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To examine associations between diet and risk of developing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Prospective cohort with a median follow-up of 15.8 years. Baseline diet was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. GERD was defined as self-reported current or history of daily heartburn or acid regurgitation beginning at least two years after baseline. Sex-specific logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios for GERD associated with diet quality scores and intakes of nutrients, food groups, and individual foods and beverages. The effect of substituting saturated fat for monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat on GERD risk was examined.
A cohort of 20,926 participants (62% women) aged 40-59 years at recruitment between 1990-1994
For men, total fat intake was associated with increased risk of GERD (OR 1.05 per 5g/d; 95%CI 1.01-1.09; p=0.016), whereas total carbohydrate (OR 0.89 per 30g/d; 95%CI 0.82-0.98; p=0.010) and starch intakes (OR 0.84 per 30g/d; 95%CI 0.75-0.94; p=0.005) were associated with reduced risk. Nutrients were not associated with risk for women. For both sexes, substituting saturated fat for polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat did not change risk. For both sexes, fish, chicken, cruciferous vegetables, and carbonated beverages were associated with increased risk, whereas total fruit and citrus were associated with reduced risk. No association was observed with diet quality scores.
Diet is a possible risk factor for GERD, but food considered as triggers of GERD symptoms might not necessarily contribute to disease development. Potential differential associations for men and women warrant further investigation.
The crystal structure of oseltamivir phosphate has been refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and optimized using density functional techniques. Oseltamivir phosphate crystallizes in space group P21212 (#18) with a = 24.0079(3), b = 24.6716(2), c = 7.45254(5) Å, V = 4414.24(5) Å3 at 295 K, and Z = 8. Prominent in the crystal structure are hydrogen bonds between the phosphate groups and the ammonium groups of the oseltamivir cations. The strong hydrogen bonds link the cations and the anions into columns parallel to the c-axis, with van der Waals interactions between the columns. Thermal expansion between 120 and 295 K is anisotropic. The powder pattern is included in the Powder Diffraction File™ as entry 00-068-1107.
The crystal structure of atorvastatin calcium trihydrate (ACT) has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and optimized using density functional theory techniques. ACT crystallizes in space group P1 (#1) with a = 5.44731(4), b = 9.88858(16), c = 29.5925(10) Å, α = 95.859(3), β = 94.211(1), γ = 105.2790(1)°, V = 1521.277(10) Å3, and Z = 1. The most prominent feature of the crystal structure is a hydrophilic layer parallel to the ab-plane. The atorvastatin anions bond to each side of the hydrophilic layer, forming a triple layer. The calcium coordination is distorted octahedral, with the CaO6 coordination sphere being comprised of four carboxylate oxygens, one coordinated water molecule, and a hydroxyl group from one but not the second atorvastatin anion. Several O–H⋯O hydrogen bonds form a two-dimensional network parallel to the ab-plane. The powder pattern has been submitted to ICDD® for inclusion in the Powder Diffraction File™.
Leafy spurge, a noxious perennial weed, is a major threat to the prairie ecosystem in North America. Strategic planning to control leafy spurge requires monitoring its spatial distribution and spread. The ability to detect flowering leafy spurge at two biological control sites in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, was investigated using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. Three flight missions were conducted on June 30, 2016, during the leafy spurge flowering period. Imagery was acquired at four flight heights and one or two acquisition times, depending on the site. The sites were reflown on June 28, 2017, to evaluate the change in flowering leafy spurge over time. Mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF) and hue, intensity, and saturation (HIS) threshold analyses were used to determine flowering leafy spurge cover. Flight height of 30 m was optimal; the strongest relationships between UAV and ground estimates of leafy spurge cover (r2 = 0.76 to 0.90; normalized root mean square error [NRMSE] = 0.10 to 0.13) and stem density (r2 = 0.72 to 0.75) were observed. Detection was not significantly affected by the image analysis method (P > 0.05). Flowering leafy spurge cover estimates were similar using HIS (1.9% to 14.8%) and MTMF (2.1% to 10.3%) and agreed with the ground estimates (using HIS: r2 = 0.64 to 0.93, NRMSE = 0.08 to 0.25; using MTMF: r2 = 0.64 to 0.90, NRMSE = 0.10 to 0.27). The reduction in flowering leafy spurge cover between 2016 and 2017 detected using UAV images and HIS (8.1% at site 1 and 2.7% at site 2) was consistent with that based on ground digital photographs (10% at site 1 and 1.8% at site 2). UAV imagery is a useful tool for accurately detecting flowering leafy spurge and could be used for routine monitoring purposes in a biological control program.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of neck dissection on survival and complication rates in patients with no clinical or radiological evidence of cervical nodal disease (N0) undergoing salvage laryngectomy.
A retrospective study was conducted of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx following primary radiotherapy that required salvage laryngectomy. Disease-free and overall survival rates were compared over three years using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Pharyngocutaneous fistula rate, hospitalisation length and the requirement for further surgical intervention were also compared across cohorts.
Twenty-three cases met the inclusion criteria (17 neck dissections, 6 undissected). No significant differences in survival outcomes were identified. One patient who underwent neck dissection for advanced, recurrent transglottic squamous cell carcinoma showed evidence of occult lymph node metastases. Fistula rates did not differ significantly between dissected and non-dissected groups; however, two patients required surgical repair of post-operative pharyngocutaneous fistula following neck dissection.
In this study, elective neck dissection did not appear to alter survival outcomes or complication rates during salvage laryngectomy. Given the small but significant risk of occult neck metastases, its true value remains unclear.
Starburst galaxies at z ∼ 2 – 4 are among the most intensely star-forming galaxies in the universe. The way they accrete their gas to form stars at such high rates is still a controversial issue. ALMA has detected the CH+ (J = 1-0) line in emission and/or absorption in all the gravitationally lensed starburst galaxies targeted so far at z ∼ 3. Its unique spectroscopic and chemical properties enable CH+ to highlight the sites of most intense dissipation of mechanical energy. The absorption lines reveal highly turbulent, massive reservoirs of low-density molecular gas. The broad emission lines, arising in myriad UV-irradiated molecular shocks, reveal powerful galactic winds. The CH+ lines therefore probe the fate of prodigious energy releases, due to infall and/or outflows, and primarily stored in turbulence before being radiated by cool molecular gas. The turbulent reservoirs act as mass and energy buffers over the duration of the starburst phase.
The spatial distribution of the dust and stars contains crucial information about the evolutionary pathways of galaxies. We present results of our study combing high-resolution ALMA and HST observations of z ∼ 2 bright sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs). We have developed a two-dimensional extinction and age correction technique to obtain accurate stellar mass distributions from HST/CANDELS. For the first time, we can directly compare the spatial distribution of assembled stellar mass and ongoing star formation on kpc scales for distant SMGs, shedding light on their highly debated formation mechanisms. We find that the dust distribution is more compact than the stellar component, regardless if the SMG lies on the main sequence or at the starburst regime. Taking the dust emission as a proxy for dust-obscured star formation, our results imply that high-redshift SMGs are experiencing centrally enhanced star formation. These findings suggests that major galaxy interactions are not necessarily the main formation channel for SMGs with secular disk formation remaining a viable option as suggested by state-of-the-art cosmological simulations. The sizes and stellar densities of our z ∼ 2 SMGs agree well with the most compact early-type galaxies in the local Universe, strongly supporting the idea that the latter systems are indeed the descendants of massive SMGs at z ∼ 2.
In the local Universe there exists a rare population of compact galaxies resembling the high-redshift quiescent population in mass and size. It has been found that some of these objects have survived largely unchanged since their formation at high-z. They are called relic galaxies. With the goal of finding relic galaxies, we searched the SDSS-MaNGA DR15 release for massive compact galaxies. We find that massive compact galaxies are mostly composed of old, metal-rich and alpha enhanced stellar populations. In terms of kinematics, massive compact galaxies show ordered rotation in their velocity fields and σ* profiles rising towards the center. They are predominantly fast rotators and show increased rotational support when compared to a mass-matched control sample of average-sized early-type galaxies. These properties are consistent with these objects being relic galaxies. However, to confirm their relic status, we need to probe larger radii (⪎3Re) than probed with the current data.
We present 0.″2–0.″4 resolution ALMA images of the submillimeter dust continuum and the CO, H2O, and H2O+ line emission in a z = 3.63 strongly lensed dusty starburst. We construct the lens model for the system with an MCMC technique. While the average magnification for the dust continuum is about 11, the magnification of the line emission varies from 5 to 22 across the source, resolving the source down to sub-kpc scales. The ISM content reveals that it is a pre-coalescence major merger of two ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, both with a large amount of molecular gas reservoir. The approaching galaxy in the south shows no apparent kinematic structure with a half-light radius of 0.4 kpc, while the preceding one resembles a 1.2 kpc rotating disk, separated by a projected distance of 1.3 kpc. The distribution of dust and gas emission suggests a large amount of cold ISM concentrated in the interacting region.
Study of the composition from diverse sources of the Universe helps to us to understand their evolution. Molecular spectroscopy provides detailed information of the observed objects. We present a small study of the starburst NGC 253 with ALMA at 1mm. We detect the prebiotic molecules NH2CHO, and CNCHO. We obtain the integrated intensity maps and abundances of HNCO, CH3OH, H3O+ and CH3C2H. We propose the use of Artificial Intelligence for big data to find prebiotic molecules in galaxies.
A large-scale structure has been recently discovered at z = 1.7, around a powerful FRII radio galaxy. Eight Star Forming Galaxies (SFGs) have been discovered within Δ z ≍ 0.0095 and at < 1 Mpc from the FRII, indicating that this is a signpost of a protocluster. Furthermore, a significant X-ray diffuse emission overlapping the Eastern lobe of the FRII has been detected. Protoclusters are the ideal targets to investigate the complex assembly processes leading to the formation of local galaxy clusters. We will exploit new ALMA CO(2-1) observations (PI: R. Gilli) of the entire region around the FRII galaxy to trace the molecular gas content, in order to discover new protocluster members. Coupling these measurements with the multi-wavelength data coverage available for this field, we aim at placing constrains on the physical conditions in which star formation occurs, and ultimately infer the role of the radio jets in triggering it.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.