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In 2017 the National Gallery of Ireland was awarded funding from the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht (DCHG) for the development of an online resource, focusing on its Irish art research collections. Entitled Source – Uncovering Stories of Art in Ireland, this multi-annual project aims to catalogue and digitise the collections in the ESB CSIA and ensure that these valuable collections relating to Ireland's artistic history and memory are preserved and can be easily accessed by researchers. Now in its penultimate year, Source will be launched in 2021.
To examine the rate of monitoring of metabolic syndrome and actual rates of metabolic syndrome in two patient cohorts [clozapine treatment and long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic] who are reviewed on an equally regular basis (1–4 weekly) for administration of treatment.
Clinical and laboratory data are examined on 119 patients treated with clozapine and 116 patients treated with LAI antipsychotic medications to determine the rates of metabolic syndrome and evidence of monitoring for metabolic syndrome in the previous 6 months. Individuals with insufficient data from these cohorts were invited to attend for metabolic screening to determine actual rates of metabolic syndrome in these two cohorts of patients.
All metabolic parameters were monitored to a significantly greater extent in the clozapine cohort (>90%), compared to those treated with LAI antipsychotic medications (<50%) (blood pressure, weight, lipid and glucose levels; p < 0.001). Metabolic syndrome was present in 38.9% of those treated with clozapine compared to 31.1% of patients treated with LAI antipsychotic medications (X2 = 0.54, p = 0.46).
These findings suggest that a robust screening plan should be in place to monitor for metabolic syndrome in individuals treated with LAI antipsychotic medications. This screening should include measurement of body weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipids and fasting insulin levels. Early recognition of abnormal metabolic parameters allows early intervention, therefore, improving long-term cardiovascular outcomes.
Maternal mental well being influences offspring development. Research suggests that an interplay between genetic and environmental factors underlies this familial transmission of mental disorders.
To explore an interaction between genetic and environmental factors to predict trajectories of maternal mental well being, and to examine whether these trajectories are associated with epigenetic modifications in mothers and their offspring.
We assessed maternal childhood trauma and rearing experiences, prenatal and postnatal symptoms of depression and stress experience from 6 to 72 months postpartum, and genetic and epigenetic variation in a longitudinal birth-cohort study (n = 262) (Maternal adversity, vulnerability and neurodevelopment project). We used latent class modeling to describe trajectories in maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, marital stress and general stress, taking polygenetic risk for major depressive disorder (MDD), a composite score for maternal early life adversities, and prenatal depressive symptoms into account.
Genetic risk for MDD associated with trajectories of maternal well being in the postpartum, conditional on the experience of early life adversities and prenatal symptoms of depression. We will explore whether these trajectories are also linked to DNA methylation patterns in mothers and their offspring. Preliminary analyses suggest that maternal early life adversities associate with offspring DNA methylation age estimates, which is mediated through maternal mental well being and maternal DNA methylation age estimates.
We found relevant gene-environment interactions associated with trajectories of maternal well being. Our findings inform research on mechanisms underlying familial transmission of vulnerability for psychopathology and might thus be relevant to prevention and early intervention programs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Animal and human studies suggest that individual differences in maternal parenting behaviour are transmitted from one generation to the next.
This study aimed to examine potential psychosocial mechanisms underlying an intergenerational transmission of conceptualization of parenting, including affect, cognition, and parental support.
In a subsample of 201 first-time mothers participating in the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) project, we assessed maternal childhood rearing experiences, using the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. At 6 months postpartum, mothers completed questionnaires on parenting stress, symptoms of depression, internalization of maternal care regulation and current relationship with mother and father.
We found significant direct associations of maltreatment and rearing by the grandmother with parenting stress at 6 months. These associations were mediated through distinct psychosocial pathways: the association of maltreatment on higher parenting stress was fully mediated through more maternal symptoms of depression (z = 2.297; P = 022). The association between sub-optimal rearing provided by the mother and higher parenting stress was mediated through lower internalization of maternal care regulation (z = -2.155; P = 031) and to a lesser degree through more symptoms of depression (z = -1.842; P = 065). Finally, higher quality rearing by the grandfather was indirectly related to lower parenting stress through positive current relationship with the father (z = -2.617; P = 009).
There are distinct pathways by which early experiences manifest in parenting stress. By understanding the structure of dysregulated parenting, clinicians will have practical information to specifically target maternal motivation, social supports, and depressed mood to disrupt maladaptive parenting cognitions and practices.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Ambulances are where patient care is often initiated or maintained, but this setting poses safety risks for paramedics. Paramedics have found that in order to optimize patient care, they must compromise their own safety by standing unsecured in a moving ambulance.
This study sought to compare the quality of chest compressions in the two positions they can be delivered within an ambulance.
A randomized, counterbalanced study was carried out with 24 paramedic students. Simulated chest compressions were performed in a stationary ambulance on a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) manikin for two minutes from either: (A) an unsecured standing position, or (B) a seated secured position. Participants’ attitudes toward the effectiveness of the two positions were evaluated.
The mean total number of chest compressions was not significantly different standing unsecured (220; SD = 12) as compared to seated and secured (224; SD = 21). There was no significant difference in mean compression rate standing unsecured (110 compressions per minute; SD = 6) as compared to seated and secured (113 compressions per minute; SD = 10). Chest compressions performed in the unsecured standing position yielded a significantly greater mean depth (52 mm; SD = 6) than did seated secured (26 mm; SD = 7; P < .001). Additionally, the standing unsecured position produced a significantly higher percentage (83%; SD = 21) for the number of correct compressions, as compared to the seated secured position (8%; SD = 17; P < .001). Participants also believed that chest compressions delivered when standing were more effective than those delivered when seated.
The quality of chest compressions delivered from a seated and secured position is inferior to those delivered from an unsecured standing position. There is a need to consider how training, technologies, and ambulance design can impact the quality of chest compressions.
From its publication, the powerful affective charge of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s best-selling antislavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly (1852) crossed national and cultural borders, and had an enormous impact on the abolitionist debate. Australian audiences retained considerable sympathy for UTC’s depiction of slavery, however, such audiences generally failed to recognise the parallels between the plight of African-American slaves, and of Indigenous Australians. Nonetheless, UTC was sometimes evoked to draw attention to the tragedy of Aboriginal child removal under assimilation policies, now known as the Stolen Generations. UTS also reveals how metropolitan domestic ideals were applied to an expanded imperial world, a sentimental investment in the home and family that was the basis for the colonial project of assimilation. UTC’s colonial application raises again the long-standing debate between those who argue that literature helps to cultivate a more compassionate society, and those who believe that empathy masks complicity with oppressive practices. I argue that despite the manipulation, re-working and stereotypical devices that limit the impact of sentimental narratives, we must distinguish between diverse contexts of reading and social action, and their political malleability, focusing on their relationship to contemporary political discourse.
Debates about relations between Britain and Australia inevitably lead towards proposals for an Australian Republic, constituting a vision of independence from Britain, and the political counterpart of Macaulay’s New Zealander. Where Macaulay’s New Zealander constituted a spectre of future decay used to urge metropolitan reform, the republic offers a counter-vision – equally futuristic – emphasising descendant maturity. Australian nationalism and imperialism have most usually been intertwined and mutually supportive, especially as represented by the Royal Family and a domestic ideal that continues to evoke loyalty, admiration and love. But popular royalism and the deeply gendered meanings of the monarchy are overlooked and disparaged within the Australian political sphere. This emotional configuration highlights a broader ‘double bind’ for women who wish to contest the masculine sphere but are expected to behave in stereotypically female ways to do so. Serious consideration of such cultural meanings is a glaring absence in the present debate, severely limiting the republican movement’s capacity to engage those Australians who remain attached to the monarchy.
The publication of Bleak House in early 1852 followed closely on the heels of the phenomenally successful anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Dickens’s view of Stowe’s novel, seemingly flavoured by jealousy, was in public warmly admiring, yet in private took issue with her picture of ‘ebony perfection’. In this chapter I compare the two novels’ opposing emotional strategies, and the affective power of Charles Dickens’s character Jo the crossing-sweep. Like some contemporaries, I argue that Bleak House was a direct retort to Stowe’s anti-slavery novel. By establishing an affective and moral opposition between the satirically drawn ‘humanitarian’ Mrs Jellyby, whose ‘telescopic philanthropy’ represents the improper expenditure of empathy for those in distant lands, and the white waif Jo as the novel’s ‘proper’ and most powerful object of compassion, Dickens’s explicit contrast of imperial evangelization and local urban reform directed audiences to care about white poor with the inference that black people were not a proper object of compassion. Jo’s touching story circulated widely across the colonies of Australia and New Zealand, and was put to work in transmitting inherited British values and making sense of local political and social circumstances. By the late nineteenth century, Jo’s colonial re-making effectively consolidated racial exclusions.
This book explores changing ideas about who to feel for and with across the British empire, from the late eighteenth century to the end of the nineteenth century. It examines the role of the compassionate emotions, today glossed as empathy, in imperialism, focusing on relations between Britain and her Australasian colonies, and between settlers and Indigenous people. This chapter reviews the history of the emotions across the period of Britain’s colonial expansion from the eighteenth century, and the contrasts drawn between home and other, domestic and cosmopolitan priorities that shaped imagined Antipodean ‘homes’. The discourse of sensibility was deployed on behalf of a range of reforms, including the British movement to abolish slavery, and the missionary movement, but by the 1840s had become the focus of contestation, and a mid-century ‘backlash’ re-defined humanitarianism along racial lines. Ideas of ‘home’, gender and race, governed the movement of empathy between imperial subjects, white settlers and Aboriginal people, and continue to structure debates about the future.
Magic lantern slide performances became an important means of communicating across the empire, and during the 1890s British campaigners pleading for the metropolitan waif competed with local missionaries seeking to arouse compassion for Aboriginal people. Their visual and rhetorical strategies sought to secure public sympathy for their very different causes, through a range of emotional effects, with larger implications for imperial identities. The London-based Barnardo’s orphanages successfully raised funds in the Australian colonies through travelling performances aiming to arouse pity for the metropolitan poor by combining slum sensation with documentary force. White settler audiences were asked to administer relief to the waifs of the Mother Country. During these years such performances competed with Australian missionaries such as John Brown Gribble, who travelled widely to tell the story of his mission work and raise funds for his new settlement, Yarrabah, in north Queensland. Gribble was, however, challenged on the grounds of telescopic philanthropy to re-assert a racialist hierarchy and ridicule humanitarianism. This dynamic shows how emotional narratives worked to construct imperial relations, contest national or cosmopolitan world-views, and simultaneously constitute metropolitan and colonial culture.
Visual representations of colonial violence constitute an overlooked source of evidence that although shaped by contemporary visual and cultural conventions allow us to engage with this troubling history in significant ways. The ‘history wars’ of the turn of the millennium have been accused of focusing on disciplinary protocols with the effect of obscuring the moral implications of colonial invasion and dispossession. By contrast, images evoke empathy, creating social relationships across the British empire that defined identities and aligned viewers with specific communities. Images also return the modern viewer to the emotional and moral intensity of 1830s and 1840s frontier violence in south-eastern Australia. They map colonial ‘blind spots’ by demonstrating the ways that these emotions were politicized to legitimate colonial interests, for example by directing sympathy towards white colonists, or seeking to evoke compassion for Aboriginal people. From our present-day perspective, these visual images help us to see our ‘reflection’, and acknowledge the truth of our history and its legacies.
During the period of Britain’s colonial expansion in the eighteenth century, the ‘cult of sensibility’ emerged across Europe and America. Domestic experience gave meaning to imperial ties, as the British nurtured fond plans for the Antipodean colonies of Australia and New Zealand as children of the British Empire, one day to assume a glorious inheritance. Smith’s emphasis on social nearness rather than feeling at a distance exemplifies the ambivalence of ‘fellow feeling’ or empathy. Resentment, condescension, and fear of degeneration as evoked by the ‘future tourist’ or ‘New Zealander’ undermined this relationship and defined the limits of imperial ‘fellow feeling’, with implications for temporal and racial human hierarchies. By contrast, French naturalist Jacques-Julien Houtou de Labillardière’s cosmopolitan re-orientation of these schemes brought humankind into a single political community, in which Indigenous peoples were fully human. Yet Australian Aboriginal people became the objects of a nostalgic imperial discourse of extinction, naturalizing conquest and relegating them to the new colonies’ past.
Violent conflict between white settlers and Aboriginal people had ceased across most of the continent, but north-western Western Australia continued to witness clashes, brutal labour practices and sexual exploitation. In 1885, the missionary John Brown Gribble, fresh from a visit to London’s Exeter Hall circle, attempted to establish a mission in the Gascoyne River region. He quickly antagonised the region’s pastoralist interests and a press scandal eventuated, in which the pastoralist lobby sought to ridicule Gribble’s claims for sympathy toward Aboriginal people, and assert their own. Gribble aspired to what is often termed ‘muscular Christianity’, a form of masculinity that linked spiritual belief to more secular values of bravery and heroism, and his hero was African abolitionist and missionary David Livingstone. British anti-slavery sentiment framed Gribble’s notorious 1886 denunciation, Dark Deeds in a Sunny Land. Yet the colonial public was sceptical regarding what many considered sensational and excessive. Gribble’s writing is typical of narratives of Christian heroism within a religious literary tradition of persecution, self-sacrifice and redemption that were ultimately modelled upon the life of Jesus Christ himself.
Emotions are not universal, but are experienced and expressed in diverse ways within different cultures and times. This overview of the history of emotions within nineteenth-century British imperialism focuses on the role of the compassionate emotions, or what today we refer to as empathy, and how they created relations across empire. Jane Lydon examines how empathy was produced, qualified and contested, including via the fear and anger aroused by frontier violence. She reveals the overlooked emotional dimensions of relationships constructed between Britain, her Australasian colonies, and Indigenous people, showing that ideas about who to care about were frequently drawn from the intimate domestic sphere, but were also developed through colonial experience. This history reveals the contingent and highly politicised nature of emotions in imperial deployment. Moving beyond arguments that emotions such as empathy are either 'good' or 'bad', this study evaluates their concrete political uses and effects.