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Depression is one of the most common and debilitating non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neurocognitive mechanisms underlying depression in PD are unclear and treatment is often suboptimal.
We investigated the role of striatal dopamine in reversal learning from reward and punishment by combining a controlled medication withdrawal procedure with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 22 non-depressed PD patients and 19 PD patients with past or present depression.
PD patients with a depression (history) exhibited impaired reward v. punishment reversal learning as well as reduced reward v. punishment-related BOLD signal in the striatum (putamen) compared with non-depressed PD patients. No effects of dopaminergic medication were observed.
The present findings demonstrate that impairments in reversal learning from reward v. punishment and associated striatal signalling depend on the presence of (a history of) depression in PD.
We investigated the epidemiology and characterization of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus within the Yorkshire and Humber (YH) region in the UK. In July 2015, each laboratory within YH (n = 14) was assigned two consecutive days during which all clinical isolates of S. aureus were collected. Isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibilities and the presence of genes encoding methicillin resistance (mecA and mecC), Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) (lukS-PV), and efflux-mediated chlorhexidine resistance (qacA); isolates were also characterized by spa-types. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to chlorhexidine were determined by the broth dilution method. Of 520 isolates collected, 6·2% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, all mecA-positive) and mupirocin resistance was low [0·8%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·3–2·0] and only found in MRSA. Carriage of the qacA gene was identified in 1·7% (95% CI 0·8–3·3) of isolates and 3·5% (95% CI 2·2–5·4) had a chlorhexidine MIC of 4 mg/l. The PVL gene was infrequent (3·7%, 95% CI 2·4–5·6). Genotyping identified 234 spa-types that mapped to 22 clonal complexes. Comparison of these current data with previous work suggest that the widespread use of staphylococcal decolonization regimens over the past decade or more has not had an adverse impact on resistance rates, PVL carriage or the prevalence of specific S. aureus lineages.
Changes in reflexive emotional responses are hallmarks of depression, but how emotional reflexes make an impact on adaptive decision-making in depression has not been examined formally. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) task, we compared the influence of affectively valenced stimuli on decision-making in depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared with healthy controls; and related this to the longitudinal course of the illness.
A total of 40 subjects with a current DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, or a combination thereof, and 40 matched healthy controls performed a PIT task that assesses how instrumental approach and withdrawal behaviours are influenced by appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs). Patients were followed up after 4–6 months. Analyses focused on patients with depression alone (n = 25).
In healthy controls, Pavlovian CSs exerted action-specific effects, with appetitive CSs boosting active approach and aversive CSs active withdrawal. This action-specificity was absent in currently depressed subjects. Greater action-specificity in patients was associated with better recovery over the follow-up period.
Depression is associated with an abnormal influence of emotional reactions on decision-making in a way that may predict recovery.
Fluctuations in Zn metabolism throughout gestation and lactation might affect Zn requirements. However, scientific data on Zn requirements for breeding sows are limited. The objective of the present study was to assess the Zn status of primiparous and multiparous sows using different Zn status biomarkers, to identify periods of critical Zn status throughout the reproductive cycle at different parities. Blood samples were taken after overnight fasting before feeding in the morning from five primiparous and ten multiparous sows at fixed time intervals during gestation (days − 5, 0 (insemination), 21, 42, 63 and 84), around parturition (days 108, 112, 115 (parturition) and 118) and during lactation (days 122, 129 and 143 (weaning)). At parturition, blood samples were collected from two randomly selected piglets per sow before colostrum intake. Plasma was analysed for Zn and Cu contents, whereas serum was analysed for alkaline phosphatase, metallothionein and albumin concentrations. Independently of parity, all biomarkers fluctuated differently during gestation and lactation (P< 0·050). This reflects their different roles in Zn metabolism, and suggests that the choice of a Zn status biomarker necessitates careful consideration. Low average plasma Zn concentration at the end of gestation and throughout lactation seem to be replenished towards weaning.
In strict carnivorous domestic cats, a metabolic competition arises between the need to use amino acids for gluconeogenesis and for protein synthesis both in health and disease. The present study investigated the amino acid-sparing potential of propionic acid in cats using dietary propionylated starch (HAMSP) supplementation. A total of thirty cats were fed a homemade diet, supplemented with either HAMSP, acetylated starch (HAMSA) or celite (Control) for three adaptation weeks. Propionylated starch was hypothesised to provide propionic acid as an alternative gluconeogenic substrate to amino acids, whereas acetic acid from HAMSA would not provide any gluconeogenic benefit. Post-adaptation, a 5-d total faecal collection was carried out to calculate apparent protein digestibility coefficients. Fresh faecal and blood samples were collected to analyse fermentation endproducts and metabolites. The apparent protein digestibility coefficients did not differ between supplements (P = 0·372) and were not affected by the protein intake level (P = 0·808). Faecal propionic acid concentrations were higher in HAMSP than in HAMSA (P = 0·018) and Control (P = 0·003) groups, whereas concentrations of ammonia (P = 0·007) were higher in HAMSA than in HAMSP cats. Tendencies for or higher propionylcarnitine concentrations were observed in HAMSP compared with HAMSA (P = 0·090) and Control (P = 0·037) groups, and for tiglyl- + 3-methylcrotonylcarnitine concentrations in HAMSP as compared with Control (P = 0·028) cats. Methylmalonylcarnitine concentrations did not differ between groups (P = 0·740), but were negatively correlated with the protein intake level (r –0·459, P = 0·016). These results suggest that HAMSP cats showed more saccharolytic fermentation patterns than those supplemented with HAMSA, as well as signs of sparing of valine in cats with a sufficient protein intake.
The previous chapter showed some of the different patterns of eating and drinking that can be identified during the first to second centuries. This chapter continues the story into the later second and third centuries, by which time much of Britain had been part of the empire for a century or more. It is during this period that the impact of belonging to this wider world can start to be seen more regularly on the rural sites where many of the native British population would have continued to live. Here we will explore first how the habits of the native population were changing, before going on to look at the evidence from particular types of activities being engaged in by both native and immigrant communities.
LEICESTER: A BRITISH TOWN
The lifestyles of the two urban communities described in the previous chapter were those of immigrants. The excavations at Causeway Lane, Leicester, provide an opportunity to look at how the British adapted to town life. Leicester (Ratae Corieltavorum) was the civitas capital of the Corieltavi. It had been a tribal centre prior to the conquest but did not acquire the formal trappings of a city such as a planned street layout and a forum until the second century. Causeway Lane is situated in the north-west of the town, and the remains recovered included structures facing onto the road and backyards with rubbish pits and wells.
Domesticated animals can be kept for reasons other than to provide food. In addition to meat and milk, cattle (or more specifically oxen) were important beasts of burden; pulling carts and farm machinery. Sheep provide wool in addition to meat and milk; and it is only pigs that are solely raised for meat. Judging from the butchery marks seen on cattle and sheep bones, their role in providing meat was important. Nearly all the meat consumed in late Iron Age and Roman Britain came from cattle, sheep and pigs; and virtually all our information about this comes from the animal bone evidence. Using the animal bones to map consumption patterns is fraught with difficulties, some of which have been outlined in Chapter 2, but certain broad patterns do emerge; and it is clear that the meat eaten by different communities depended on spatial, chronological and social factors.
BEEF, LAMB OR PORK?
The study of animal bone from Romano-British sites only became standard practice in the 1970s; prior to that it was not unusual for them to be ignored and discarded. As the number of such studies grew, it became apparent that the proportions of cattle, sheep and pigs present varied in a systematic way on different types of site.
With fruit and vegetables we revert to a type of foodstuff which will only survive in particular conditions, and which will only be found if a sampling programme has been undertaken. Furthermore, there is a distinct bias between the survival of the two categories. Fruit generally has seeds whilst things classed as vegetables generally don't. Seeds which can become mineralised or charred are more likely to be preserved than the leafy parts of vegetables. The latter may survive in exceptional circumstances, such as the cabbage stalk found in a late fourth-century well at Vindolanda; but in general fruits are more visible in the archaeological record than vegetables. Unlike cereals which were routinely processed by heating, fruit and vegetables are not well represented in the charred-plant-remains assemblages. Most direct evidence thus comes from the waterlogged and mineralised remains. Packaging in the form of amphorae also provides evidence of preserved items, but again this favours fruits.
Good places to start the exploration of the fruit consumed are cesspits. Seeds and pips will often pass through the digestive track, and the conditions in cesspits are ideal for mineralisation to take place. Naturally such environments favour fruits with small seeds. Table 14.1 shows what has been identified in a variety of cesspits, together with material from the outfall of a latrine at Bearsden and from the Church Street sewer within the fortress at York.
How well or poorly nourished people are can lead to changes in the bones. So study of the skeleton can give indications about the food consumed. This chapter explores the sort of information that can be gathered. It will look at the biases in the record and at how rich and poor diets may manifest themselves. This information will then be used to explore the nutritional history of various late Roman communities.
Human bones suffer from the same limitations with respect to preservation as animal bones do. Any inhumation cemetery on acid soil will not preserve skeletons. An even more important bias is to do with chronology. Many communities in the earlier Roman period cremated their dead. Though it is now possible to gain much useful information from cremated remains regarding the age, sex, and pathological conditions of the deceased, this is a relatively new departure in Romano-British studies. The bulk of the cremated dead have never been examined in this way. Most information comes from people who were inhumed. Inhumation became increasingly popular as time progressed, and much of our evidence stems from the third and fourth centuries. Inhumation was practised earlier, and some people were still being cremated in the fourth century; but we know far more about the nutritional health of the later Roman population than we do about that of the people of the later Iron Age and early Roman period.
I decided to write this book as it combined three of my great interests in life – food, drink and Roman Britain. Whilst few people would be surprised at the first two, a passion for the third would raise eyebrows in many archaeological circles. For much of my professional life just as real men didn't eat quiche, so real archaeologists didn't do Roman Britain. For Classical archaeologists, the province of Britannia was a distant excrescence, far from the ‘proper’ archaeology of the Mediterranean lands. Within British archaeology, it was seen as the preserve of arcane specialisms pursuing their own agendas far from where the theoretical action was. Whilst theory has now come to Roman Britain, it is still an uncomfortable place for many. Modern tastes wish to do away with anything that recalls colonialism, whilst rising nationalisms prefer not to engage with periods when Britain was self-evidently part of a wider world. Prehistory is still a safer, more comfortable and purer world for archaeologists to play in.
This is a great pity as Roman Britain is a very strange place, much stranger than the many popular books written about it would lead one to think. It is fully worthy of being studied in its own right, but that has to be done on its own terms. This involves knowing how to interpret all the data relating to it. The problem with Roman Britain is that there are just too many things. Too much pottery, too much metalwork, too many animal bones.
The main direct sources of information about food come from animal bones and plant seeds. The types of meat and varieties of vegetables and fruit consumed will be considered later in the book. Here the various factors that govern the type of information that can be extracted from this material, and the biases that are inherent in its study, will be discussed. The opportunity will also be taken to consider the question of quantification. Knowing how much of a commodity has been found at a site is essential if comparisons of consumption patterns on different sites are to be made. Finally in this chapter, the nature of rubbish disposal will be considered.
The biases that affect animal bone assemblages can be divided into two broad categories relating to what can actually survive, and how what survives is excavated and subsequently studied.
What survives depends very much on the soil conditions in which the material was deposited. Bone does not survive well in acidic soils, and in extreme cases can disappear in its entirety. The acidity of a soil is measured on the pH scale from 1 (extremely acid) to 14 (extremely alkaline), and below a value of 6 the mineral that makes up bone becomes extremely soluble. Soil acidity can vary greatly over small areas depending on husbandry, drift geology, and whether or not deposits are waterlogged.