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Personalized medicine (PM) aims to establish a new approach in clinical decision-making, based upon a patient's individual profile in order to tailor treatment to each patient's characteristics. Although this has become a focus of the discussion also in the psychiatric field, with evidence of its high potential coming from several proof-of-concept studies, nearly no tools have been developed by now that are ready to be applied in clinical practice. In this paper, we discuss recent technological advances that can make a shift toward a clinical application of the PM paradigm. We focus specifically on those technologies that allow both the collection of massive as much as real-time data, i.e., electronic medical records and smart wearable devices, and to achieve relevant predictions using these data, i.e. the application of machine learning techniques.
The current study characterizes associations between physical and social contexts of self-reported primary episodes of eating/drinking and sociodemographic and obesity-related variables in US adults.
Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse a nationally representative sample of adults from the 2006–2008 American Time Use Survey. Models identifying physical (where) and social (whom) contexts of primary eating/drinking episodes at the population level, controlling for demographic characteristics, weight status and time of eating, were conducted.
A nationally representative sample of US adults (n 21 315).
Eating/drinking with immediate family was positively associated with age (OR = 1·15 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·27) to 1·23 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·39)), education level (OR = 1·16 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·30) to 1·36 (95 % CI 1·21, 1·54)), obesity (OR = 1·13 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·22)), children in the household (OR = 3·39 (95 % CI 3·14, 3·66)) and time of day (OR = 1·70 (95 % CI 1·39, 2·07) to 5·73 (95 % CI 4·70, 6·99)). Eating in the workplace was negatively associated with female gender (OR = 0·65 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·70)) and children in the household (OR = 0·90 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·98)), while positively associated with non-white status (OR = 1·14 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·29) to 1·47 (95 % CI 1·32, 1·65)) and time of day (OR = 0·25 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·30) to 5·65 (95 % CI 4·66, 6·85)). Women (OR = 0·80 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·86)), those aged >34 years (OR = 0·48 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·54) to 0·83 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·93)) and respondents with children (OR = 0·69 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·75)) were less likely to eat in a restaurant/bar/retail than at home. Overweight and obese respondents had a greater odds of reporting an episode of eating in social situations v. alone (e.g. immediate family and extended family; OR = 1·13 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·22)) and episodes occurring in restaurant/bar/retail locations (OR = 1·12 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·23) to 1·14 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·24)).
Findings underscore the multidimensional nature of describing eating/drinking episodes. Social and physical contexts for eating/drinking and their demographic correlates suggest opportunities for tailoring interventions related to diet and may inform intervention targeting and scope.
The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools.
The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states’ competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states’ disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state.
Data from BTG and CLASS were used.
BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used.
A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %.
These data suggest a concordance between states’ soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.
Many studies of various stress reactive phenotypes suggest that 5-HTTLPR short allele carriers (S-carriers) are characterised by the stable trait of negative affectivity that is converted to psychopathology only under conditions of stress. In this study, we examined the moderating role of the 5-HTTLPR on the relationship between two objective chronic risk factors, i.e. socioeconomic status (SES) and family structure, and internalising symptoms across adolescence.
A multigroup path analysis was employed in a general adolescent population sample of a 5-year follow-up study.
Internalising problems were significantly more stable in the S-carriers. The focus on the main dimensions of internalising problems, i.e. anxiety and depression, revealed two different developmental patterns. In the S-carriers Anxiety problems seemed to be more stable and to predict a possible evolution towards the development of Depressive problems. In the long allele homozygotes (LL-subjects) the anxiety trait was significantly less stable, and, in late-adolescence, seemed to be significantly predicted by SES, suggesting a possible gene–environment interaction (G × E). Family structure seemed to play a role in a G × E perspective only until early-adolescence, while during late-adolescence SES seemed to play a pivotal role in interaction with 5-HTTLPR, with the S-allele playing a protective role.
Future models of the developmental link between environmental adversities and internalising behaviour therefore need to consider that the effect of G × E interaction, may be associated with internalising behaviour via different mechanisms during different time frames and that shifts in the strength of this effect should be expected across development.
This study sought to establish the prevalence of vestibular disorders, migraine and definite migrainous vertigo in patients with psychiatric disorders who were referred for treatment of dizziness, without a lifetime history of vertigo.
Out-patients in a university hospital.
Materials and methods:
Fifty-two dizzy patients with panic disorders and agoraphobia, 30 with panic disorders without agoraphobia, and 20 with depressive disorders underwent otoneurological screening with bithermal caloric stimulation. The prevalence of migraine and migrainous vertigo was assessed. The level of dizziness was evaluated using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory.
Dizzy patients with panic disorders and agoraphobia had a significantly p = 0.05 regarding the prevalence of peripheral vestibular abnormalities in the group of subjects with PD and agoraphobia and in those with depressive disorders. Migraine was equally represented in the three groups, but panic disorder patients had a higher prevalence of migrainous vertigo definite migrainous vertigo. Almost all patients with a peripheral vestibular disorder had a final diagnosis of definite migrainous vertigo according to Neuhauser criteria. These patients had higher Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory total score was higher in the subgroup of patients with panic disorders with agoraphobia also presenting unilateral reduced caloric responses or definite migrainous vertigo, compared with the subgroup of remaining subjects with panic disorders with agoraphobia (p < 0.001).
Our data support the hypothesis that, in patients with panic disorders (and especially those with additional agoraphobia), dizziness may be linked to malfunction of the vestibular system. However, the data are not inconsistent with the hypothesis that migrainous vertigo is the most common pathophysiological mechanism for vestibular disorders.
We present a detailed study of the angular dependence of the magnetization reversal at room temperature of well characterized epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (001) thin films grown onto SrTiO3 (001) vicinal substrates. The step edges at the substrate surface promote a topological modulation of the films along the step direction, breaking the four-fold magneto crystalline symmetry and favoring a two-fold magnetic anisotropy term. The competition between the biaxial and uniaxial anisotropy is depicted within the framework of the current theory, resulting in a vanishing biaxial contribution. The films hence show the magnetization easy (hard) direction parallel (perpendicular) to the steps direction. The thickness-dependent of both anisotropy and magnetization reversal are discussed in terms of topographic changes.
We report photoluminescence spectra of C60 single crystals grown by vapor phase transport method using either the sealed ampoule technique or the open tube technique. The spectra for both types of samples show similar features, but different line resolution related to the two different
growth techniques. An analysis of temperature and excitation intensity dependencies of the
luminescence spectra is reported. The main structures of the spectra have been interpreted according to a model involving intramolecular polaron-exciton recombinations. In particular, emissions due to
purely electronic transitions of singlet and triplet or the exciton and related vibronic recombinations have been resolved. At low temperature, emission bands due to X-traps have been observed on the high-energy side of the excitonic singlet purely electronic transition.
To evaluate whether or not human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) can be transmitted through a non-sexual route a serological survey was carried out in a group of 51 catholic nuns. The
seroprevalence rate and the geometrical mean antibody titre to anti-latent HHV8 antigen were
similar in nuns and in a group of 60 women, matched by age, in the general population (27 vs.
24%; 1028 vs. 1575, respectively). Moreover, by using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR),
HHV8 DNA sequences were detected in 7 of 16 (43·8%) saliva and peripheral blood
mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with classical Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and in 3 out of
7 (42%) AIDS-KS patients. None of 5 HIV positive persons who did not have KS tested
positive for HHV8 DNA. HHV8 DNA sequences were also detected in 2 of 12 (17%) saliva
and 1 PBMC sample out of 12 healthy HHV8 positive individuals (age range: 30–80 years old).
This paper suggests that non-sexual transmission of HHV8 is operating in our geographical
setting and saliva may be a potential source of HHV8 spreading in the general population.
The nc-Si/a-SiO2 composite thin films doped with tungsten show very fast and efficient photoluminescence (PL). In order to obtain insight into the PL mechanism we have performed a comparative study with other metals. The results lend support to the suggested mechanism which includes the photogeneration of charge carriers due to efficient absorption of the excitation UV light in the silicon nanocrystals followed by energy transfer to the Wn+ radiative center from which the light emission occurs.
Laser ablation technique has been successfully used for the deposition of CdSe and CdTe/CdSe multilayers on Si(100) and Si(l11) substrates. X-ray analysis showed that CdSe/Si films were highly oriented. Their orientation changed from (100) to (002) by varying the substrate temperature from 473 to 673K. High orientation was also obtained on multilayered polycrystalline structures of CdSe and CdTe on Si(lll). Photoluminescence experiments have also been carried out on the deposited films.
We present evidence for the large increase of the band gap due to the quantum localization in nc-Si imbedded in a-SiO2 matrix, which is in agreement with the original theoretical calculations. This, together with additional experimental data explains the large red shift between the onset of the excitation spectra and the photoluminescence. This also provides strong support for the mechanism of the photoluminescence which originates from radiative centers either at the Si/SiO2 interface or within the SiO2 matrix. The strong decrease of the efficiency of the photoluminescence due to a decrease of the thickness of the a-SiO2 grain boundaries is shown and its origin discussed. Delocalization of the photogenerated charge carriers due to ultra thin a-SiO2 is excluded as the cause of this effect. Microwave absorption is used to study the effect of the grain boundaries on the localization and delocalization of photogenerated charge carriers in pure nc-Si together with concomitant phenomena observed in Raman scattering. Finally we show the strong decrease of the photoluminescence decay time to ≤ 500 ps due to molecular-like radiative centers which are formed in the nc-Si/SiO2 composites by appropriate doping.
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