mood vitality subscale. This result supports that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in healthy men population.
Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to identify high risk and vulnerable subjects to bipolar disorders in non-clinical samples.
To identify HPS factorial structure in a French non-clinical sample and to compare for different factors solutions described in the literature.
We carried out a survey within a student population with a French version of HPS. The factorial structure of HPS was tested first by a scree plot with simulation (using R “psy” library) in an Exploratory Factorial Analysis (EFA) with promax rotation. Secondly the number of factor was fixed for a Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA) performed with AMOS.
A total of 347 students (mean age 23 years, 80% of women) were included in PCA (incomplete questionnaires were not included). Scree Plot with simulation revealed a 5 factors solution which accounted for 33% of the total variance. We also tested the 3 and 4 factors solution to compare respectively with factors solution obtained by Rawling et al. (2000) and more recently by Schalet et al. (2011). Our 4 factors solution was identical to Rawling et al. (2000) but the 3 factors solution was different from Schalet et al. (2011). Goodness of fit indices showed that the 5 factors solution “fits” our data better compared to other factorial solutions.
French version of the HPS showed a factorial structure composed of 5 factors in a non-clinical student population. However, this result needs to be confirmed with a more important and representative sample.
Drug-facilitated crime (DFC) is defined as the concealed or forced administration of psychoactive substances (PAS) to victim for criminal purposes (sexual assault, robbery…). In this situation, the victim is under influence of PAS consumed unwittingly while, in cases of chemical vulnerability, PAS (mainly alcohol) are voluntarily consumed by victims, putting them in a more vulnerable and therefore dangerous position.
to remind about the harmful effects of voluntarily alcohol and other PAS intake in chemical vulnerability studies.
we report the results of French surveys on DFC carried out between 2003 and 2013. Data were collected mainly from forensic toxicological laboratories and forensic emergency units.
we analyzed 646 cases files for victims of DFC. Users of non therapeutic PAS were more predominant (448 / 69%) and younger (mean age 23.7 years) than users of all kinds of PAS (198 / 31%, mean age 25.7 years). As most victims were female (88%), sexual assault was the predominant offence in 88% of cases, followed by robbery (10%). Alcohol and cannabis intake were noted in respectively 93.5% and 33% of the first group and 70% and 27% of the second one. Victims presented anterograde amnesia (60%) and vigilance disorders (17%), effects usually sought by assailants.
victims are often surprised to find that alcohol consumption, with or without cannabis, can have forensic consequences with serious traumatic stress. According to our study, it is important to increase awareness among the general public and to make this problem known to professionals concerned by DFC.