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Although Latinos are now the largest non-majority group in the United States, existing research on White attitudes toward Latinos has focused almost exclusively on attitudes toward immigration. This book changes that. It argues that such accounts fundamentally underestimate the political power of Whites' animus toward Latinos and thus miss how conflict extends well beyond immigration to issues such as voting rights, criminal punishment, policing, and which candidates to support. Providing historical and cultural context and drawing on rich survey and experimental evidence, the authors show that Latino racism-ethnicism is a coherent belief system about Latinos that is conceptually and empirically distinct from other forms of out-group hostility and from partisanship and ideology. Moreover, animus toward Latinos has become a powerful force in contemporary American politics, shaping White public opinion in elections and across a number of important issue areas - and resulting in policies that harm Latinos disproportionately.
Hoerl & McCormack's dual systems framework provides a new avenue toward the scientific investigation of temporal cognition. However, some shortcomings of the model should be considered. These issues include their reliance on a somewhat vague consideration of “systems” rather than specific computational processes. Moreover, the model does not consider the subjective nature of temporal experience or the role of consciousness in temporal cognition.
The Empire of Aksum was one of Africa's most influential ancient civilisations. Traditionally, most archaeological fieldwork has focused on the capital city of Aksum, but recent research at the site of Beta Samati has investigated a contemporaneous trade and religious centre located between Aksum and the Red Sea. The authors outline the discovery of the site and present important finds from the initial excavations, including an early basilica, inscriptions and a gold intaglio ring. From daily life and ritual praxis to international trade, this work illuminates the role of Beta Samati as an administrative centre and its significance within the wider Aksumite world.
Germ plasm, a cytoplasmic factor of germline cell differentiation, is suggested to be a perspective tool for in vitro meiotic differentiation. To discriminate between the: (1) germ plasm-related structures (GPRS) involved in meiosis triggering; and (2) GPRS involved in the germ plasm storage phase, we investigated gametogenesis in the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. The GPRS of the mitosis-to-meiosis period are similar in males and females. In both sexes, five events typically occur: (1) turning of the primary Vasa-positive germ plasm granules into the Vasa-positive intermitochondrial cement (IMC); (2) aggregation of some mitochondria by IMC followed by arising of mitochondrial clusters; (3) intramitochondrial localization of IMC-originated Vasa; followed by (4) mitochondrial cluster degradation; and (5) intranuclear localization of Vasa followed by this protein entering the nuclei (gonial cells) and synaptonemal complexes (zygotene–pachytene meiotic cells). In post-zygotene/pachytene gametogenesis, the GPRS are sex specific; the Vasa-positive chromatoid bodies are found during spermatogenesis, but oogenesis is characterized by secondary arising of Vasa-positive germ plasm granules followed by secondary formation and degradation of mitochondrial clusters. A complex type of germ plasm generation, ‘the follicle cell assigned germ plasm formation’, was found in late oogenesis. The mechanisms discovered are recommended to be taken into account for possible reconstruction of those under in vitro conditions.
Pigweed is difficult to manage in grain sorghum because of widespread herbicide resistance, a limited number of registered effective herbicides, and the synchronous emergence of pigweed with grain sorghum in Kansas. The combination of cultural and mechanical control tactics with an herbicide program are commonly recognized as best management strategies; however, limited information is available to adapt these strategies to dryland systems. Our objective for this research was to assess the influence of four components, including a winter wheat cover crop (CC), row-crop cultivation, three row widths, with and without a herbicide program, on pigweed control in a dryland system. Field trials were implemented during 2017 and 2018 at three locations for a total of 6 site-years. The herbicide program component resulted in excellent control (>97%) in all treatments at 3 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP). CC provided approximately 50% reductions in pigweed density and biomass for both timings in half of the site-years; however, mixed results were observed in the remaining site-years, ranging from no attributable difference to a 170% increase in weed density at 8 WAP in 1 site-year. Treatments including row-crop cultivation reduced pigweed biomass and density in most site-years 3 and 8 WAP. An herbicide program is required to achieve pigweed control and should be integrated with row-crop cultivation or narrow row widths to reduce the risk of herbicide resistance. Additional research is required to optimize the use of CC as an integrated pigweed management strategy in dryland grain sorghum.
Successful pigweed management requires an integrated strategy to delay the development of resistance to any single control tactic. Field trials were implemented during 2017 and 2018 in three counties in Kansas on dryland (limited rainfall, nonirrigated), glufosinate-resistant soybean. The objective was to assess pigweed control with combinations of a winter wheat cover crop (CC), three soybean row widths (76, 38, and 19 cm), row-crop cultivation 2.5 weeks after planting (WAP), and an herbicide program to develop integrated pigweed management recommendations. All combinations of the four components were assessed by 16 treatments. All treatments with the herbicide program resulted in excellent (>97%) pigweed control and were analyzed separately from the other components. Treatments containing row-crop cultivation reduced pigweed density and biomass 3 and 8 WAP in all locations compared with the 76-cm row width plus no CC treatment. CC impacts were mixed. In Riley County, Palmer amaranth density and biomass were reduced; in Reno County, no additional Palmer amaranth control was observed; in Franklin County, the CC had greater waterhemp density and biomass compared with the treatments containing no CC. Narrow row widths achieved the most consistent results of all cultural components when data were pooled across locations: Decreasing row widths from 76 to 38 cm resulted in a 23% reduction in pigweed biomass 8 WAP and decreasing row width from 38 to 19 cm achieved a 15% reduction. Row-crop cultivation should be incorporated where possible as a mechanical option to manage pigweed, and narrow row widths should be used to suppress late-season pigweed growth when feasible. Inconsistent pigweed control from CC was achieved and should be given special consideration before implementation. The integral use of these components with an herbicide program as a system should be recommended to achieve the best pigweed control and reduce the risk of developing herbicide resistance.
Molecular biological techniques have revolutionized the field of geomicrobiology by providing researchers with robust techniques for identifying microorganisms and characterizing microbial communities in a wide variety of environments. These techniques have freed researchers from the constraints of classical culture-based microbiology and allowed the discovery of previously unknown phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms. In this chapter, we discuss the theory, methods, and workflow for applying molecular techniques to identify and characterize microbial populations. Our chapter focuses on SSU rRNA gene-based approaches, guiding the reader from sample collection and gene amplification through bioinformatics and statistical analysis. The workflow presented has been successfully used to identify microbial populations and community dynamics in a wide variety of habitats to understand the interactions between microbes and their environment.
Promoting environmentally conscious behaviour requires an understanding of the complex cognitive mechanisms by which people decide to act environmentally. Research suggests that locus of control (LOC), or the extent to which a person feels his or her own actions can produce broader change, is an important predictor of environmental behaviour; however, little is known about how LOC interacts with other cognitive motivators. This study uses a nationwide survey from China to test whether LOC moderates the effect of environmental attitudes on behaviour. Respondents with external LOC (i.e., those who believe personal actions cannot produce change) reported lower pro-environmental behaviour than those with internal LOC (i.e., those who believe personal actions can produce change). In addition, the influence of environmental attitudes on pro-environmental behaviour was stronger among respondents with external LOC than those with internal LOC. These results support efforts to promote conservation in China by promoting internal LOC and add a novel suggestion that attitude-based messaging is more efficacious among audiences with external LOC.
Roles for pharmacists in general practice are developing in Australia. It is known that pharmacists can provide effective smoking cessation services in other settings but evidence in general practice is lacking.
To determine whether a pharmacist can provide effective smoking cessation services within general practice.
Data from smoking cessation consultations were obtained for 66 consecutive patients seen by one practice pharmacist. The pharmacist tailored interventions to the individual. Medication was offered in collaboration with community pharmacists and general practitioners. Quit coaching, based on motivational interviewing, was conducted. Smoking status was ascertained at least 6 months after the intended quit date and verified by a carbon monoxide breath test where possible.
The patients’ median age was 43 years (range 19–74 years); 42 were females (64%). At baseline, the median (i) number of pack years smoked was 20 (range: 1–75); (ii) Fagerstrom Test of dependence score was 6 (1–10); and (iii) number of previous quit attempts was 3 (0–10). Follow-up after at least 6 months determined a self-reported point prevalence abstinence rate of 30% (20/66). Of all patients who reported to be abstinent, 65% (13/20) were tested for carbon monoxide breath levels and were all below 7 ppm. The biochemically verified smoking abstinence rate was therefore 20% overall (13/66). Successful quit attempts were associated with varenicline recommendation (69% v 25%), increased median number of practice pharmacist consultations (4 v 2 per patient) and mental health diagnosis (85% v 51%).
Our observed abstinence rate was comparable or better than those obtained by practice nurses, community pharmacists and outpatient pharmacists, indicating the general practice pharmacist provided an effective smoking cessation intervention. A larger randomised trial is warranted.
Despite established clinical associations among major depression (MD), alcohol dependence (AD), and alcohol consumption (AC), the nature of the causal relationship between them is not completely understood. We leveraged genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and UK Biobank to test for the presence of shared genetic mechanisms and causal relationships among MD, AD, and AC.
Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) were performed using genome-wide data from the PGC (MD: 135 458 cases and 344 901 controls; AD: 10 206 cases and 28 480 controls) and UK Biobank (AC-frequency: 438 308 individuals; AC-quantity: 307 098 individuals).
Positive genetic correlation was observed between MD and AD (rgMD−AD = + 0.47, P = 6.6 × 10−10). AC-quantity showed positive genetic correlation with both AD (rgAD−AC quantity = + 0.75, P = 1.8 × 10−14) and MD (rgMD−AC quantity = + 0.14, P = 2.9 × 10−7), while there was negative correlation of AC-frequency with MD (rgMD−AC frequency = −0.17, P = 1.5 × 10−10) and a non-significant result with AD. MR analyses confirmed the presence of pleiotropy among these four traits. However, the MD-AD results reflect a mediated-pleiotropy mechanism (i.e. causal relationship) with an effect of MD on AD (beta = 0.28, P = 1.29 × 10−6). There was no evidence for reverse causation.
This study supports a causal role for genetic liability of MD on AD based on genetic datasets including thousands of individuals. Understanding mechanisms underlying MD-AD comorbidity addresses important public health concerns and has the potential to facilitate prevention and intervention efforts.
Technological advancements in medical devices developed for adults far outpace the development of technologies designed for pediatric patients in the USA and other countries. This technology lag was previously reflected in a lack of pediatric-specific innovation within our academic institution. To address the institutional deficit of device innovation around pediatric patients, we formed unique partnerships both within our university and extending to the medical device industry, and developed novel programmatic approaches. The Pediatric Device Innovation Consortium (PDIC) bridges the medical device community and the University of Minnesota. Since 2014, the PDIC has supported 22 pediatric medical technology innovation projects, provided funds totaling more than $500,000, licensed two technologies, and advanced two technologies to patient use. Here, we describe the PDIC model and method, the PDIC approach to common challenges that arise in the development of small-market medical technologies at an academic institution, and iterations to our collaborative, multidisciplinary approach that have matured throughout our experience. The PDIC model continues to evolve to reflect the special needs of innovation for smaller markets and the unique role of clinician innovators. Our approach serves as a successful model for other institutions interested in creating support mechanisms for pediatric or small-market technology development.
Double-crop grain sorghum after winter wheat harvest is a common cropping system in the southern plains region. Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in double-crop grain sorghum in Kansas. Populations resistant to various herbicides (e.g., atrazine, glyphosate, metsulfuron, pyrasulfotole) have made Palmer amaranth management even more difficult for producers. To evaluate control of atrazine-resistant and atrazine-susceptible Palmer amaranth in double-crop grain sorghum, we assessed 14 herbicide programs, of which 8 were PRE only and 6 were PRE followed by (fb) POST applications. Visible ratings of Palmer amaranth control were taken at 3 and 8 wk after planting (WAP) grain sorghum. PRE treatments containing very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA)–inhibiting herbicides provided 91% control of atrazine-resistant Palmer amaranth 3 WAP, and reduced weed density 8 WAP compared to atrazine-only PRE treatments. PRE fb POST treatments, especially those that included VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides, provided greater control (71% to 93%) of both atrazine-resistant and atrazine-susceptible Palmer amaranth, respectively, at 8 WAP compared to PRE treatments alone (59% to 79%). These results demonstrated the utility of VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides applied PRE and in a layered PRE fb POST approach in controlling atrazine-resistant Palmer amaranth, as well as the importance of an effective POST application following residual PRE herbicides for controlling both atrazine-resistant and atrazine-susceptible Palmer amaranth in double-crop grain sorghum.
Double-crop soybean after winter wheat is a component of many cropping systems across eastern and central Kansas. Until recently, control of Palmer amaranth and common waterhemp has been both easy and economical with the use of sequential applications of glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Many populations of Palmer amaranth and common waterhemp have become resistant to glyphosate. During 2015 and 2016, a total of five field experiments were conducted near Manhattan, Hutchinson, and Ottawa, KS, to assess various non-glyphosate herbicide programs at three different application timings for the control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp in double-crop soybean after winter wheat. Spring-POST treatments of pyroxasulfone (119 g ai ha–1) and pendimethalin (1065 g ai ha–1) were applied to winter wheat to evaluate residual control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp. Less than 40% control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp was observed in both treatments 2 wk after planting (WAP) double-crop soybean. Preharvest treatments of 2,4-D (561 g ae ha–1) and flumioxazin (107 g ai ha–1) were also applied to the winter wheat to assess control of emerged Palmer amaranth and waterhemp. 2,4-D resulted in highly variable Palmer amaranth and waterhemp control, whereas flumioxazin resulted in control similar to PRE treatments that contained paraquat (841 g ai ha–1) plus residual herbicide(s). Excellent control of both species was observed 2 WAP with a PRE paraquat application; however, reduced control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp was noted 8 WAP due to subsequent emergence. Results indicate that Palmer amaranth and waterhemp control was 85% or greater 8 WAP for PRE treatments that included a combination of paraquat plus residual herbicide(s). PRE treatments that did not include both paraquat and residual herbicide(s) did not provide acceptable control.
Contemporary philosopher David Benatar has advanced the self-evidently controversial claim that “coming into existence is always a harm.” Benatar’s argument turns on the basic asymmetry between pleasure and pain, an asymmetry he seeks to explain by the principle that those who never exist cannot be deprived. Benatar’s import is almost incredible: humans should cease to procreate immediately, thereby engendering the extinction of the species—a view known as “anti-natalism.” According to many of his readers, the ancient Hebrew sage Qoheleth expresses a pessimistic nihilism that runs as thick as Benatar’s. Prima facie grounding for this assertion is that Qoheleth, like Benatar, raises the issue of whether coming into existence may be a harm—and gives an affirmative answer. In two passages, Eccl 6:1–6 and 4:1–3, Qoheleth declares that an unborn hypothetical person is “better off” than their existent counterpart. Yet the meaning and implication of these words is far from obvious. Does Qoheleth imply that the non-exister’s state, and non-existence in general, is universally superior to existence? Or is he instead speaking exceptionally, of particular persons in rare circumstances? By examining the two “better”-statements in their literary context, I will argue that Qoheleth intends these examples as exceptions. He does not go so far as to make the supremely nihilistic claim that coming into existence is always, or even generally, a net harm; yet, he does concede that in certain cases, it can be. Beyond this, I will explore how the two thinkers’ divergent conclusions can be traced to a deeper difference of philosophical method. This question concerning non-existence opens a window to Qoheleth’s broader scheme of values and therefore serves as a surprisingly useful entry point by which to engage his philosophy. The paper utilizes the methodology Jaco Gericke has recently termed “philosophical criticism,” but specifically applied to Qoheleth.
Legionnaires’ disease (LD) incidence in the USA has quadrupled since 2000. Health departments must detect LD outbreaks quickly to identify and remediate sources. We tested the performance of a system to prospectively detect simulated LD outbreaks in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA. We generated three simulated LD outbreaks based on published outbreaks. After verifying no significant clusters existed in surveillance data during 2014–2016, we embedded simulated outbreak-associated cases into 2016, assigning simulated residences and report dates. We mimicked daily analyses in 2016 using the prospective space-time permutation scan statistic to detect clusters of ⩽30 and ⩽180 days using 365-day and 730-day baseline periods, respectively. We used recurrence interval (RI) thresholds of ⩾20, ⩾100 and ⩾365 days to define significant signals. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for daily analyses, separately for each embedded outbreak. Two large, simulated cooling tower-associated outbreaks were detected. As the RI threshold was increased, sensitivity and negative predictive value decreased, while positive predictive value and specificity increased. A small, simulated potable water-associated outbreak was not detected. Use of a RI threshold of ⩾100 days minimised time-to-detection while maximizing positive predictive value. Health departments should consider using this system to detect community-acquired LD outbreaks.
Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to monitor the hydrothermal precipitation of akaganeite (β-FeOOH) and its transformation to hematite (Fe2O3) in situ. Akaganeite was the first phase to form and hematite was the final phase in our experiments with temperatures between 150 and 200 °C. Akaganeite was the only phase that formed at 100 °C. Rietveld analyses revealed that the akaganeite unit-cell volume contracted until the onset of dissolution, and subsequently expanded. This reversal at the onset of dissolution was associated with a substantial and rapid increase in occupancy of the Cl site, perhaps by OH− or Fe3+. Rietveld analyses supported the incipient formation of an OH-rich, Fe-deficient hematite phase in experiments between 150 and 200 °C. The inferred H concentrations of the first crystals were consistent with “hydrohematite.” With continued crystal growth, the Fe occupancies increased. Contraction in both a- and c-axes signaled the loss of hydroxyl groups and formation of a nearly stoichiometric hematite.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
In this comment on Dion, Sumner, and Mitchell’s article “Gendered Citation Patterns across Political Science and Social Science Methodology Fields,” I explore the role of changes in the disparities of citations to work written by women over time. Breaking down their citation data by era, I find that some of the patterns in citations are the result of the legacy of disparity in the field. Citations to more recent work come closer to matching the distribution of the gender of authors of published work. Although the need for more equitable practices of citation remains, the overall patterns are not quite as bad as Dion, Sumner, and Mitchell conclude.
Animal and cross-sectional epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal lead exposure is related to delayed menarche, but this has not been confirmed in longitudinal studies. We analyzed this association among 200 girls from Mexico City who were followed since the first trimester of gestation. Maternal blood lead levels were analyzed once during each trimester of pregnancy, and daughters were asked about their first menstrual cycle at a visit between the ages of 9.8 and 18.1 years. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for probability of menarche over the follow-up period using interval-censored Cox models, comparing those with prenatal blood lead level ⩾5 µg/dl to those with prenatal blood lead <5 µg/dl. We also estimated HRs and 95% CI with conventional Cox regression models, which utilized the self-reported age at menarche. In adjusted analyses, we accounted for maternal age, maternal parity, maternal education, and prenatal calcium treatment status. Across trimesters, 36−47% of mothers had blood lead levels ⩾5 µg/dl. Using interval-censored models, we found that during the second trimester only, girls with ⩾5 µg/dl prenatal blood lead had a later age at menarche compared with girls with prenatal blood lead levels <5 µg/dl (confounder-adjusted HR=0.59, 95% CI 0.28–0.90; P=0.05). Associations were in a similar direction, although not statistically significant, in the conventional Cox regression models, potentially indicating measurement error in the self-recalled age at menarche. In summary, higher prenatal lead exposure during the second trimester could be related to later onset of sexual maturation.