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Habitat prioritization and corridor restoration are important steps for reconnecting fragmented habitats and species populations, and spatial modelling approaches are useful in identifying suitable habitat for elusive tropical rainforest mammals. The Endangered Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi, a wild bovid endemic to Borneo, occurs in habitat that is highly fragmented as a result of extensive agricultural expansion. Based on the species’ historical distribution in Sabah (Malaysia), we conducted camera-trap surveys in 14 forest reserves during 2011–2016. To assess suitable habitat for the banteng we used a presence-only maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach with 11 spatial predictors, including climate, infrastructure, land cover and land use, and topography variables. We performed a least-cost path analysis using Linkage Mapper, to understand the resistance to movement through the landscape. The surveys comprised a total of 44,251 nights of camera trapping. We recorded banteng presence in 11 forest reserves. Key spatial predictors deemed to be important in predicting suitable habitat included soil associations (52.6%), distance to intact and logged forests (11.8%), precipitation in the driest quarter (10.8%), distance to agro-forest and regenerating forest (5.7%), and distance to oil palm plantations (5.1%). Circa 11% of Sabah had suitable habitat (7,719 km2), of which 12.2% was in protected forests, 60.4% was in production forests and 27.4% was in other areas. The least-cost path model predicted 21 linkages and a relatively high movement resistance between core habitats. Our models provide information about key habitat and movement resistance for bantengs through the landscape, which is crucial for constructive conservation strategies and land-use planning.
The Endangered proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus is endemic to the island of Borneo. Habitat loss is a major threat to this species, and an understanding of long-term demographic trends is crucial for its conservation. We assessed the population trends and group sizes of proboscis monkeys over 10 years in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Comparisons of observed populations between 2004 and 2014 revealed significantly reduced group sizes, which is probably a result of forest fragmentation. Three long-term studies over 34–73 months in specific areas showed fluctuating estimated densities in each area, but no overall population increase or decrease. Riparian forests are the most important habitat for these monkeys, and one reason for the relatively stable population could be that there were only minor losses of forest along rivers during 2004–2014 because protected areas have been established in the region in 2005. However, proboscis monkey habitat remains under threat in areas allocated for oil palm, and protection of these areas is paramount to maintaining this population.
In his 2012 book Jussim argues that the self-fulfilling prophecy and expectancy effects of descriptive stereotypes are not potent shapers of social reality. However, his conclusion that descriptive stereotypes per se do not shape social reality is premature and overly reductionist. We review evidence that suggests descriptive stereotypes do have a substantial influence on social reality, by virtue of their influence on collective action.
The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Despite downsides, it must, on balance, be good to reduce prejudice. Despite upsides, collective action can also have destructive outcomes. Improving intergroup relations requires multiple levels of analysis involving a broader approach to prejudice reduction, awareness of potential conflict escalation, development of intergroup understanding, and promotion of a wider human rights perspective.
While the summit of the Antarctic Plateau has long been expected to harbor the best ground-based sites for terahertz (THz) frequency astronomical investigations, it is only recently that direct observations of exceptional THz atmospheric transmission and stability have been obtained. These observations, in combination with recent technological advancements in astronomical instrumentation and autonomous field platforms, make the recognition and realization of terahertz observatories on the high plateau feasible and timely. Here, we will explore the context of terahertz astronomy in the era of Herschel, and the crucial role that observatories on the Antarctic Plateau can play. We explore the important scientific questions to which observations from this unique environment may be most productively applied. We examine the importance and complementarity of Antarctic THz astronomy in the light of contemporary facilities such as ALMA, CCAT, SOFIA and (U)LDB ballooning. Finally, building from the roots of THz facilities in Antarctica to present efforts, we broadly highlight future facilities that will exploit the unique advantages of the Polar Plateau and provide a meaningful, lasting astrophysical legacy.
Despite Louis Brandeis' well-publicized opposition to the New Haven-Boston & Maine railroad merger of 1907–1909, a large number of public-spirited men, including many progressive reform leaders whom Brandeis had worked with and admired, favored the combination. They saw the merger not as a conspiracy against the public interest, but a necessary response in the public interest to a commercial crisis in Massachusetts. This examination of their reasoning and action tempers Brandeis' widely accepted assessment of the controversy.
In animals, programmed cell death (PCD) is a universal feature of development and is critical for adaptive responses during cellular injury. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, dying cells often progress through a series of ultrastructural changes referred to as apoptosis. This form of PCD involves condensation of nuclear material and fragmentation into “apoptotic bodies” that are eventually engulfed by phagocytes. It is well established that apoptosis requires genetic functions within the dying cell and that the underlying molecular machinery is evolutionarily conserved. Studies in model systems have elaborated common control points in pathways that regulate cell death. However, when considered within larger networks of interactions, the importance of these regulatory “linchpins” can vary across different cell types and across different species. Here, we consider these similarities and differences and discuss how the Drosophila model organism may shed light on evolutionary pressures that fundamentally shaped this biological process.
Although amphitheatre-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form, we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheatre-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimetre-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100 m-wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometre-wide valleys on Mars. We find that, whenever the processes shaping a landscape favour the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheatre-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of π.
The sensitivity of the properties of RBa2Cu3Ox materials to oxygen stoichiometry has been widely reported.1 This is a serious problem in the synthesis and processing of these compounds since many operations must be carried out at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures where bulk oxygen is in dynamic equilibrium with gas phase molecular oxygen. Therefore it is crucial for the rational design of processing strategies to understand how the equilibria and kinetics of oxygen stoichiometry in this material vary with temperature and pressure. In this paper we report work on two problems in this area: first, we describe the development of accurate methods for the determination of oxygen stoichiometry in experimental samples, and second, the use of these methods to investigate and analyze equilibrium oxygen contents over a range of temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. Equilibrium oxygen contents from 350 – 900°C at oxygen pressures of. 05, .21, and 1.00 atmospheres have been determined. The pressure dependence has also been examined over a wider range at selected temperatures. Most of this data can be adequately fit to a model which assumes that a single chemical equilibrium constant can describe the entire stoichiometry range from x=6 to 7. However, kinetic data suggests that the detailed mechanism must be more complex, and that the overall thermochemistry may reflect contributions from a number of interacting processes rather than any single elementary step. In concurrent work we have used these methods to develop sample series that can be used to examine magnetic properties2 and far IR spectra3 of these materials as a systematic function of oxygen content.
The relationship of pre-operative nasal and skin carriage of Staphylococcus aureus to wound colonization and sepsis was studied in 269 patients. Thirty-seven per cent of 96 carriers developed wound colonization as compared to 16 % among non-carriers (a statistically significant difference). The wound sepsis rates were 17 % and 9 % respectively. The combination of nasal and skin carriage was an important factor, since the sepsis rate among skin carriers (most of whom were nasal carriers as well) was 22%. Among carriers, the homologous strain was recovered from the majority of wound colonizations and from all instances of wound sepsis. A carrier strain also was recovered from 52% of the wounds colonized and from 50% of septic wounds in the entire study group. Profuse nasal carriage resulted in a significantly greater number of septic wounds (31%) than sparse carriage (9%). Wound cultures before closure, and skin from the initial incision site only once yielded a patient's carrier strain or a strain of Staph. aureus that was later recovered from the wound. The results indicate that measures designed to control the carrier state or to isolate the wound from the external environment should reduce wound sepsis by approximately one half.
Excellent technical aid was furnished by Eleanor Ford, R. N., Edith E. Silverman, Adrienne Marus, M. S., and Patricia Welch.