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Most books on the psychology of women are based on a Western perspective. International students and scholars question the validity and relevance of the theories and practices that focus on a restricted population of women and ignore the diverse experience among women within and across countries based on the intersection of sex, gender, sexuality, and social locations. How can we have a universal psychology of women that routinely ignores most of the women in the world? To answer this question, we assembled teams of writers from different regions of the world or familiar with different cultures. We realized that some regions of the world may not have enough quality psychological research to be represented, but we strived to get as broad a coverage as possible. The result is a coherent picture of women’s lives in places that have been underrepresented in the mainstream literature. Gender disparity and inequity prevail in all cultures with common mechanisms. A gender-sensitive and culturally relevant psychology can identify strategies and programs to accelerate global progress toward the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal #5 on gender equality. Where relevant research is available, culture-specific aspects of the topic are featured to highlight the gender issues of concern to particular regions or cultural groups. We believe that the diversity in the range of perspectives included in the chapters through the lenses of authors originating from different cultures will enrich the learning experience of readers.
We hope you enjoyed your journey around the world studying the psychology of women. We expect that it was a sojourn that you will remember. Please take a minute to think of something you learned that resonated with you, surprised you, angered you, or made you proud. As we worked on this book, we had many of these experiences, and we are confident that you did also.
The chapter considers gender and personality research within the dispositional paradigm. It provides a brief discussion of current research to demonstrate the largely Western focus on empirical research on gender differences in personality traits. The chapter draws on our own research with the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) in Chinese and non-Chinese samples, South African work on the etic NEO Personality Inventory - Revised (NEO-PI-R), and the development of the emic South African Personality Inventory (SAPI), and extraction of personality traits in the Arab Levant to present a more balanced picture of gender research in personality beyond the etic context. In so doing we illustrate the need for a more nuanced approach to understanding gender in personality psychology where gender is recognized alongside issues of culture, ethnicity, sexual orientation, nationality, etc. The chapter illustrates the value of incorporating intersectionality in understanding gender within the dispositional approach to personality.
There is a growing knowledge base in understanding the differences and similarities between women and men, as well as the diversities among women and sexualities. Although genetic and biological characteristics define human beings conventionally as women and men, their experiences are contextualized in multiple dimensions in terms of gender, sexuality, class, age, ethnicity, and other social dimensions. Beyond the biological and genetic basis of gender differences, gender intersects with culture and other social locations which affect the socialization and development of women across their life span. This handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date resource to understand the intersectionality of gender differences, to dispel myths, and to examine gender-relevant as well as culturally relevant implications and appropriate interventions. Featuring a truly international mix of contributors, and incorporating cross-cultural research and comparative perspectives, this handbook will inform mainstream psychology of the international literature on the psychology of women and gender.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adolescence and adulthood, but the processes underlying persistence and remission remain poorly understood. We previously found that reaction time variability and event-related potentials of preparation-vigilance processes were impaired in ADHD persisters and represented markers of remission, as ADHD remitters were indistinguishable from controls but differed from persisters. Here, we aimed to further clarify the nature of the cognitive-neurophysiological impairments in ADHD and of markers of remission by examining the finer-grained ex-Gaussian reaction-time distribution and electroencephalographic (EEG) brain-oscillatory measures in ADHD persisters, remitters and controls.
A total of 110 adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD (87 persisters, 23 remitters) and 169 age-matched controls were compared on ex-Gaussian (mu, sigma, tau) indices and time-frequency EEG measures of power and phase consistency from a reaction-time task with slow-unrewarded baseline and fast-incentive conditions (‘Fast task’).
Compared to controls, ADHD persisters showed significantly greater mu, sigma, tau, and lower theta power and phase consistency across conditions. Relative to ADHD persisters, remitters showed significantly lower tau and theta power and phase consistency across conditions, as well as lower mu in the fast-incentive condition, with no difference in the baseline condition. Remitters did not significantly differ from controls on any measure.
We found widespread impairments in ADHD persisters in reaction-time distribution and brain-oscillatory measures. Event-related theta power, theta phase consistency and tau across conditions, as well as mu in the more engaging fast-incentive condition, emerged as novel markers of ADHD remission, potentially representing compensatory mechanisms in individuals with remitted ADHD.
The Emergency Medicine (EM) Specialty Committee of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) specifies that resuscitation entrustable professional activities (EPAs) can be assessed in the workplace and simulated environments. However, limited validity evidence for these assessments in either setting exists. We sought to determine if EPA ratings improve over time and whether an association exists between ratings in the workplace v. simulation environment.
All Foundations EPA1 (F1) assessments were collected for first-year residents (n = 9) in our program during the 2018–2019 academic year. This EPA focuses on initiating and assisting in the resuscitation of critically ill patients. EPA ratings obtained in the workplace and simulation environments were compared using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). To determine whether ratings in the two environments differed as residents progressed through training, a within-subjects analysis of variance was conducted with training environment and month as independent variables.
We collected 104 workplace and 36 simulation assessments. No correlation was observed between mean EPA ratings in the two environments (CCC(8) = -0.01; p = 0.93). Ratings in both settings improved significantly over time (F(2,16) = 18.8; p < 0.001; η2 = 0.70), from 2.9 ± 1.2 in months 1–4 to 3.5 ± 0.2 in months 9–12. Workplace ratings (3.4 ± 0.1) were consistently higher than simulation ratings (2.9 ± 0.2) (F(2,16) = 7.2; p = 0.028; η2 = 0.47).
No correlation was observed between EPA F1 ratings in the workplace v. simulation environments. Further studies are needed to clarify the conflicting results of our study with others and build an evidence base for the validity of EPA assessments in simulated and workplace environments.