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When a liquid stream is injected into a gaseous atmosphere, it destabilizes and continuously passes through different states characterized by different morphologies. Throughout this process, the flow dynamics may be different depending on the region of the flow and the scales of the involved liquid structures. Exploring this multi-scale, multi-dimensional phenomenon requires some new theoretical tools, some of which need yet to be elaborated. Here, a new analytical framework is proposed on the basis of two-point statistical equations of the liquid volume fraction. This tool, which originates from single phase turbulence, allows us notably to decompose the fluxes of liquid in flow–position space and scale space. Direct numerical simulations of liquid–gas turbulence decaying in a triply periodic domain are then used to characterize the time and scale evolution of the liquid volume fraction. It is emphasized that two-point statistics of the liquid volume fraction depend explicitly on the geometrical properties of the liquid–gas interface and in particular its surface density. The stretch rate of the liquid–gas interface is further shown to be the equivalent for the liquid volume fraction (a non-diffusive scalar) of the scalar dissipation rate. Finally, a decomposition of the transport of liquid in scale space highlights that non-local interactions between non-adjacent scales play a significant role.
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) have devastating consequences on patients’ quality of life. More specifically, TSCI with spinal fractures (TSCIF) have the most severe neurological impairment, although limited data are available. This study aimed at providing data and analyzing TSCIF in a level I trauma center in the province of Québec, Canada.
Two hundred eighty-two TSCIF were reviewed. Spinal injuries and neurological impairment were assessed with AO classification and AIS, respectively. Variables included age, sex, cause, location, mechanism of injury (MOI), and severity of TSCIF. Chi-squared Pearson determined significant associations (p < 0.05).
Male-to-female ratio was 3.21:1. Patients were 42.5 ± 18.7 years. The leading causes of TSCIF were high-energy falls (28.4%), cars (26.2%) and vehicle without restraint system (motorcycle, all-terrain vehicle, snowmobile, and bicycle) (21.3%). Vehicle collisions, pooling cars and unrestrained vehicles, mostly affected the 20–49-year population (62.2%). The main MOI was distraction in males (47.9%), and axial compression in females (44.8%). There were significant associations between causes and injured spinal level, as well as between MOI and injured spinal level, sex, and TSCIF severity. Most patients involved in unrestrained vehicle accidents sustained a thoracolumbar spine distraction with complete motor deficit. A severe neurologic deficit affected most patients following car accidents that caused cervical spine distraction or axial torsion.
In Québec, most TSCIF caused by vehicle collisions affect a young population and have severe neurological impairments. Future efforts should focus on better understanding accidents involving the unrestrained vehicle category to further improve preventive measures.
This paper explores the question of the design activity at the shop floor level. The design activity has been confined for a large part in the design and the methods office. However, a certain form of design adapted to the factory remains. It is necessary to solve the problems which appear during the manufacturing process and to improve the productivity. However another form of design can emerge; it has a stronger impact on the factory, since the rules of the manufacturing system are modified under its effect. The paper studies 21 cases of design in the Airbus factory at Saint-Nazaire. It shows that the design activity does exist at the shop floor level. It characterizes this activity distinguishing two types of design which can co-exist in a factory. It shows that the type of results reached is not the same according to the type of design implemented.
The aim of our study was to describe and to investigate the factors associated with glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) acquisition during a single-strain outbreak which occurred in several wards of hospital from September 2013 to January 2014. We designed a case–control study. Analyses were performed using Bayesian methods. Univariate logistic regressions with informative priors from published studies were conducted. A multivariate model was build including variables with a probability of odd-ratio exceeding one (Pr) >85% or <15%. Thirteen cases and 52 controls were recruited. The description of this outbreak highlighted the importance to quickly detect patients at risk of GRE carriage in order to implement the isolation measures and to transfer to dedicated department if they are effectively carriers. Following multivariate analysis, antibiotics during hospitalisation (Pr = 0.968), number of hospitalisation days in the year (Pr = 0.964), antacids intake (Pr = 0.878) (with a risk increase), immunosuppression (Pr = 0.026) and isolation measures (Pr = 0.003) (both with protective effect) were associated with GRE acquisition. The use of Bayesian statistics was useful because of our study's small population size and prior information availability.
We develop a method to compute the generating function of the number of vertices inside certain regions of the Uniform Infinite Planar Triangulation (UIPT). The computations are mostly combinatorial in flavour and the main tool is the decomposition of the UIPT into layers, called the skeleton decomposition, introduced by Krikun . In particular, we get explicit formulas for the generating functions of the number of vertices inside hulls (or completed metric balls) centred around the root, and the number of vertices inside geodesic slices of these hulls. We also recover known results about the scaling limit of the volume of hulls previously obtained by Curien and Le Gall by studying the peeling process of the UIPT in .
In his rich contribution, Arruñada (2017) debates what institutions are needed to enforce complex ‘sequential’ transactions embedded in interdependent private contracts, and more specifically discusses the conditions of their efficiency when it comes to transferring property. Beyond acknowledging the importance of this issue and the very stimulating and often counterintuitive ideas developed in the paper, this short note challenges some of the positions adopted by Arruñada, particularly regarding the relevance of ‘The problem of social cost’ (Coase, 1960) for dealing with this issue. It also raises questions about the institutional, hybrid arrangement advocated as the solution for dealing with sequential transactions.
Several often-cited meta-analyses have reported that the efficacy of antidepressant medications depends on the severity of depression. They found that drug–placebo differences increased as a function of initial severity, which was attributed to decreased responsiveness to placebo among patients with severe depression rather than to increased responsiveness to medication. We retested this using patient-level data and also undertaking a meta-analysis of trial-level data from 34 randomised placebo controlled trials (n = 10 737) from the NEWMEDS registry. Although our trial-level data support prevous findings, patient-level data did not show any significant effect of initial depression severity on drug v. placebo difference.
Improving neurocognitive outcomes following treatment for brain metastases have become increasingly important. We propose that a brief telephone-based neurocognitive assessment may improve follow-up cognitive assessments in this palliative population. Aim: To prospectively assess the feasibility and reliability of a telephone based brief neurocognitive assessment compared to the same tests delivered face-to-face. Methods: Brain metastases patients to be treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were assessed using a brief validated neurocognitive battery at baseline, at 1 month and 3 months following WBRT (in person and over the phone). The primary outcome was feasibility and inter-procedural (in person versus telephone) reliability. The secondary objective was to evaluate the change in neurocognitive function before and after WBRT. Results: Out of 39 patients enrolled, 82% of patients completed the baseline in-person and telephone neurocognitive assessments. However, at 1 month, only 41% of enrolled patients completed the in-person and telephone cognitive assessments and at 3 months, only 10% of patients completed them. Results pertaining to reliability and change in neurocognitive function will be updated. Conclusion: The pre-defined definition of feasibility (at least 80% completion for face to face and telephone neurocognitive assessments) was met at baseline. However, a large proportion of participants did not complete either telephone or in person neurocognitive follow-up at 1 month and at 3 months post-WBRT. Attrition remained a challenge for neurocognitive testing in this population even when a telephone-based brief assessment was used.
Recent observations of unusual mass stranding and mortality of two Indian Ocean crustacean species, the swimming crab Charybdis smithii and the mantis shrimp Natosquilla investigatoris, are documented and analysed. Strandings of C. smithii were observed for the first time in the equatorial Indian Ocean, the main area of its pelagic distribution. Strandings of mantis shrimps are reported from throughout the western Indian Ocean; occurrences of mass stranding in the Maldives Archipelago mark an extension of the known range of N. investigatoris into the central Indian Ocean. Mortality of crabs probably represents a ‘catastrophic event’. In contrast, mantis shrimp strandings, which were always associated with a sudden increase of its biomass (‘blooms’), are apparently post-reproduction mortalities indicating potential semelparity for this species.
This is an introduction to the twelve essays in the special memorial issue in honor of Ronald Coase. It includes a brief account of Coase's long life and some of its many achievements. Coase's distinctive, worldly and empirically-grounded approach to economics is highlighted, claiming that it has yielded major theoretical and policy insights. This introduction concludes with a summary of the contributions of the twelve essays.
One of the most important developments in the English colonies in America during the seventeenth century was the emergence of African slaves as a major component of the labour force. Population figures tell the story. As late as 1650, there were only 17,000 Africans in English America, just 2.5 per cent of the total population. Most Africans lived on the Caribbean islands. On the mainland, there were only 2,000 Africans in 1650, a mere 4 per cent of the total. By 1700, however, the African population approached 150,000, more than a third of the population of the English colonies as a whole, while on the mainland, the African population approached 31,000, 12 per cent of the total. There has been considerable debate over how to explain this development.
On Barbados, the growth of African slavery occurred quickly in the 1650s and blacks were a majority of the island's population by 1660. In the Chesapeake colonies, by contrast, the process was more gradual, and Africans did not form a majority of the unfree labour force until the 1690s. As a consequence of Chesapeake gradualism, the debate has focused on the Tobacco Coast. Why, historians have wondered, did they take so long? In its early stages, the debate focused on the legal status of the first Africans in the region and on the relationship between slavery and racism, but more recently it has concentrated towards the shift from a work force dominated by British indentured servants to one dominated by African slaves.
Piroplasms, including Babesia, Cytauxzoon and Theileria species, frequently infect domestic and wild mammals. At present, there is no information on the occurrence and molecular identity of these tick-borne blood parasites in the meerkat, one of South Africa's most endearing wildlife celebrities. Meerkats live in territorial groups, which may occur on ranchland in close proximity to humans, pets and livestock. Blood collected from 46 healthy meerkats living in the South-African Kalahari desert was screened by microscopy and molecular methods, using PCR and DNA sequencing of 18S rRNA and ITS1 genes. We found that meerkats were infected by 2 species: one species related to Babesia sp. and one species related to Cytauxzoon sp. Ninety one percent of the meerkats were infected by the Cytauxzoon and/or the Babesia species. Co-infection occurred in 46% of meerkats. The pathogenicity and vectors of these two piroplasm species remains to be determined.
Ronald Coase had a profound impact on scholarship worldwide, and not for his ideas alone. Coase's ideas about transaction costs, the nature of the firm, the role of government, and the problem of social cost have been hugely influential. Throughout his long life, he also worked to change the conduct of economics, urging economists to ground their conclusions in careful study of empirical reality rather than theories that work only on the blackboard. Less well known, perhaps, is his work to nurture and shape the emerging fields of law and economics and new institutional economics, or his support to young scholars studying institutional issues around the world. In his final years, he was preoccupied by the rapid transformation of China and the institutional structure of production. This article summarizes Coase's significant intellectual contributions to economics, pointing out along the way some of the traits that made him such a powerful thinker and exceptionally influential scholar.
Notwithstanding its major contributions, the ‘Williamsonian’ branch of New Institutional Economics suffers from black holes that recent developments have pinpointed. Rather than taking stock, this paper capitalizes on some of these developments to look ahead. Section 2 provides a reminder of the hard core of transaction cost economics (TCE) with an emphasis on problems that TCE has allowed to identify, particularly the richness of organizational arrangements, an issue that needs further investigation. Section 3 discusses how to better understand the embedment of organizational arrangements in their institutional environment. The concept of ‘meso-institutions’ is introduced as a mean to capture mechanisms providing the needed interface. Section 4 considers another neglected dimension that requires renewed attention: the interactions of organizational arrangements with technologies that partially define their setting. This paper proposes a roadmap to explore this issue, based on an ongoing research developed around the key concept of ‘criticality’. Section 5 concludes.
Optimal treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) in the elderly remains unclear. The impact of age on treatment planning, toxicity, and efficacy at a Canadian Cancer Centre was retrospectively reviewed.
Glioblastoma patients treated consecutively between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. Utilizing 70 years as the threshold for definition of an elderly patient, treatments and outcome were compared in younger and elderly populations.
Four hundred and twenty one patients were included in this analysis and median overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 9.8 months. 290 patients were aged <70 (median age 57, range 17–69) and 131 were aged ≥70 (median age 76, range 70–93). Patients ≥70 were more likely to receive best supportive care (BSC) and all patients >70 who were treated with radiotherapy received <60 Gy (P<0.001), except one. Patients aged >70 demonstrated inferior survival (one year OS 16% versus 54% for those <70, HR 3.46, P<0.001). In patients treated with BSC only, age had no impact on survival (median survival two months in both groups, HR 0.89, P=0.75). For those treated with higher doses of radiotherapy (>30 Gy to <60 Gy), one year survival was 19% versus 24% in patients aged >70 versus <70 (HR 1.47, P=0.02) respectively.
In this retrospective single institution series, elderly patients were more likely to be treated with BSC or palliative doses of radiotherapy. Randomized phase III study results are required for guidance in treatment of this population of patients.