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From an evolutionary perspective, psychological factors that bear on reproductive success are of particular importance as such factors directly pertain to Darwin’s bottom line. The psychology surrounding human mating, then, is particularly important from a Darwinian perspective. Mating intelligence is a construct that integrates work on mating psychology with work on intelligence. This broad construct is divided into two general sets of abilities: cognitive mating mechanisms (such as the ability to detect romantic interest on the part of a potential mate) and mental fitness indicators (which are outward behavioral displays of intelligence that facilitate successful courtship).
We present an account of why we decided to retract a paper. We discovered a lack of adherence to conventional trials registration, execution, interpretation and reporting, and consequently, with the authors, needed to correct the scientific record. We set out our responses in general to strengthen research integrity.
Declaration of interest
K.S.B. is Editor-in-Chief of the British Journal of Psychiatry. W.L., K.R.K. and S.M.L. are members of the senior editorial committee and the research integrity committee for the journal. In the past three years, S.M.L. has received research support from Janssen and Lundbeck, and personal support from Janssen, Otsuka and Sunovion.
Relationships with parents and peers are crucial for children's socialization, but how parent–child and peer relationships mutually affect each other is not well understood. Guided by spillover theory, we zoomed in on the bidirectional interplay between parental rejection and warmth on the one hand and peer victimization on the other, and examined whether children's maladjustment symptoms mediated hypothesized cross-domain spillover effects. Data stem from five waves of the longitudinal KiVa study among 9,770 children (50% boys; mean age = 9.16, standard deviation = 1.29). Results from random intercept cross-lagged panel models showed that higher parental rejection and lower parental warmth predicted increases in peer victimization and vice versa across waves, thus supporting the bidirectional model. Moreover, spillover from parent–child rejection and warmth to peer victimization was partially driven by children's depressive symptoms and bullying perpetration. Vice versa, spillover from peer victimization to parent–child rejection and warmth was partially driven by children's social anxiety, depressive symptoms, conduct problems, and bullying perpetration. Thus, children might get caught in persistent problems in two important social domains, and these two domains influence each other through children's maladjustment. Family and school interventions should be integrated to prevent a downwards spiral.
Most research on the prevalence, distribution, and psychiatric comorbidity of intellectual disability (ID) relies on clinical samples, limiting the generalizability and utility of ID assessment in a legal context. This study assessed ID prevalence in a population-representative sample of US adolescents and examined associations of ID with socio-demographic factors and mental disorders.
Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (N = 6256). ID was defined as: (1) IQ ⩽ 76, measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test; (2) an adaptive behavior score ⩽76, and (3) age of onset ⩽18 measured using a validated scale. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed 15 lifetime mental disorders. The Sheehan disability scale assessed disorder severity. We used logistic regression models to estimate differences in lifetime disorders for adolescents with and without ID.
ID prevalence was 3.2%. Among adolescents with ID, 65.1% met lifetime criteria for a mental disorder. ID status was associated with specific phobia, agoraphobia, and bipolar disorder, but not behavior disorders after adjustment for socio-demographics. Adolescents with ID and mental disorders were significantly more likely to exhibit severe impairment than those without ID.
These findings highlight how sample selection and overlap between ID and psychopathology symptoms might bias understanding of the mental health consequences of ID. For example, associations between ID and behavior disorders widely reported in clinical samples were not observed in a population-representative sample after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders. Valid assessment and understanding of these constructs may prove influential in the legal system by influencing treatment referrals and capital punishment decisions.
General Scientific Summary
Current definitions of intellectual disability (ID) are based on three criteria: formal designation of low intelligence through artificial problem-solving tasks, impairment in one's ability to function in his/her social environment, and early age of onset. In a national population sample of adolescents, the majority of those with ID met criteria for a lifetime mental disorder. Phobias and bipolar disorder, but not behavior disorders, were elevated in adolescents with ID. Findings highlight the need to consider how behavioral problems are conceptualized and classified in people with ID.
We compared the cost-effectiveness (CE) of an active case-finding (ACF) programme for household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases enrolled in first-line treatment to routine passive case-finding (PCF) within an established national TB programme in Peru. Decision analysis was used to model detection of TB in household contacts through: (1) self-report of symptomatic cases for evaluation (PCF), (2) a provider-initiated ACF programme, (3) addition of an Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test for a single sputum sample from household contacts, and (4) all strategies combined. CE was calculated as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in terms of US dollars per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Compared to PCF alone, ACF for household contacts resulted in an ICER of $2155 per DALY averted. The addition of the Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test resulted in an ICER of $3275 per DALY averted within a PCF programme and $3399 per DALY averted when an ACF programme was included. Provider-initiated ACF of household contacts in an urban setting of Lima, Peru can be highly cost-effective, even including costs to seek out contacts and perform an Xpert/MTB RIF test. ACF including Xpert MTB/RIF was not cost-effective if TB cases detected had high rates of default from treatment or poor outcomes.
Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) services in passenger vehicles capture crash data during collisions that could be transferred to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. This study explored how EMS response times and other crash factors impacted the odds of fatality. The goal was to determine if information transmitted by AACN could help decrease mortality by allowing EMS providers to be better prepared upon arrival at the scene of a collision.
The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database of the US Department of Transportation/National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (USDOT/NHTSA; Washington DC, USA) was searched for all fatal crashes between 1996 and 2012. The CIREN database also was searched for illustrative cases. The NHTSA’s Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS CDS) databases were queried for all fatal crashes between 2000 and 2011 that involved a passenger vehicle. Detailed EMS time data were divided into prehospital time segments and analyzed descriptively as well as via multiple logistic regression models.
The CIREN data showed that longer times from the collision to notification of EMS providers were associated with more frequent invasive interventions within the first three hours of hospital admission and more transfers from a regional hospital to a trauma center. The NASS CDS and FARS data showed that rural collisions with crash-notification times >30 minutes were more likely to be fatal than collisions with similar crash-notification times occurring in urban environments. The majority of a patient’s prehospital time occurred between the arrival of EMS providers on-scene and arrival at a hospital. The need for extrication increased the on-scene time segment as well as total prehospital time.
An AACN may help decrease mortality following a motor vehicle collision (MVC) by alerting EMS providers earlier and helping them discern when specialized equipment will be necessary in order to quickly extricate patients from the collision site and facilitate expeditious transfer to an appropriate hospital or trauma center.
PlevinRE, KaufmanR, Fraade-BlanarL, BulgerEM. Evaluating the Potential Benefits of Advanced Automatic Crash Notification. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):156–164.
Extensive marine terraces along the North Canterbury coast of the South Island of New Zealand record uplift in this tectonically active area. Although the terraces have been studied previously, applications of Quaternary geochronological techniques to the region have been limited. We use infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL), amino acid racemization (AAR), and radiocarbon to determine ages of terraces at three locations—Glenafric, Motunau Beach, and Haumuri Bluff. We develop an AAR calibration curve for the mollusk species Tawera spissa from sites of known age, including the sedimentary sequence of the Whanganui Basin. Bayesian model averaging of the results is used to estimate ages of marine shells from the North Canterbury terraces. By using both IRSL and AAR, we are able to confirm ages using two independent dating methods and to identify one IRSL result that is likely in error. We develop new age estimates for the marine terraces of North Canterbury and propose correlations between sites. This terrace chronology differs significantly from most previous studies, highlighting the importance of numerical dating. The most extensive terraces are from marine isotope stages (MISs) 5a and 5c, with partial reoccupation of one terrace during MIS 3, whereas MIS 5e terraces are notably lacking among those dated.
Advancement of understanding in paleontology and biology has always been hindered by difficulty in accessing comparative data. With current and burgeoning technology, the severity of this hindrance can be substantially reduced. Researchers and museum personnel generating three-dimensional (3-D) digital models of museum specimens can archive them using internet repositories that can then be explored and utilized by other researchers and private individuals without a museum trip. We focus on MorphoSource, the largest web archive for 3-D museum data at present. We describe the site, how to use it most effectively in its current form, and best practices for file formats and metadata inclusion to aid the growing community wishing to utilize it for distributing 3-D digital data. The potential rewards of successfully crowd sourcing the digitization of museum collections from the research community are great, as it should ensure rapid availability of the most important datasets. Challenges include long-term governance (i.e., maintaining site functionality, supporting large amounts of digital storage, and monitoring/updating file to prevent bit rot, which is the slow and random corruption of electronic data over time, and data format obsolescence, which is the problem of data becoming unreadable or ineffective because of the loss of functional software necessary for access), and utilization by the community (i.e., detecting and minimizing user error in creating data records, incentivizing data sharing by researchers and institutions alike, and protecting stakeholder rights to data, while maximizing accessibility and discoverability).
MorphoSource serves as a proof-of-concept of how these kinds of challenges can be met. Accordingly, it is generally recognized as the most appropriate repository for large, raw datasets of fossil organisms and/or comparative samples. Its existence has begun to transform data transparency standards because journal reviewers, editors, and grant officers now often suggest or require that 3-D data be made available through this site.
One of the more difficult practical questions raised by the English Reformation was just how to support its clergy and its fabric. Despite extensive resistance from the godly members of church and state, the Elizabethan church maintained the pre-Reformation system of impropriations, lay ownership of ecclesiastical tithes. This article examines the historical, practical, and ideological stakes of these everyday economics in the late sixteenth century. It argues that the majority of impropriators were responsive to the needs of the church, sustaining rather than undermining the nascent English church. In the space opened up by the Reformation's rents in the social and physical fabric of the parish, new bonds between church, state, and society were knit. This process of building the post-Reformation church thus tied the laity closer to the interests and activities of the church in England.
Background: Children with myocarditis have multiple risk factors for thrombotic events, yet the role of antithrombotic therapy is unclear in this population. We hypothesised that thrombotic events in critically ill children with myocarditis are common and that children with myocarditis are at higher risk for thrombotic events than children with non-inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of all children presenting to a single centre cardiac intensive care unit with myocarditis from 1995 to 2008. A comparison group of children with dilated cardiomyopathy was also examined. Antithrombotic regimens were recorded. The primary outcome of thrombotic events included intracardiac clots and any thromboembolic events. Results: Out of 45 cases with myocarditis, 40% were biopsy-proven, 24% viral polymerase chain reaction-supported, and 36% diagnosed based on high clinical suspicion. There were two (4.4%) thrombotic events in the myocarditis group and three (6.7%) in the dilated cardiomyopathy group (p = 1.0). Neither the use of any antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy, use of intravenous immune globulin, presence of any arrhythmia, nor need for mechanical circulatory support were predictive of thrombotic events in the myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, or combined groups. Conclusions: Thrombotic events in critically ill children with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy occurred in 6% of the combined cohort. There was no difference in thrombotic events between inflammatory and non-inflammatory cardiomyopathy groups, suggesting that the decision to use antithrombotic prophylaxis should be based on factors other than the underlying aetiology of a child's acute decompensated heart failure.
Although survival to hospital discharge among children requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for medical and surgical cardio-circulatory failure has been reported in international registries, extended survival and re-hospitalisation rates have not been well described in the literature.
Material and methods
This is a single-institution, retrospective review of all paediatric patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for primary cardiac dysfunction over a 5-year period.
A total of 74 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs in 68 patients were identified, with a median follow-up of 5.4 years from hospital discharge. Overall, 66% of patients were decannulated alive and 25 patients (37%) survived to discharge. There were three late deaths at 5 months, 20 months, and 6.8 years from discharge. Of the hospital survivors, 88% required re-hospitalisation, with 63% of re-admissions for cardiac indications. The median number of hospitalisations per patient per year was 0.62, with the first re-admission occurring at a mean time of 9 months after discharge from the index hospitalisation. In all, 38% of patients required further cardiac surgery.
Extended survival rates for paediatric hospital survivors of cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for medical and post-surgical indications are encouraging. However, re-hospitalisation within the first year following hospital discharge is common, and many patients require further cardiac surgery. Although re-admission hospital mortality is low, longer-term follow-up of quality-of-life indicators is required.
Soil has been described as the excited skin of the Earth and indeed it is, for like our own skin it is constantly changing as it takes in and gives up heat, water, chemicals, and organic matter. And like our skin, soil is a transition medium between two large spheres, and it shares traits of both, including air and water from above and rock and minerals from below. In this chapter we examine soil as a complex of systems, geomorphic, ecological, hydrologic, and biochemical. These systems are responsible for giving soil its basic form and composition, transforming what often begins as a chaotic mix of organic matter, particles of sediment, water, and other substances into an ordered whole. And since these systems are driven by a larger body of geographic systems, such as climate and hydrology, soils tend to vary correspondingly with these systems. That is, prairie soils are different than rainforest soils, which are different than desert soils, and so on.
It was a late afternoon call from Jack Goodnoe. “Bill, what do you know about soils on Staten Island?” “Next to nothing,” I replied. “Why do you ask?” “Well, we've got a project there planning a new cemetery. It calls for thousands of burials, as well mausoleums, roads, waterlines, and landscaping.