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In this book, Daniel Herskowitz examines the rich, intense, and persistent Jewish engagement with one of the most important and controversial modern philosophers, Martin Heidegger. Contextualizing this encounter within wider intellectual, cultural, and political contexts, he outlines the main patterns and the diverse Jewish responses to Heidegger. Herskowitz shows that through a dialectic of attraction and repulsion, Jewish thinkers developed a version of Jewishness that sought to offer the way out of the overall crisis plaguing their world, which was embodied, as they saw it, in Heidegger's life and thought. Neither turning a blind eye to Heidegger's anti-Semitism nor using it as an excuse for ignoring his philosophy, they wrestled with his existential analytic and what they took to be its religious, ethical, and political failings. Ironically, Heidegger's thought proved itself to be fertile ground for re-conceptualizing what it means to be Jewish in the modern world.
Analysts and policymakers often decry the failure of institutions to accomplish their stated purpose. Bringing together leading scholars of Latin American politics, this volume helps us understand why. The volume offers a conceptual and theoretical framework for studying weak institutions. It introduces different dimensions of institutional weakness and explores the origins and consequences of that weakness. Drawing on recent research on constitutional and electoral reform, executive-legislative relations, property rights, environmental and labor regulation, indigenous rights, squatters and street vendors, and anti-domestic violence laws in Latin America, the volume's chapters show us that politicians often design institutions that they cannot or do not want to enforce or comply with. Challenging existing theories of institutional design, the volume helps us understand the logic that drives the creation of weak institutions, as well as the conditions under which they may be transformed into institutions that matter.
Nested data arise frequently in clinical research. The nesting might be hierarchical, such as patients nested within clinicians, or it might be longitudinal, such as repeated assessments over time nested within individuals. As articulated in this chapter, whenever and however nesting occurs, it is necessary to account for the statistical dependence of observations within units when analyzing the data. Further, it is important to determine the level(s) of the data at which predictors exert their effects. Multilevel models are a particularly popular and useful approach for addressing these issues. We thus describe these models in detail, illustrating the application of multilevel models in clinical research via two examples. The first example considers nesting of siblings within families and demonstrates the importance of separating within- versus between-family effects. The second example focuses on the application of multilevel models with repeated measures to evaluate within-person change over time. Additionally, we provide a brief survey of other approaches to the analysis of nested data (e.g., cluster-robust standard errors, generalized estimating equations, fixed-effects models).
Neurocognitive impairments robustly predict functional outcome. However, heterogeneity in neurocognition is common within diagnostic groups, and data-driven analyses reveal homogeneous neurocognitive subgroups cutting across diagnostic boundaries.
To determine whether data-driven neurocognitive subgroups of young people with emerging mental disorders are associated with 3-year functional course.
Model-based cluster analysis was applied to neurocognitive test scores across nine domains from 629 young people accessing mental health clinics. Cluster groups were compared on demographic, clinical and substance-use measures. Mixed-effects models explored associations between cluster-group membership and socio-occupational functioning (using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale) over 3 years, adjusted for gender, premorbid IQ, level of education, depressive, positive, negative and manic symptoms, and diagnosis of a primary psychotic disorder.
Cluster analysis of neurocognitive test scores derived three subgroups described as ‘normal range’ (n = 243, 38.6%), ‘intermediate impairment’ (n = 252, 40.1%), and ‘global impairment’ (n = 134, 21.3%). The major mental disorder categories (depressive, anxiety, bipolar, psychotic and other) were represented in each neurocognitive subgroup. The global impairment subgroup had lower functioning for 3 years of follow-up; however, neither the global impairment (B = 0.26, 95% CI −0.67 to 1.20; P = 0.581) or intermediate impairment (B = 0.46, 95% CI −0.26 to 1.19; P = 0.211) subgroups differed from the normal range subgroup in their rate of change in functioning over time.
Neurocognitive impairment may follow a continuum of severity across the major syndrome-based mental disorders, with data-driven neurocognitive subgroups predictive of functional course. Of note, the global impairment subgroup had longstanding functional impairment despite continuing engagement with clinical services.
Ask a few people to describe their ideal partner and you will get the same response every time: a thoughtful pause followed by a deluge. Our partners must be kind, intelligent, and physically attractive. They should be in good health, good with people, good parents, and good providers. Some of our ideals are very specific: straight hair, freckled, with a gap between their front teeth. Others are more abstract: loyal, creative, passionate, and driven. Many ideals are almost contradictory: spontaneous but reliable; flexible but strong-willed; youthful but responsible. Humans seem picky when it comes to mate choice
And this pickiness makes great sense from an evolutionary perspective. For humans, a mate represents a potential reproductive partner, a parenting partner, a cooperation partner, and more. Throughout human evolutionary history, who an individual selected as their mate would have had profound impacts on their reproductive success.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses.
In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use.
Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.
Conventional accounts of The Federalist tend to overlook a critical and uncontroversial fact about the Constitution: the principal function it assigned the proposed new government was the conduct of the Union’s foreign affairs. By neglecting this simple point, readers too often miss the forest for the trees. The central task of The Federalist was not to offer a general blueprint for republican government but rather to demonstrate the depth of the Confederation’s failures in foreign affairs and to explain why the new federal government would govern more effectively in that realm without imperiling the republican commitments of the Revolution. This insight in turn reveals another: Even when The Federalist focuses on other, very different themes – whether in analyzing the general principles of federalism or the separation of powers, the importance of energy in the executive or independence in the judiciary, or the deficiencies of popular assemblies – foreign affairs remains its ultimate subject. These explorations were so many arguments to demonstrate that the federal government would neither repeat the Confederation’s foreign affairs blunders, nor pose a threat to the states and the republican principles upon which they were founded.
The Palaeoproterozoic Birimian Supergroup of the West African Craton (WAC) consists of volcanic belts composed predominantly of basaltic and andesitic rocks and intervening sedimentary basins composed predominantly of wackes and argillites. Mafic metavolcanic rocks and granitoid-hosted enclaves from the Palaeoproterozoic Lawra Belt of Ghana were analysed for geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic data to constrain the geological evolution of the southeastern part of the WAC. The metavolcanic rocks display mainly tholeiitic signatures, whereas the enclaves show calc-alkaline signatures. The high SiO2 contents (48.6–68.9 wt%) of the enclaves are suggestive of their evolved character. The high Th/Yb values of the samples relative to that of the mantle array may indicate derivation of their respective magmas from subduction-modified source(s). The rocks show positive εNd values of +0.79 to +2.86 (metavolcanic rocks) and +0.79 to +1.82 (enclaves). These signatures and their Nd model ages (TDM2) of 2.31–2.47 Ga (metavolcanic rocks) and 2.39–2.47 Ga (enclaves) suggest they were probably derived from juvenile mantle-derived protoliths, with possible input of subducted pre-Birimian (Archean?) rocks in their source(s). Their positive Ba–Th and negative Nb–Ta, Zr–Hf and Ti anomalies may indicate their formation through subduction-related magmatism consistent with an arc setting. We propose that the metavolcanic rocks and enclaves from the Lawra Belt formed in a similar island-arc setting. We infer that the granitoids developed through variable degrees of mixing/mingling between basic magma and granitic melt during subduction, when blobs of basic to intermediate parental magma became trapped in the granitic magma to form the enclaves.
The South Fork of Wright Valley contains one of the largest rock glaciers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, stretching 7 km from the eastern boundary of the Labyrinth and terminating at Don Juan Pond (DJP). Here, we use results from ground-penetrating radar (GPR), qualitative field observations, soil leaching analyses and X-ray diffraction analyses to investigate rock glacier development. The absence of significant clean ice in GPR data, paired with observations of talus and interstitial ice influx from the valley walls, support rock glacier formation via talus accumulation. A quartz-dominated subsurface composition and discontinuous, well-developed desert pavements suggest initial rock glacier formation occurred before the late Quaternary. Major ion data from soil leaching analyses show higher salt concentrations in the rock glacier and talus samples that are close to hypersaline DJP. These observations suggest that DJP acts as a local salt source to the rock glacier, as well as the surrounding talus slopes that host water track systems that deliver solutes back into the lake, suggesting a local feedback system. Finally, the lack of lacustrine sedimentation on the rock glacier is inconsistent with the advance of a glacially dammed lake into South Fork during the Last Glacial Maximum.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Crack initiation in zirconium alloys is an important issue for the safety of water-cooled fission reactors. Zirconium hydrides that precipitate in service are potential crack nucleation sites. In this work, the deformation and cracking of zirconium hydrides was studied during room temperature deformation of a Zircaloy-4 tensile sample up to fracture. The sample contained a hydrogen concentration of 100 ± 20 ppm. The main aims of this study were to better understand the mechanisms behind the hydride fracture in a polycrystalline matrix, and to identify at which point in the deformation of the Zr matrix the first hydrides break. Cracks thus nucleated may coalesce and propagate through the hydrided Zr-alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of a number of hydrides, both intergranular and intragranular, were taken at discrete increments of deformation during an interrupted tensile test. The results show that cracks in hydrides tend to always occur normal to the applied load, signalling the importance of the external stress. However, evidence is also provided to support the hypothesis that internal stresses generated by microstructural constraints may lead to the fracture of some intergranular hydrides.
The national implementation of competency-based medical education (CBME) has prompted an increased interest in identifying and tracking clinical and educational outcomes for emergency medicine training programs. For the 2019 Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Symposium, we developed recommendations for measuring outcomes in emergency medicine training in the context of CBME to assist educational leaders and systems designers in program evaluation.
We conducted a three-phase study to generate educational and clinical outcomes for emergency medicine (EM) education in Canada. First, we elicited expert and community perspectives on the best educational and clinical outcomes through a structured consultation process using a targeted online survey. We then qualitatively analyzed these responses to generate a list of suggested outcomes. Last, we presented these outcomes to a diverse assembly of educators, trainees, and clinicians at the CAEP Academic Symposium for feedback and endorsement through a voting process.
Academic Symposium attendees endorsed the measurement and linkage of CBME educational and clinical outcomes. Twenty-five outcomes (15 educational, 10 clinical) were derived from the qualitative analysis of the survey results and the most important short- and long-term outcomes (both educational and clinical) were identified. These outcomes can be used to help measure the impact of CBME on the practice of Emergency Medicine in Canada to ensure that it meets both trainee and patient needs.
Around 1460, the artist Antonio Averlino (1400–69), better known to us by his adopted pseudonym Filarete (Greek for “lover of virtue”), produced a self-portrait medal, two copies of which survive (Fig. 1). The medal may be physically diminutive (7.9 × 6.7 cm), but its historical value is immense. Indeed, in this single object, it is possible to discern any number of themes that run, to varying degrees, through the period’s sculpture. By producing a medal, Filarete knowingly took up a format that was then something of a novelty. Decades earlier, Filarete himself, as well as Pisanello (ca. 1394–1455), produced some of the first examples of the type.1 Being made of bronze, moreover, the medal reflects a growing appetite, within certain cultural spheres, for a material prized because of its associations with antiquity. And it provides a link to Filarete’s largest sculptural undertaking, the doors for St. Peter’s in Rome (1433–45), which originally measured around twenty-two-feet tall and demonstrate the vastly different scales at which sculptors worked. To model and cast the medal, and earlier the doors, Filarete drew upon skills that he learned during his training as a goldsmith and work as a bronze caster; but just as significantly he signed the medal “architectus” (a profession that had, at the time of the medal’s manufacture, come increasingly to preoccupy him), alerting us to another common reality of fifteenth-century practice: the hybrid career. And then there is the geographic itinerary that had led Filarete, a Florentine by birth, to the Sforza court in Milan, where he had been for about a decade before fashioning the medal. Earlier commissions in Rome, Rimini, Todi, Mantua, and Venice, among other cities, attest to a career spent, like many of Filarete’s peers, relentlessly on the move.2