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The interactions between the senses are essential for cognitive functions such as perception, attention, and action planning. Past research helped understanding of multisensory processes in the laboratory. Yet, the efforts to extrapolate these findings to the real-world are scarce. Extrapolation to real-world contexts is important for practical and theoretical reasons. Multisensory phenomena might be expressed differently in real-world settings compared to simpler laboratory situations. Some effects might become stronger, others may disappear, and new outcomes could be discovered. This Element discusses research that uncovers multisensory interactions under complex environments, with an emphasis on the interplay of multisensory mechanisms with other processes.
We examine the statistical properties of extreme and rogue wave activity in crossing directional seas, to constrain the probabilistic distributions of wave heights and wave crests in complex sea states; such crossing seas alter the statistical structure of surface waves and are known to have been involved in several marine accidents. Further, we examine the relationship between the kurtosis as an indicator of nonlinearity in the spectrum and the directionality and crossing angles of the sea-state components. Experimental tests of two-component directionally spread irregular waves with varying frequency, directional spreading and component crossing angles were carried out at the Ocean Basin Laboratory in Trondheim, Norway. The results from the experiments show that wave heights are well described by a first-order (linear) statistical distribution, while for the wave crest heights several cases exceed a second-order distribution. The number of rogue waves is relatively low overall, which agrees with previous findings in directionally spread seas. The kurtosis and wave and crest height exceedance probabilities were more affected by varying the directional spreading of the components than by varying the crossing angles between components; reducing the component directional spreading increases the kurtosis and increases the exceedance probabilities. The kurtosis can be estimated quite well for two-component seas from the directional spreading using an empirical relationship based on the two-dimensional Benjamin–Feir index when the effects of bound modes are included. This result may allow forecasting of the probability of extreme waves from the directional spreading in complex sea states.
The accuracy of speed prediction error to the next waypoint is a key factor in maintaining longitudinal separation on oceanic routes. This estimation is often used by air traffic control to estimate the future position of aircraft, and the estimation errors result in potential separation infringement. While most aircraft can calculate the estimated time at each future waypoint using the onboard Flight Management System, the factors affecting the inaccuracy of the estimation require more clarification. This paper investigates the accuracy of the speed prediction error on oceanic routes and examines the main factor of error using airline flight data. The results show that wind prediction error is a main source of speed prediction error, and significant differences of the speed prediction error among airlines and aircraft types were observed.
Maternal gut microbiota is thought to be one of the important factors in the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) concept, but the effects of maternal gut microbiota on foetal growth are not well known. In this study, the association between maternal gut microbiota and foetal growth was investigated. Maternal and newborn information, as well as stool samples at the third trimester of pregnancy, were obtained from 51 mother–newborn pairs from the Chiba study of Mother and Child Health (C-MACH). Gut microbiota was analysed by 16S rRNA sequencing of stool samples and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in stool were analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After adjustment for covariates, it was found that maternal gut microbial diversity had a positive association with head circumference in newborn males (Chao 1: adjusted r = 0.515, p = 0.029). Genus Parabacteroides and genus Eggerthella showed negative associations with newborn head circumference and weight, respectively in males (genus Parabacteroides: adjusted r = −0.598, p = 0.009, genus Eggerthella: adjusted r = −0.481, p = 0.043). On the other hand, genus Streptococcus showed a negative association with newborn height in females (adjusted r = −0.413, p = 0.040). In addition, hexanoate was involved in the association between maternal gut microbiota and newborn anthropometrics in the univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate analysis. These data suggest that maternal gut microbiota has sex-specific effects on foetal growth. Maternal gut microbiota is an important factor for optimal intrauterine growth.
The Misericord, or stabbing pike, was a frequently used battlefield implement in medieval times. The misericord was used by battlefield clerics to relieve the suffering of irreparably wounded soldiers. Its cultural parallels include the Roman gladius, the Japanese wakazashi, and the eponymous Liston knife used in pre-Victorian era surgery in England.
This demonstration will analyze modern misericord injuries in the light of the current epidemic of long knife (or zombie knife) attacks in London and the domestic terrorist threat in Australia.
A review of this weapon is pertinent to the projected low-technology, low-impact, and deep-penetrating wounds expected in urban terrorism in Australia and other cities globally. The talk will emphasize field discussion, demonstration, and disarming techniques against modern misericord-type weapons.
The Electronic Health Record (EHR) is now the standard means for recording and maintaining medical notes in most emergency departments. The EHR is an independent cause of physician burnout, and maintenance of the EHR may occupy 30 to 50% of clinical time. There are software solutions available, but they are connected to fixed, expensive, distracting, and bright electronically powered computers. Scribes have been successfully trialed, but are also expensive and attached to computers on wheels. Portable digital word processors in the form of the AlphaSmart Neo is a redundant technology designed primarily for children with typing difficulties. It has recently enjoyed a resurgence in popularity among professional writers, journalists, and field researchers for the ultimate distraction-free writing experience. The Alphasmart Neo is cheap, nearly indestructible, intuitive, and requires almost no recharging. It is compatible with all software across Mac OS, Windows, and Linux. Notes are entered by the clinician or scribe, independently of computers, at the bedside, and uploaded to any software via USB cable.
To describe the introduction and impact of the AlphaSmart Neo on the EHR in emergency departments across Australia.
We will examine the role of the Alphasmart Neo in austere, low power, extreme environments with a demonstration on how to enter, maintain, and transfer an electronic health record independent of any computer or power source.
We believe the AlphaSmart Neo is an ideal, personalized, cheap, effective, and efficient hardware solution to entering notes independent of other software and hardware. It is distraction free at the patient’s bedside, resulting in better notes that the clinician enjoys writing.
The fundamental parameter (FP) method has been applied to many elemental analysis fields because of the advantage that it does not require standards of the same matrix as the unknown. In most FP software packages only primary and secondary excitations are included in the mathematical models, and hardly any software for routine applications has ever been reported involving the secondary enhancement by scattered radiation (SESR) as well as the scattered primary fluorescent radiation (SPFR). This can lead to errors in the analyses of compounds rich in light elements, like oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides, etc.
Dewell (1994), following Brugman (1981) and Lakoff (1987), provides a semantic analysis of over by relying more exclusively on image-schema transformations than did Brugman and Lakoff. The Brugman-Lakoff-Dewell analysis, however, can be improved by using simpler image-schemas, more natural image-schema transformations, and metaphorical extensions. A key idea adopted in the present article is to capture both trajectors and landmarks three-dimensionally and topologically. This modification brings about the elimination of unessential features such as the shape and size of the trajector and the landmark, contact/non-contact between the trajector and the landmark, and physical properties of the trajector. Its main advantage is that a central image-schema for a semicircular path provides the basis for explaining all of the senses of over using natural image-schema transformations and metaphorical extensions. The proposed image-schema transformations include: segment profiling, profiling the endpoint of access paths, the profiled peak position of the semicircular path with the constraint that the rest of the semicircular path is excluded, and the extension of the semicircular path-trajectory to an image of covering. The proposed metaphorical senses are time, means, and control. In addition, the radial category relating each sense of over is presented.
A new species, Contarinia brassicola Sinclair (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), which induces flower galls on canola (Brassica napus Linnaeus and Brassica rapa Linnaeus (Brassicaceae)), is described from Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada. Larvae develop in the flowers of canola, which causes swelling and prevents opening, pod formation, and seed set. Mature larvae exit the galls, fall to the soil, and form cocoons. Depending on conditions, larvae will either pupate and eclose in the same calendar year or enter facultative diapause and emerge the following year. At least two generations of C. brassicola occur each year. Adults emerge from overwintering cocoons in the spring and lay eggs on developing canola flower buds. The galls produced by C. brassicola were previously attributed to the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) in Saskatchewan; here, we compare and list several characters to differentiate the two species.
According to Herodotus’s Histories, the people living a ten day’s journey to the west of the Garamantes was the Atarantes As suggested by Liverani, if the Garamantes are to be placed in the Wadi al-Ajal around Jarma/Garama, this would likely locate the Atarantes in the Wadi Tanzzuft/Tadrart Akakus region Fig. 3.1). Archaeological research over the last two decades has considerably improved our knowledge of Saharan civilisations that developed from the early first millennium BC to the late first millennium AD. It is now possible to get a deeper insight on how the people living in the Wadi Tanzzuft/Tadrart Akakus region expressed their identity through material culture and behaviour and their relation to trajectories in Garamantian culture.
The distribution of funerary stone structures in the Saharan landscape has been a subject of interest for the Italian-Libyan Archaeological Mission in the Tadrart Akakus and Massak since the early ’90s This archaeological evidence gave witness to an enduring human settlement, lasting at least from the Pastoral period to Proto-historical times, and played an important role in the definition of the cultural identities of the local groups, while representing a source of information about population features and dynamics. In the twentieth century, only a few excavations were carried out in cemeteries located in Fazzan. In 1997, as part of an interdisciplinary project focused on Holocene environment and human settlement until the rise of the Garamantian civilisation, our mission started a systematic survey and excavation of funerary structures in the Wadi Tanzzuft. The 2004–06 investigation of Fewet necropolis needs to be viewed in this framework.
A three-year field study in northeastern Saskatchewan, Canada, determined the effects of seeding date and seed treatment on feeding injury by Contarinia Róndani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) midges to canola, Brassica napus Linnaeus (Brassicaceae), and subsequent seed yield. Emergence cage monitoring indicated the presence of two generations of midges at the four locations observed. Intensity of midge injury to canola was low, but damaged plants were common. Field location and seeding date influenced probability of midge injury and canola growth stage. The wettest of the four locations had the greatest number of midges but low levels of probability of damage in two of three years. Early-seeded plots had higher injury probability than late-seeded plots, with the highest probability of injury occurring one to two weeks after flowering commenced. Seed treatment marginally affected midge injury ratings, suggesting that insecticide efficacy dissipated before the midges attacked. Seed yield was higher in early-seeded than in late-seeded plots in two of three years, despite the greater level of damage seen in early-seeded plots. Overall, the research showed that the agronomic benefits of early seeding outweighed the effects of the midge damage observed; therefore, producers in the Canadian prairie provinces should seed canola when conditions are most agronomically suitable.
In present times, it may be surprising to see the word “origins” in the title of an ethnomusicological article. Reviewing historical and current hypotheses on the origins of song, or music more generally, it becomes apparent that most authors interpret a possible bifurcation between (spoken) language and (sung) music as the most plausible point from which “music” evolved. Curt Sachs states polemically, “Music began with singing” (1943:21). Such statements beg questions about the definition of music, not just origins. I will, however, forgo such questions in this article, concentrating instead on the prehistoric and contemporary fluidity between speech and song. I understand these terms as poles on a continuum, ranging from everyday fugitive speech to formalized speech (such as invocations, recitations, chanting) and, finally, to song. In this article, I suggest that seeking to understand the moment in which this bifurcation, or rather spreading out, of utterances occurred is a productive task. Understanding the differences between speech and song is a starting point for unpacking how these distinct phenomena emerged. Alternatively, thinking about those prehistoric times when speech and song emerged may support insights about modern meaning and the function of utterances that occupy a liminal space between speech and song.
The Japanese Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume is a rare, globally ‘Vulnerable’ seabird, endemic to Japan and South Korea. However, little is known of its at-sea distribution, habitat or threats. We conducted several years of at-sea surveys around Japan to model Japanese Murrelet density in relation to habitat parameters, and make spatial predictions to assess the adequacy of the current Japanese marine Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) network for the species. During a five-year period, 3,485 km of at-sea surveys recorded 3,161 Japanese Murrelets around four breeding locations. Maximum murrelet group size was 90 individuals with a mean group size of 2.9 ± 4.2 individuals. Models of Japanese Murrelet at-sea density around the two largest breeding locations predicted that almost all murrelets occur within 30 km of the breeding colony and most within 10 km. Murrelets were predicted closer to the colony in May than in April and closer to the colony at a neritic colony than at an offshore island colony. Additionally, murrelets breeding on an offshore island colony also commuted to mainland neritic habitat for foraging. The marine habitat used by Japanese Murrelets differed between each of the four surveyed colonies, however oceanographic variables offered little explanatory power in models. Models with colony, month and year generated four foraging radii (9–39 km wide) containing murrelet densities of > 0.5 birds/km2. Using these radii the Japanese marine IBA network was found to capture between 95% and 25% of Japanese Murrelet at-sea habitat while breeding and appears appropriately configured to protect near-colony murrelet distributions. Given the range of marine habitats that breeding murrelets inhabit, our simple models offer an applicable method for predicting to unsampled colonies and generating ecologically-informed seaward extension radii. However, data on colony populations and further at-sea surveys are necessary to refine models and improve predictions.
Over 20 years have passed since a free-viewpoint video technology has been proposed with which a user's viewpoint can be freely set up in a reconstructed three-dimensional space of a target scene photographed by multi-view cameras. This technology allows us to capture and reproduce the real world as recorded. Once we capture the world in a digital form, we can modify it as augmented reality (i.e., placing virtual objects in the digitized real world). Unlike this concept, the augmented world allows us to see through real objects by synthesizing the backgrounds that cannot be observed in our raw perspective directly. The key idea is to generate the background image using multi-view cameras, observing the backgrounds at different positions and seamlessly overlaying the recovered image in our digitized perspective. In this paper, we review such desired view-generation techniques from the perspective of free-view point image generation and discuss challenges and open problems through a case study of our implementations.