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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with disrupted emotional processes including impaired regulation of approach behavior and positive affect, irritability, and anger. Enhanced reactivity to emotional cues may be an underlying process. Pupil dilation is an indirect index of arousal, modulated by the autonomic nervous system and activity in the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system. In the current study, pupil dilation was recorded while 8- to 12- year old children (n = 71, 26 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 45 typically developing), viewed images of emotional faces. Parent-rated hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were uniquely linked to higher pupil dilation to happy, but not fearful, angry, or neutral faces. This was not explained by comorbid externalizing symptoms. Together, these results suggest that hyperactive/impulsive symptoms are associated with hyperresponsiveness to approach-related emotional cues across a wide range of symptom severity.
How should education be structured to most effectively increase civic outcomes such as political knowledge and democratic values? We present results from a field experiment in which we compare the effects of deliberative education and traditional teacher-centered education. The study is the largest field experiment on deliberative education to date and involved more than 1,200 students in 59 classrooms. We test the effects on four forms of civic competence: political knowledge, political interest, democratic values, and political discussion. In contrast to previous research, we find little evidence that deliberative education significantly increases civic competence.
Sedentary behaviour can be associated with poor mental health, but it remains unclear whether all types of sedentary behaviour have equivalent detrimental effects.
To model the potential impact on depression of replacing passive with mentally active sedentary behaviours and with light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. An additional aim was to explore these relationships by self-report data and clinician diagnoses of depression.
In 1997, 43 863 Swedish adults were initially surveyed and their responses linked to patient registers until 2010. The isotemporal substitution method was used to model the potential impact on depression of replacing 30 min of passive sedentary behaviour with equivalent durations of mentally active sedentary behaviour, light physical activity or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Outcomes were self-reported depression symptoms (cross-sectional analyses) and clinician-diagnosed incident major depressive disorder (MDD) (prospective analyses).
Of 24 060 participants with complete data (mean age 49.2 years, s.d. 15.8, 66% female), 1526 (6.3%) reported depression symptoms at baseline. There were 416 (1.7%) incident cases of MDD during the 13-year follow-up. Modelled cross-sectionally, replacing 30 min/day of passive sedentary behaviour with 30 min/day of mentally active sedentary behaviour, light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous activity reduced the odds of depression symptoms by 5% (odds ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.97), 13% (odds ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–1.00) and 19% (odds ratio 0.81, 95% CI 0.93–0.90), respectively. Modelled prospectively, substituting 30 min/day of passive with 30 min/day of mentally active sedentary behaviour reduced MDD risk by 5% (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99); no other prospective associations were statistically significant.
Substituting passive with mentally active sedentary behaviours, light activity or moderate-to-vigorous activity may reduce depression risk in adults.
Genre looms large in contemporary Lukan scholarship. While many scholars are content to label Luke as biography and Acts as history, others argue that both volumes must belong to a single genre. This solution preserves the generic unity of Luke-Acts by shoehorning one or both volumes into ill-fitting categories; such a move only makes sense within an understanding of genre-as-classification. By exploring recent scholarship on genre and privileging ancient practice over ancient theory, we propose reading Luke-Acts as a unified narrative influenced by and modelled after a wide range of Greek prose narratives, rather than representing one genre in particular.
The use of specialised psychiatric services for depression and anxiety has increased steadily among young people in Sweden during recent years. It is not known to what extent this service use is due to an increase in psychiatric morbidity, or whether other adversities explain these trends. The aim of this study is to examine if there is increased use of psychiatric services among young adults in Sweden between 2000 and 2010, and if so, to what extent this increase is associated with differences in depression, anxiety and negative life events.
This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 20–30-year old men and women in Stockholm County in 2000 and 2010 (n = 2590 and n = 1120). Log-binomial regression analyses were conducted to compare the prevalence of service use, depression and panic disorder between the two cohorts. Self-reported life events were entered individually and as a summary index, and entered as potential mediators. Different effects of life events on service use were examined through interaction analysis. We report prevalence proportion ratios (PPR) with 95% confidence intervals.
Specialised psychiatric service use, but also depression and panic disorder was more common in the younger cohort (current service use 2.4 and 5.0%). The younger cohort did not report more life events overall or among those with depression or anxiety. Neither depression, panic disorder nor life events could explain the increased use of psychiatric services in the younger cohort (Fully adjusted model PPR = 1.70, 1.20–2.40 95% CI). There was no significant interaction between cohort and life events in predicting psychiatric service use.
This study provides initial support for an increase in service use among young adults compared with 10 years earlier. The increased service use cannot be explained with increasing worse life situations.
Evolution of cold dry snow and firn plays important roles in glaciology; however, the physical formulation of a densification law is still an active research topic. We forced eight firn-densification models and one seasonal-snow model in six different experiments by imposing step changes in temperature and accumulation-rate boundary conditions; all of the boundary conditions were chosen to simulate firn densification in cold, dry environments. While the intended application of the participating models varies, they are describing the same physical system and should in principle yield the same solutions. The firn models all produce plausible depth-density profiles, but the model outputs in both steady state and transient modes differ for quantities that are of interest in ice core and altimetry research. These differences demonstrate that firn-densification models are incorrectly or incompletely representing physical processes. We quantitatively characterize the differences among the results from the various models. For example, we find depth-integrated porosity is unlikely to be inferred with confidence from a firn model to better than 2 m in steady state at a specific site with known accumulation rate and temperature. Firn Model Intercomparison Experiment can provide a benchmark of results for future models, provide a basis to quantify model uncertainties and guide future directions of firn-densification modeling.
In this book, leading authorities on project organizing explore the growing deployment of projects and other types of temporary organizations, with a focus on the challenges created by projectification. The way projects are coordinated and handled influences the success of innovation and change within organizations and is critical for strategic development in our societies, yet it is often at odds with the institutions of traditional industrial society. Drawing on both theoretical perspectives and real-world cases, this book sheds light on the transformation toward a project society and explores the effects, opportunities, and conflicts it has created. As change continues, the authors make a case for renewing institutions and mind-sets and provide a foundation from which to discuss societal changes for the future. This is an invaluable book for researchers and students in project management and organizational theory programs, as well as professionals involved in the management of projects.