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The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) Twin Registry is one of the oldest, national population-based twin registries in the USA. It comprises 15,924 White male twin pairs born in the years 1917–1927 (N = 31.848), both of whom served in the armed forces, chiefly during World War II. This article updates activities in this registry since the most recent report in Twin Research and Human Genetics (Page, 2006). Records-based data include information from enlistment charts and Veterans Administration data linkages. There have been three major epidemiologic questionnaires and an education and earnings survey. Separate data collection efforts with the NAS-NRC registry include the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) subsample, the Duke Twins Study of Memory in Aging and a clinically based study of Parkinson’s disease. Progress has been made on consolidating the various data holdings of the NAS-NRC Twin Registry. Data that had been available through the National Academy of Sciences are now freely available through National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA).
We investigated strain relaxation in (001) InGaAs/GaAs structures using both double and triple axis high resolution x-ray diffraction techniques. We determined diat broadening which is observed in double axis scans stews pnmanly from mosaic spread and not from lattice constant variations in the layer, demonstrating that relaxation is uniform along the growth direction. These observations held for layers with both low and high indium content and extents of relaxation. Triple axis measurements showed that the peak broadening was due exclusively to mosaic spread for the low indium content samples and also confirmed earlier double axis measurements that a crystallographic tilt of the epitaxial layer was attributed to substrate miscut. The ability to distinguish the source of peak broadening and crystallographic tilts makes triple axis diffraction a powerful characterization technique for the study of mismatched epitaxial layers.
To verify the previously untested assumption that eating more salad enhances vegetable intake and determine if salad consumption is in fact associated with higher vegetable intake and greater adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations.
Individuals were classified as salad reporters or non-reporters based upon whether they consumed a salad composed primarily of raw vegetables on the intake day. Regression analyses were applied to calculate adjusted estimates of food group intakes and assess the likelihood of meeting Healthy US-Style Food Pattern recommendations by salad reporting status.
Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2011–2014 in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
US adults (n 9678) aged ≥20 years (excluding pregnant and lactating women).
On the intake day, 23 % of adults ate salad. The proportion of individuals reporting salad varied by sex, age, race, income, education and smoking status (P<0·001). Compared with non-reporters, salad reporters consumed significantly larger quantities of vegetables (total, dark green, red/orange and other), which translated into a two- to threefold greater likelihood of meeting recommendations for these food groups. More modest associations were observed between salad consumption and differences in intake and likelihood of meeting recommendations for protein foods (total and seafood), oils and refined grains.
Study results confirm the DGA message that incorporating more salads in the diet is one effective strategy (among others, such as eating more cooked vegetables) to augment vegetable consumption and adherence to dietary recommendations concerning vegetables.
In this paper, we discuss theoretical and observational aspects of an SEP violation. We present a two-times theory as a possible framework to handle an SEP violation and summarize the tests performed to check the compatibility of such violation with a host of data ranging from nucleosynthesis to geophysics. We also discuss the dynamical equations needed to analyze radar ranging data to reveal an SEP violation and in particular the method employed by Shapiro and Reasenberg.
Although extinction risk has been found to have a consistent negative relationship with geographic range across wide temporal and taxonomic scales, the effect has been difficult to disentangle from factors such as sampling, ecological niche, or clade. In addition, studies of extinction risk have focused on benthic invertebrates with less work on planktic taxa. We employed a global set of 1114 planktic graptolite species from the Ordovician to lower Devonian to analyze the predictive power of species’ traits and abiotic factors on extinction risk, combining general linear models (GLMs), partial least-squares regression (PLSR), and permutation tests. Factors included measures of geographic range, sampling, and graptolite-specific factors such as clade, biofacies affiliation, shallow water tolerance, and age cohorts split at the base of the Katian and Rhuddanian stages.
The percent variance in durations explained varied substantially between taxon subsets from 12% to 45%. Overall commonness, the correlated effects of geographic range and sampling, was the strongest, most consistent factor (12–30% variance explained), with clade and age cohort adding up to 18% and other factors <10%. Surprisingly, geographic range alone contributed little explanatory power (<5%). It is likely that this is a consequence of a nonlinear relationship between geographic range and extinction risk, wherein the largest reductions in extinction risk are gained from moderate expansion of small geographic ranges. Thus, even large differences in range size between graptolite species did not lead to a proportionate difference in extinction risk because of the large average ranges of these species. Finally, we emphasize that the common practice of determining the geographic range of taxa from the union of all occurrences over their duration poses a substantial risk of overestimating the geographic scope of the realized ecological niche and, thus, of further conflating sampling effects on observed duration with the biological effects of range size on extinction risk.
Estimates of fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption vary depending on intake definition, which may be determined by research purpose. Researchers have used two methods to evaluate intake: epidemiological and behavioural. The present study describes FV intake by adults using epidemiological v. behavioural approaches.
One-day dietary intake data from What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012 were used. Sample weights were used to produce nationally representative estimates. FV intake (in cup-equivalents (CE)) was estimated using the Food Patterns Equivalents Database. The epidemiological method considered all FV after disaggregating foods and beverages. The behavioural method included foods that provided at least 0·2 CE FV per 100 g, and excluded sources high in fat, added sugar and Na.
Nationally representative survey of the US population.
Adults (n 10 563) aged ≥20 years.
For epidemiological v. behavioural, fruit intake was 1·1 v. 1·0 CE for males and 1·0 v. 0·9 CE for females. Vegetable intake was 1·8 v. 1·1 CE for males and 1·5 v. 1·0 CE for females.
The definition of FV intake affects estimates of consumption by the population and is an important consideration when planning and comparing research studies. The method used should align with research goals to assure accurate interpretation and validity of results.
The number of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) is increasing and program evaluation is a key component to improve efficiency and enhance stewardship strategies.
To determine the antimicrobials and diagnoses most strongly associated with a recommendation provided by a well-established pediatric ASP.
DESIGN AND SETTING
Retrospective cohort study from March 3, 2008, to March 2, 2013, of all ASP reviews performed at a free-standing pediatric hospital.
ASP recommendations were classified as follows: stop therapy, modify therapy, optimize therapy, or consult infectious diseases. A multinomial distribution model to determine the probability of each ASP recommendation category was performed on the basis of the specific antimicrobial agent or disease category. A logistic model was used to determine the odds of recommendation disagreement by the prescribing clinician.
The ASP made 2,317 recommendations: stop therapy (45%), modify therapy (26%), optimize therapy (19%), or consult infectious diseases (10%). Third-generation cephalosporins (0.20) were the antimicrobials with the highest predictive probability of an ASP recommendation whereas linezolid (0.05) had the lowest probability. Community-acquired pneumonia (0.26) was the diagnosis with the highest predictive probability of an ASP recommendation whereas fever/neutropenia (0.04) had the lowest probability. Disagreement with ASP recommendations by the prescribing clinician occurred 22% of the time, most commonly involving community-acquired pneumonia and ear/nose/throat infections.
Evaluation of our pediatric ASP identified specific clinical diagnoses and antimicrobials associated with an increased likelihood of an ASP recommendation. Focused interventions targeting these high-yield areas may result in increased program efficiency and efficacy.
Communication between emergency department (ED) staff and parents of children with asthma may play a role in asthma exacerbation management. We investigated the extent to which parents of children with asthma implement recommendations provided by the ED staff. Method: We asked questions on asthma triggers, ED care (including education and discharge recommendations), and asthma management strategies used at home shortly after the ED visit and again at 6 months.
A total of 148 children with asthma were recruited. Thirty-two percent of children were not on inhaled corticosteroids prior to their ED visit. Eighty percent of parents identified upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) as the primary trigger for their child’s asthma. No parent received or implemented any specific asthma strategies to reduce the impact of URTIs; 82% of parents did not receive any printed asthma education materials. Most (66%) parents received verbal instructions on how to manage their child’s future asthma exacerbations. Of those, one-third of families were told to return to the ED. Parents were rarely advised to bring their child to their family doctor in the event of a future exacerbation. At 6 months, parents continued to use the ED services for asthma exacerbations in their children, despite reporting feeling confident in managing their child’s asthma.
Improvements are urgently needed in developing strategies to manage pediatric asthma exacerbations related to URTIs, communication with parents at discharge in acute care, and using alternate acute care services for parents who continue to rely on EDs for the initial care of mild asthma exacerbations.
Altered levels of selenium and copper have been linked with altered cardiovascular disease risk factors including changes in blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels. However, it is unclear whether this can be observed prenatally. This cross-sectional study includes 274 singleton births from 2004 to 2005 in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured umbilical cord serum selenium and copper using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We evaluated exposure levels vis-à-vis umbilical cord serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations in multivariable regression models adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, race, parity, smoking, prepregnancy body mass index, n-3 fatty acids and methyl mercury. The percent difference in triglycerides comparing those in the highest v. lowest quartile of selenium was 22.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1, 39.7). For copper this was 43.8% (95% CI: 25.9, 64.3). In multivariable models including both copper and selenium as covariates, copper, but not selenium, maintained a statistically significant association with increased triglycerides (percent difference: 40.7%, 95% CI: 22.1, 62.1). There was limited evidence of a relationship of increasing selenium with increasing total cholesterol. Our findings provide evidence that higher serum copper levels are associated with higher serum triglycerides in newborns, but should be confirmed in larger studies.
This study evaluated whether structural brain lesions modulate the relationship between pathological aggression and the dopaminergic system in traumatic brain injury (TBI). While converging evidence suggests that different areas of the prefrontal cortex modulate dopaminergic activity, to date no evidence exists of a modulation of endogenous dopaminergic tone by lesion localization in penetrating TBI (pTBI).
This study included 141 male Caucasian veterans who suffered penetrating pTBI during their service in Vietnam and 29 healthy male Caucasian Vietnam veterans. Participants were genotyped for 3 functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) rs686, dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) rs4648317, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met. Patients underwent brain CT scans and were divided into medial prefrontal cortex, lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior cortex lesion groups. Long-term aggression levels were evaluated with the agitation/aggression subscale of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.
Our data showed that carriers of more transcriptionally active DRD1 alleles compared to noncarriers demonstrated greater aggression levels due to medial prefrontal cortex lesions but reduced aggression levels due to lateral prefrontal cortex lesions independently of DRD2 rs4648317 or COMT Val158Met genotypes.
Our results suggest that the relationship between pTBI-related aggression and the dopaminergic system is modulated by lesion location. Potentially lesion location could represent an easy-to-use, widely available, para-clinical marker to help in the development of an individualized therapeutic approach to pTBI-related pathological aggression.
We studied symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) and changes in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) after loco-regional radiotherapy (LRRT) with V20 lung constraints in breast cancer (BC).
Patients and methods
Sixty-four women underwent PFTs before and 5 months after 3D planned LRRT for BC. The incidentally irradiated ipsilateral lung V20 was minimised to <30%. Patients were monitored for symptoms of RP 1, 4 and 7 months after radiotherapy (RT) and data on covariates were collected prospectively. The outcome was compared with previous treatment series.
Pneumonitis was less frequent with the applied constraint, that is, four mild and one moderate case, than in our previous report (p < 0·001). In multivariate analyses, neither dosimetric data nor covariates appeared to influence mean changes in vital capacity [−0·11L, standard error of the mean (SEM) 0·03] or diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (−0·20 mmol/kPa/min, SEM 0·01), except for pre-RT chemotherapy, which diminished the change in DLCO 5 months post-RT.
The used constraint and 3D planning lowered the rate of RP and short-term changes in PFTs compared with our previous treatment series. Pre-RT chemotherapy affects DLCO baseline levels. Rates of side effects should be continuously studied when new target definitions or therapies are introduced in LRRT of BC.
Relatively low efficiency is one of the main obstacles to overcome in the engineering of organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO), which has high conductivity, has been proposed to enhance the function of PCBM in the interfacial dissociation of excitons, but incorporating it into the hydrophobic photoactive polymers has proved challenging. Here we describe a novel technique for incorporating Au nanoparticles (AuNp) into the structure of the RGO. The AuNps then interact with the sulfur groups on the photoactive polymer component, while the RGO interacts via π – π stacking with the chemically similar PCBM, thereby anchoring the complex to the polymer interface. Graphene oxide was synthesized and then reduced in the presence of a gold salt. The resulting gold-functionalized RGO (AuRGO) sheets were characterized using TGA, FTIR, and TEM. The AuRGO was not soluble in chlorobenzene; however, in the presence of P3HT, the AuRGO dissolved, suggesting a reaction between the gold and the sulfur of the P3HT via a metal-thiolate bond. At 2 mg/ml, AuRGO increased the solar cell efficiency approximately 50% over the control, but higher concentrations produced large, columnar structures which blocked the electrode from having a uniform contact with the active layer.