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When Nietzsche writes that the world is the will to power and nothing else, he seems with this clear statement to be giving us a key to understanding that aspect of his thinking with which philosophical interpreters are acquainted: he is naming the ground of being, and from there determining being as a whole; his thinking is metaphysics in the sense familiar to us from the long history of Continental philosophy. Understanding his thinking in this way does not confront us with fundamentally new problems. Even if Nietzsche expressly turns against metaphysics, we can still quickly persuade ourselves that he is speaking of it only in the sense of a two-world theory. If we do not construe it so narrowly, then Nietzsche’s claim that his philosophy is not metaphysics cannot be supported. Nietzsche, we could say, only adds a further link to the chain of metaphysical interpretations of the world.
Wildlife reintroduction projects often face resistance from local residents who see potential conflicts with the species or lack trust or confidence in the agencies and professionals involved in reintroduction. Yet the linkages between trust, confidence, risk perceptions, attitudes towards the species and local support for its reintroduction are not well known. The Dual-Mode Model of Cooperation and Cognitive Hierarchy Model were theoretical frameworks used to shed light on these linkages by exploring the potential roles trust and confidence play as mediators between risk perceptions and attitudes towards, and support for, reintroduced elk in Tennessee (USA). A mail survey of 1005 residents living in the five-county area surrounding the North Cumberland Elk Restoration Zone assessed resident attitudes and risk perceptions towards the reintroduced elk, trust towards the managing wildlife agency and support for continued conservation efforts. A structural equation model revealed that trust and confidence play positive roles in mitigating risk perceptions and improving support for the reintroduction of elk. The findings confirm the roles public trust and confidence play in wildlife reintroductions and should help agencies work towards building local trust and confidence, minimizing risks, improving attitudes and increasing the chances for successful outcomes for the species and people.
Very few zircon-bearing, kimberlite-hosted mantle eclogite xenoliths have been identified to date; however, the zircon they contain is crucial for our understanding of subcratonic lithospheric mantle evolution and eclogite genesis. In this study, we constrain the characteristics of zircon from mantle eclogite xenoliths based on existing mineralogical and geochemical data from zircons from different geological settings, and on the inferred origin of mantle eclogites. Given the likely origin and subsequent evolution of mantle eclogites, we infer that the xenoliths can contain zircons with magmatic, metamorphic and xenogenic (i.e. kimberlitic zircon) origins. Magmatic zircon can be inherited from low-pressure mafic oceanic crust precursors, or might form during direct crystallization of eclogites from primary mantle-derived melts at mantle pressures. Metamorphic zircon within mantle eclogites has a number of possible origins, ranging from low-pressure hydrothermal alteration of oceanic crustal protoliths to metasomatism related to kimberlite magmatism. This study outlines a possible approach for the identification of inherited magmatic zircon within subduction-related mantle eclogites as well as xenogenic kimberlitic zircon within all types of mantle eclogites. We demonstrate this approach using zircon grains from kimberlite-hosted eclogite xenoliths from the Kasai Craton, which reveals that most, if not all, of these zircons were most likely incorporated as a result of laboratory-based contamination.
For arbitrary closed countable subsets Z of the unit circle examples of topologically mixing operators on Hilbert spaces are given which have a densely spanning set of eigenvectors with unimodular eigenvalues restricted to Z. In particular, these operators cannot be ergodic in the Gaussian sense.
Obesity is an epidemic associated with many diseases. The nutraceutical Zingiber officinale (ZO) is a potential treatment for obesity; however, the molecular effects are unknown. Swiss male mice were fed a high-fat diet (59 % energy from fat) for 16 weeks to generate a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model and then divided into the following groups: standard diet + vehicle; standard diet + ZO; DIO + vehicle and DIO + ZO. Those in the ZO groups were supplemented with 400 mg/kg per d of ZO extract (oral administration) for 35 d. The animals were euthanised, and blood, quadriceps, epididymal fat pad and hepatic tissue were collected. DIO induced insulin resistance, proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and DNA damage in different tissues. Treatment with ZO improved insulin sensitivity as well as decreased serum TAG, without changes in body weight or adiposity index. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were lower in the liver and quadriceps in the DIO + ZO group compared with the DIO group. ZO treatment reduced the reactive species and oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA in blood and liver in obese animals. The endogenous antioxidant activity was higher in the quadriceps of DIO + ZO. These results in the rat model of DIO may indicate ZO as an adjuvant on obesity treatment.
One of the primary uses for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is to measure diffraction pattern images in order to determine a crystal structure and orientation. In nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED), we scan a moderately converged electron probe over the sample to acquire thousands or even millions of sequential diffraction images, a technique that is especially appropriate for polycrystalline samples. However, due to the large Ewald sphere of TEM, excitation of Bragg peaks can be extremely sensitive to sample tilt, varying strongly for even a few degrees of sample tilt for crystalline samples. In this paper, we present multibeam electron diffraction (MBED), where multiple probe-forming apertures are used to create multiple scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) probes, all of which interact with the sample simultaneously. We detail designs for MBED experiments, and a method for using a focused ion beam to produce MBED apertures. We show the efficacy of the MBED technique for crystalline orientation mapping using both simulations and proof-of-principle experiments. We also show how the angular information in MBED can be used to perform 3D tomographic reconstruction of samples without needing to tilt or scan the sample multiple times. Finally, we also discuss future opportunities for the MBED method.
The recent discovery of several late Linearbandkeramik (LBK) sites in Central Europe, including Vráble in south-west Slovakia, has revealed evidence for increasing diversity in Neolithic mortuary practices, which may reflect inter-community war and socio-political crisis at the end of the LBK. Here, the authors combine osteological and radiocarbon analyses of inhumations from Vráble. Rather than a straightforward sign of inter-community conflict and war, this development reflects a culmination of internal conflict and a diversification in the ritual treatment of human bodies. The emerging variability in LBK methods of manipulating and depositing dead bodies can be interpreted as an experimental approach in how to negotiate social conflicts and community boundaries.
With the exception of near-occlusion, CEA is of overall benefit for selected patients with recent symptomatic carotid stenosis =50% (NASCET method), provided surgical stroke/death risk is low. The benefit is greater with greater stenosis, men, the elderly (aged =75y), most recent ischaemic event within 2w, irregular plaque surface, and impaired cerebral perfusion reserve. Patients with recent symptomatic carotid territory ischaemic events should be screened by Doppler ultrasonography, MRA, or CTA, confirming substantial stenosis with a second non-invasive investigation. Catheter angiography may be required to confirm uncertain results. The surgical peri-operative stroke and death rate (7% in RCTs) is higher in women, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, and occlusion of the contralateral ICA or ipsilateral ECA. The experience of the surgeon and hospital are crucial, and audited peri-operative complication rates should be publically available. Carotid stenting is less invasive than CEA and causes fewer local complications (cranial neuropathy and neck haematoma), but carries a higher procedural risk of stroke. Stenting should be considered in younger patients, or those at increased risk from CEA. While stenting is of high risk for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis, risk is low for extracranial stenosis and should be considered for recurrent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy.
In this paper we consider the following problem: let Xk, be a Banach space with a normalised basis (e(k, j))j, whose biorthogonals are denoted by
be their l∞-sum, and let
be a bounded linear operator with a large diagonal, i.e.,
Based on the needs assessment of the medical and non-medical departments, the Investment Committee of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), a teaching hospital in Brazil, recommends on which technologies the limited financial resources should be invested. Technology inclusion requests are evaluated by the hospital's technology assessment unit. For technology replacement, we have found models to assess the criticality of medical equipment, but they were insufficient to support the decision, which involves all departments of our hospital. This study aimed to develop an automated tool to support decision making regarding investments in equipment replacement in the hospital.
A working group was set up with professionals from healthcare administration, clinical engineering and research departments. From the hospital's inventory database, we developed the tool using Google SheetsR. We have defined three departments for pilot testing of the tool: hemodynamics, laundry, and basic research. These departments represent the areas of healthcare, support services, and teaching and research in the hospital.
The criticality of medical equipment is assessed based on the criteria of function, physical risk, impact, remaining equipment life cycle, intensity of use and number of corrective maintenance actions performed. For the equipment in the administrative, support and research areas, the function and physical risk criteria were replaced by the safety and by the risks to the quality of service criteria. The evaluation is carried out by a multidisciplinary team. The tool categorizes the equipment into low, medium and high criticality.
The tool prioritized the equipment based on objective criteria evaluated by the departments’ multidisciplinary team comprising experts who use the equipment in their activities, the department administrator and clinical engineers, and provided transparency regarding the decision-making of the hospital's Investment Committee. In 2019, the limited financial resources were invested only in the replacement of highly critical equipment. We believe the tool can be reproduced in hospitals in low and middle-income countries.
Despite advances in endovascular interventions, including the introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES), high target lesion revascularization (TLR) rates still burden the treatment of symptomatic lower-limb peripheral arterial disease (PAD). EluviaTM, a novel, sustained-release, paclitaxel-eluting DES, was shown to further reduce TLRs when compared with the paclitaxel-coated Zilver® PTX® stent, in the IMPERIAL randomized controlled trial. This evaluation estimated the cost-effectiveness of Eluvia when compared with Zilver PTX in Australia, based on 12-month clinical outcomes from the IMPERIAL trial.
A state-transition, decision-analytic model with a 12-month time horizon was developed from an Australian public healthcare system perspective. Cost parameters were obtained from the Australian National Hospital Cost Data Collection Cost Report (2016–17). All costs were captured in Australian dollars (AUD), where AUD 1 = USD 0.69 (June 2020). Complete sets of clinical parameters (primary patency loss, TLR, amputation, and death) and cost parameters from their respective distributions were bootstrapped in samples of 1,000 patients, for each intervention arm of the model. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.
At 12 months, modeled TLR rates were 4.5 percent for Eluvia and 8.9 percent for Zilver PTX, and mean total direct costs were AUD 6,537 [USD 4,511] and AUD 6,908 [USD 4,767], respectively (Eluvia average per patient savings; overall cohort=AUD 371 [USD 256]; diabetic cohort=AUD 625 [USD 431]). In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, Eluvia was cost-effective relative to Zilver PTX in 92.0 percent of all simulations at a threshold of $10,000 per TLR avoided. Eluvia was more effective and less costly (dominant) than Zilver PTX in 76.0 percent of simulations.
In the first year after the intervention, Eluvia was more effective and less costly than Zilver PTX, making Eluvia the dominant treatment strategy for treatment of symptomatic lower-limb PAD, from an Australian public healthcare system perspective. These findings should be considered when formulating policy and practice guidelines in the context of priority setting and making evidence-based resource allocation decisions for treatment of PAD in Australia.
To assess influenza symptoms, adherence to mask use recommendations, absenteesm and presenteeism in acute care healthcare workers (HCWs) during influenza epidemics.
The TransFLUas influenza transmission study in acute healthcare prospectively followed HCWs prospectively over 2 consecutive influenza seasons. Symptom diaries asking for respiratory symptoms and adherence with mask use recommendations were recorded on a daily basis, and study participants provided midturbinate nasal swabs for influenza testing.
In total, 152 HCWs (65.8% nurses and 13.2% physicians) were included: 89.1% of study participants reported at least 1 influenza symptom during their study season and 77.8% suffered from respiratory symptoms. Also, 28.3% of HCW missed at least 1 working day during the study period: 82.6% of these days were missed because of symptoms of influenza illness. Of all participating HCWs, 67.9% worked with symptoms of influenza infection on 8.8% of study days. On 0.3% of study days, symptomatic HCWs were shedding influenza virus while at work. Among HCWs with respiratory symptoms, 74.1% adhered to the policy to wear a mask at work on 59.1% of days with respiratory symptoms.
Respiratory disease is frequent among HCWs and imposes a significant economic burden on hospitals due to the number of working days lost. Presenteesm with respiratory illness, including influenza, is also frequent and poses a risk for patients and staff.
Realist and rationalist approaches to balance of power politics underplay the degree to which balances are socially constructed. We develop a constructivist approach that accounts for the elusive and contentious nature of the balances that states seek to balance. The approach foregrounds contests over balance interpretations between states that shape whose conceptions and assessments underpin the making and remaking of balances. We argue that shifts in balancing practices are crucial to the dynamics of these contests. To substantiate this argument, we empirically study the contests over the conventional and theatre nuclear balances between East and West in the last two decades of the Cold War. The case study shows that the conventional and theatre nuclear arms control negotiations – that is, the partial shift from adversarial to associational balancing – initially fuelled and amplified both contests. At the same time, the arms control negotiations eventually resolved the contests through the development of shared understandings of the two balances, thus ending the adversarial balancing between East and West. Overall, we contribute to theory development on balance of power politics by highlighting the importance of contests over balance interpretations and by providing insights into the politics and dynamics that shape these contests.
Kein anderer hat den Begriff und das Verständnis dessen, was in einem näher zu erläuternden Sinne als politische Dramaturgie zu bezeichnen wäre, so geprägt wie Bertolt Brecht. An keinem anderen Beispiel kann man besser den Umschlag von einer politischen in eine polizeiliche Dramaturgie beobachten. Politische wie polizeiliche Dramaturgie antworten in seinem Fall auf eine primordiale, de-konstitutive Fremdheit. So lauten die drei Hypothesen, die ich nachfolgend in drei Schritten vorstellen möchte: (1) Zunächst stelle ich in großer Verkürzung die meinen Überlegungen zugrundeliegende Theorie der im achtzehnten Jahrhundert entstehenden modernen Dramaturgie als einer unauflösbar ambivalenten Form der Regierung der Künste vor, als “Polizey” und “Politik.” (2) Im zweiten Schritt rekapituliere ich knapp Brechts Arbeit als Dramaturg und gehe dann etwas ausführlicher auf sein Stückfragment Aus nichts wird nichts ein, das den später mehrfach zitierten Eintritt eines Fremden, des “Denkenden”—in meiner Terminologie: eines politischen Dramaturgen—ins Theater szenisch darstellt. (3) Im dritten Schritt skizziere ich, dass Brechts spätere Arbeit am Berliner Ensemble mit dem Umschlag seiner politischen in eine polizeiliche Dramaturgie einhergeht, die, was das im radikalen Sinne Politische von Brechts dramaturgischer Arbeit war, im Brecht-Theater nach Brecht in Vergessenheit geraten ließ.
Polizey und Politik—eine kurze Theorie moderner Dramaturgie
In älteren Darstellungen wird der Begriff des Dramaturgen vom spätgriechischen Dramatourgos, dem Autor, aber auch Aufführungsleiter, hergeleitet. Als moderne Instanz führt man ihn auf das achtzehnte Jahrhundert, speziell auf Lessing, zurück. Ihm, so die geläufige Sicht, verdanke das moderne Theater, einen “umfassend gebildeten und unabhängigen Intellektuellen im Theater” zu haben. Als dessen Kernaufgaben galten Kritik, Reflexion und Vermittlung. Im Kontext neuerer, vorwiegend englischsprachiger Forschung wird Dramaturgie abgelöst von der vormals zentralen Aufgabe, einen Text auf die Bühne zu bringen. Man spricht von Dramaturgien des Schauspielers, des Zuschauers, der Erziehung, des Tanzes, des Visuellen, des Devised Theatre und der Architektur, um nur einige Gebiete zu benennen. Der Dramaturgie wird, so etwa Konstantina Georgelou, Efrosini Protopapa und Danae Theodoridou, eine katalytische Funktion bei jeder künstlerischen Arbeit zugeschrieben, die nicht an den explizit ausgewiesenen Beruf des Dramaturgen gebunden ist und mit Öffnung und Bildung von Räumen der Verhandlung, der Konflikte, des Dissenses, des Orientierungsverlusts, des Nicht-Wissens, der Unterbrechung, des Eingriffs und der Imagination zu tun hat, die neue soziale und politische Entwürfe ermöglichen.
In her conclusion to Black Opera: History, Power, Engagement, Naomi André writes in reference to a production of Bizet's Carmen in which the title character is a transgender person, that it seems as if ‘opera is approaching a new frontier’. This book – and Andre's previous writing on gender and blackness in opera – already charts opera's journey towards this new, ever-evolving frontier.
The manifestations of opera both musically and theatrically (its performance practice) has been ever changing in spaces outside the Western European setting of its origin and the zeitgeist within which those operas had been composed. It seems logical that beyond the time and space of nineteenth-century Italy, the Risorgimento operas of Verdi would take on a different meaning to audiences. But this could be said of many operas (or performances of historical music) – although it had been composed within a specific context, a contemporary context alters our understanding and value of a work so that it in fact becomes an artistic expression of the present.
Reading this book as an opera scholar living in Cape Town has contributed much to my thinking of how opera is practised in South Africa, but it also creates a bias as to how I have experienced the matters addressed in this book, especially the comparisons between American and South African opera productions and the specific compositions by composers from these countries.
In Black Opera, André frames her discussion with sensible parameters. As the title suggests, she covers manifestations of blackness in opera, explores its history, how power (political in nature on various levels) has impacted performances and negotiated a history of blackness (or the lack thereof) in opera, and she proposes a vantage point that she calls engaged musicology. This type of musicology Andre defines as being involved with ‘the current diverse publics interpreting a work’ (198).
A cluster of 18 scarlet fever cases and large illness absenteeism (32%, 58/184) in a school prompted concern and further investigation. We conducted telephone interviews with parents to ascertain cases and better comprehend parents' views. We identified 19 cases, of which 13 reported scarlet fever diagnosis by a physician and only seven fulfilled the probable case definition. We concluded that the outbreak was far smaller than suspected and found that communication and reporting could be improved. Accurate information and communication is essential in an outbreak; the school's concern could have been alleviated sooner and response measures better targeted.
In Brazil, the buffalo milk market has been growing. However, identity and quality standards have not been established for this raw material, nor have proper distinctions between buffalo milk and bovine milk been defined. Currently, the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) has only three producers that supply raw material for officially marketed derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and quality standards of raw buffalo milk in this region. Samples were obtained biweekly from three farm cooling tanks between June 2017 and August 2018, to reach a total of 69 samples. The averages for the results of the physicochemical parameters fat, protein, lactose, total solids, SNF (solids-not-fat), calcium, density, FP, acidity and SCC were 5.5 g/100 g, 4.06 g/100 g, 5.07 g/100 g, 15.5 g/100 g, 9.96 g/100 g, 0.161 g/100 g, 1.034 g/ml, −0.527°C, 16°D and 95 × 103 cells/ml, respectively. With reference to the microbiological parameters, the mean of the Standard Plate Count (SPC) and thermotolerant coliforms were 9,0 × 104 CFU/ml and 1.6 × 102 MPN/ml, respectively. Regarding coagulase-positive staphylococci, 36 samples tested positive (52% of total). Neither Salmonella spp. nor Listeria monocytogenes, nor antibiotic or antiparasitic residues were detected in any sample. In conclusion, the buffalo milk used as raw material for dairy products in southern Brazil demonstrated satisfactory physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, in accordance with recent scientific literature.