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A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Medical equipment can transmit pathogenic bacteria to patients. This single-institution point prevalence study aimed to characterise the types and relative amount of bacteria found on surgical loupes, headlights and their battery packs.
Surgical loupes, headlights and battery packs of 16 otolaryngology staff and residents were sampled, cultured and quantified. Plate scores were summed for each equipment type, and the total was divided by the number of users to generate mean bacterial burden scores. Residents completed a questionnaire regarding their equipment cleaning practices.
The contamination rates of loupes, headlights and battery packs were 68.75 per cent, 100 per cent and 75 per cent, respectively. Battery packs cultured more bacteria (1.58 per swab ± 1.00) than loupes (0.75 per swab ± 0.66; p = 0.024). Headlights had non-significantly greater growth (1.50 per swab ± 0.71) than loupes (p = 0.052). Bacterial growth was significantly higher from inner surfaces of loupes (p = 0.035) and headlights (p = 0.037). Potentially pathogenic bacteria were cultured from the equipment of five participants, including: Pantoea agglomerans, Acinetobacter radioresistens, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex and Moraxella osloensis.
This study demonstrates that surgical loupes and headlights used in otolaryngology harbour non-pathogenic skin flora and potentially pathogenic bacteria.
GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
Diet, obesity and adipokines play important roles in diabetes and CVD; yet, limited studies have assessed the relationship between diet and multiple adipokines. This cross-sectional study assessed associations between diet, adiposity and adipokines in Mexican Americans. The cohort included 1128 participants (age 34·7±8·2 years, BMI 29·5±5·9 kg/m2, 73·2 % female). Dietary intake was assessed by 12-month food frequency questionnaire. Adiposity was measured by BMI, total percentage body fat and percentage trunk fat using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Adiponectin, apelin, C-reactive protein (CRP), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV), IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-18, leptin, lipocalin, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), resistin, secreted frizzled protein 4 (SFRP-4), SFRP-5, TNF-α and visfatin were assayed with multiplex kits or ELISA. Joint multivariate associations between diet, adiposity and adipokines were analysed using canonical correlations adjusted for age, sex, energy intake and kinship. The median (interquartile range) energy intake was 9514 (7314, 11912) kJ/d. Overall, 55 % of total intake was accounted for by carbohydrates (24 % from sugar). A total of 66 % of the shared variation between diet and adiposity, and 34 % of diet and adipokines were explained by the top canonical correlation. The diet component was most represented by sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruit and vegetables. Participants consuming a diet high in SSB and low in fruits and vegetables had higher adiposity, CRP, leptin, and MCP-1, but lower SFRP-5 than participants with high fruit and vegetable and low SSB intake. In Mexican Americans, diets high in SSB but low in fruits and vegetables contribute to adiposity and a pro-inflammatory adipokine profile.
Introduction: Direct observation is essential to assess medical trainees and provide them with feedback to support their progression from novice to competent physicians. However, learners consistently report infrequent observations, and calls to increase direct observation in medical training abound. In this study, a theory-driven approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was applied to systematically investigate factors that serve as barriers and enablers to direct observation in residency training. Methods: Semi-structured interviews of faculty and residents from various specialties at two large tertiary-care teaching hospitals were conducted. An interview guide based on the TDF was used to capture 14 theoretical domains that may influence direct observation. Interview transcripts were independently coded using direct content analysis by two researchers, and specific beliefs were generated by grouping similar responses. Relevant domains were identified based on the frequencies of beliefs reported, presence of conflicting beliefs, and perceived influence on direct observation practices. Results: Data saturation was achieved after 12 resident and 13 faculty interviews, with a total of 10 different specialties represented. Median postgraduate year among residents was 4 (range 1-6), and mean years of independent practice among faculty was 10.3 (SD=8.6). Ten TDF domains were identified as influencing direct observation: knowledge, skills, beliefs about consequences, social professional role and identity, intention, goals, memory/attention/decision-making, environmental context and resources, social influences, and behavioural regulation. Discord between faculty and resident intentions to engage in direct observation, coupled with the social expectation that residents should be responsible for ensuring observations occur, was identified as a key barrier. Additionally, competing demands identified across multiple TDF domains emerged as an important and pervasive theme. Conclusion: This study identified key barriers and enablers to direct observation. The influencing factors identified in this study provide a basis for the development of potential strategies aimed at embedding direct observation as a routine pedagogical practice in residency training.
Low birth weight has been inconsistently associated with risk of
developing affective disorders, including major depressive disorder
(MDD). To date, studies investigating possible associations between birth
weight and bipolar disorder (BD), or personality traits known to
predispose to affective disorders such as neuroticism, have not been
conducted in large cohorts.
To assess whether very low birth weight (<1500 g) and low birth weight
(1500–2490 g) were associated with higher neuroticism scores assessed in
middle age, and lifetime history of either MDD or BD. We controlled for
possible confounding factors.
Retrospective cohort study using baseline data on the 83 545 UK Biobank
participants with detailed mental health and birth weight data. Main
outcomes were prevalent MDD and BD, and neuroticism assessed using the
Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism scale - Revised (EPIN-R)
Referent to normal birth weight, very low/low birth weight were
associated with higher neuroticism scores, increased MDD and BD. The
associations between birth weight category and MDD were partially
mediated by higher neuroticism.
These findings suggest that intrauterine programming may play a role in
lifetime vulnerability to affective disorders.
Thousands of injuries, hundreds of fatalities and millions of dollars in property loss are among the annual costs of youth firesetting in North America and the UK (Hall, 2005; Arson Prevention Bureau, 2006). Given the scope of the negative outcomes associated with juvenile firesetting, it is surprising that there is so little empirical study of this behaviour. One central reason for the lack of research may be that fire involvement by children and adolescents is relatively common. Almost half of all boys will engage in some unsanctioned fire-starting (Kafry, 1978; Grolnick et al, 1990), which may have led to the perception that juvenile fire involvement is a normal behaviour of little clinical relevance (Pollack-Nelson et al, 2006). Indeed, the average caregiver does not report their child's fire involvement (Kafry, 1978) or view it as requiring expert consultation (Webb et al, 1990). As only about 5% of 300 randomly polled mental health workers received any training about juvenile firesetting (Sparber, 2005), many mental health professionals also may believe that juvenile firesetting is benign.
Juvenile firesetting is a heterogeneous behaviour that occurs during all developmental periods (i.e., pre-school, childhood, adolescence) and many children and adolescents stop their fire involvement without intervention. However, there is a small subgroup whose firesetting will persist, to the peril of both themselves and their communities. Fire involvement or even just fire interest during childhood is an important predictor of both adolescent arson (Hanson et al, 1994) and adult arson (Rice & Harris, 1991). One central task for researchers and clinicians working with youth firesetters has been to differentiate juveniles at low risk for further fire involvement from those at high risk, in order to develop and implement programmes that fit the needs of the individual. Much of the scant empirical literature on juvenile firesetting has examined the characteristics of juvenile firesetters, how they differ from non-firesetters and more recently the differences within the firesetting group. The empirical advances have been slow and the knowledge base remains small. Although specific risk factors have been identified, a comprehensive multifactorial biopsychosocial profile has yet to emerge.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
There are no existing longitudinal studies of inflammatory markers and atopic disorders in childhood and risk of hypomanic symptoms in adulthood. This study examined if childhood: (1) serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP); and (2) asthma and/or eczema are associated with features of hypomania in young adulthood.
Participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective general population UK birth cohort, had non-fasting blood samples for IL-6 and CRP measurement at the age of 9 years (n = 4645), and parents answered a question about doctor-diagnosed atopic illness before the age of 10 years (n = 7809). These participants completed the Hypomania Checklist at age 22 years (n = 3361).
After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status, past psychological and behavioural problems, body mass index and maternal postnatal depression, participants in the top third of IL-6 values at 9 years, compared with the bottom third, had an increased risk of hypomanic symptoms by age 22 years [adjusted odds ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–2.85, p < 0.001]. Higher IL-6 levels in childhood were associated with adult hypomania features in a dose–response fashion. After further adjustment for depression at the age of 18 years this association remained (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% CI 1.03–2.81, p = 0.038). There was no evidence of an association of hypomanic symptoms with CRP levels, asthma or eczema in childhood.
Higher levels of systemic inflammatory marker IL-6 in childhood were associated with hypomanic symptoms in young adulthood, suggesting that inflammation may play a role in the pathophysiology of mania. Inflammatory pathways may be suitable targets for the prevention and intervention for bipolar disorder.
Introduction: Patients with low-acuity (CTAS level IV and V) complaints often use the emergency department (ED) to access care. This has often been attributed to lack of a primary care (PC) provider. However, simply being registered with a primary care practitioner may not prevent low acuity ED presentation. There is some evidence that a lack of timely access to primary care may contribute to low acuity ED presentations. The Wait Time Alliance, a group of Canadian physicians and their respective professional associations, has recently set a benchmark of same day access to family doctors. It is unclear if this benchmark has been achieved in all jurisdictions. Methods: We performed linked cross sectional surveys to quantify the number of people presenting to a tertiary hospital ED (with 56,000 annual visits) with non-urgent problems who felt unable to access PC. PC practices were also surveyed to assess access using the metric of time to third next available appointment. Sample size calculations were completed. Descriptive statistics were reported. Results: In the patient survey, 381 of 580 patients consented to participate. Of those, 89 patients met eligibility criteria. 32 (35.9%) reported that the wait to see their PC provider was “too long”. 45 (50.5%) patients did not contact their PC office prior to ED presentation. 46 of 72 PC physician surveys were returned; a response rate of 63.8%. The mean time to third next available appointment in the region was 7.7 (95% CI 4.9-10.5) days (median 5 days, range 0-50 days). Conclusion: Fifty percent of low acuity patients did not attempt to access their PC provider prior to ED presentation. The benchmark of same day access to primary care has not been achieved in many practices in this region. Initiatives to promote primary care access would benefit both patients and providers.
Introduction: Patient morbidity and mortality are influenced by delay in access to care and lack of continuity of care. Patients frequently present to the emergency department (ED) for care despite being registered with a primary care (PC) provider. Advanced access is an open scheduling system promoted by the College of Family Physicians of Canada that triages primary care (PC) patients to be seen within 24 hours, reducing care delay. We wished to determine the prevalence of formal triage systems in PC appointment allocation. Methods: We performed linked cross sectional surveys to quantify the number of ambulatory patients presenting to a tertiary urban ED (with an annual census of 56,000 visits) who felt unable to access primary care. PC practices were also surveyed to assess use of formal triage methods and measure access using the metric of time to third next available appointment. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: In the patient survey, 381 of 580 patients consented to participate. Of those, 324 patients reported reasons for their ED visit. Perception that wait time for PC was “too long” was reported in 73/324 (23%); 86% reported wait times of greater than 48 hours. The PC practice response rate was 63.8% (46/ 72). The mean time to third next available appointment was 7.7 (95% CI 4.9-10.5) days (median 5 days, range 0-50 days). No PC practice reported utilizing a formal triage system when booking appointments. Conclusion: No primary care practices in the surveyed region used a formal triage system to allocate appointments, despite a range of wait times that extended up to 50 days. The safety of primary care appointment allocation may be improved with introduction of a formal triage system, especially if overall wait times cannot be reduced.
We present preliminary results from a programme designed to produce deep images of radio source fields drawn from the Parkes 2700 MHz and Molongolo 408 MHz catalogues using the charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera system built at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The programme is directed at a search both for faint extensions and nebulosity around radio QSOs and BL Lac objects and for faint objects in otherwise empty radio source fields; a detailed examination of the morphology of selected radio galaxies is also included.
The relative contribution of demographic, lifestyle and medication factors to the association between affective disorders and cardiometabolic diseases is poorly understood.
To assess the relationship between cardiometabolic disease and features of depresion and bipolar disorder within a large population sample.
Cross-sectional study of 145 991 UK Biobank participants: multivariate analyses of associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and five cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusting for confounding factors.
There were significant associations between mood disorder features and ‘any cardiovascular disease’ (depression odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.12–1.19; bipolar OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.14–1.43) and with hypertension (depression OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.13–1.18; bipolar OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12–1.42). Individuals with features of mood disorder taking psychotropic medication were significantly more likely than controls not on psychotropics to report myocardial infarction (depression OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.24–1.73; bipolar OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.53–3.57) and stroke (depression OR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.10–2.80; bipolar OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.39–3.85).
Associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and cardiovascular disease outcomes were statistically independent of demographic, lifestyle and medication confounders. Psychotropic medication may also be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease in individuals without a clear history of mood disorder.
A hallmark symptom after psychological trauma is the presence of intrusive memories. It is unclear why only some moments of trauma become intrusive, and how these memories involuntarily return to mind. Understanding the neural mechanisms involved in the encoding and involuntary recall of intrusive memories may elucidate these questions.
Participants (n = 35) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while being exposed to traumatic film footage. After film viewing, participants indicated within the scanner, while undergoing fMRI, if they experienced an intrusive memory of the film. Further intrusive memories in daily life were recorded for 7 days. After 7 days, participants completed a recognition memory test. Intrusive memory encoding was captured by comparing activity at the time of viewing ‘Intrusive scenes’ (scenes recalled involuntarily), ‘Control scenes’ (scenes never recalled involuntarily) and ‘Potential scenes’ (scenes recalled involuntarily by others but not that individual). Signal change associated with intrusive memory involuntary recall was modelled using finite impulse response basis functions.
We found a widespread pattern of increased activation for Intrusive v. both Potential and Control scenes at encoding. The left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus showed increased activity in Intrusive scenes compared with Potential scenes, but not in Intrusive scenes compared with Control scenes. This pattern of activation persisted when taking recognition memory performance into account. Intrusive memory involuntary recall was characterized by activity in frontal regions, notably the left inferior frontal gyrus.
The left inferior frontal gyrus may be implicated in both the encoding and involuntary recall of intrusive memories.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.