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In this work, we describe the synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in thin polymeric films by in-situ Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) and Grazing Incidence Small Angle Scattering (GISAXS). The 2D GISAXS patterns indicate how the precursor structure is altered as the temperature is varied from 25°C to 300°C. At 150°C, the CdS nanocrystals start to arrange themselves in a hexagonal lattice with a lattice parameter of 27 Å. The diffraction intensity from the hexagonal lattice reaches a maximum at 170°C and decreases steadily upon further heating above 220°C indicating loss of symmetry. Correspondingly, the GID scans at 170°C show strong crystalline peaks from cubic CdS nanocrystals that are about 2 nm size. The results indicate that a temperature of 170°C is sufficient to synthesize CdS nanocrystals without degradation of the polymer matrix (Topas) in thin films (about 30nm).
Introduction. The aim of this work was to develop a list of
suitable sensory attributes and to perform sensory quality assessment of an unprocessed
peach juice and a peach juice clarified by enzymatic treatment followed by membrane
processes, using the attributes chosen by the trained panel. Materials and
methods. A panel of assessors was selected and trained following the quantitative
descriptive analysis methodology. A descriptive terminology with eight descriptors was
successfully developed. Results and discussion. The sensory analysis showed
that the juices were effectively clarified. Although the clarification by microfiltration
in a bench-scale unit did not change juice taste attributes, the characteristic color and
aroma of peach juice were also removed. The scale-up of the membrane clarification process
affected all the sensory characteristics of the clarified juice, even taste. The
unpleasant cooked fruit taste and aroma could be reduced by juice clarification by
enzymatic and membrane processes. The kind of membrane, membrane geometry and
transmembrane pressure used in the membrane clarification did not significantly affect the
juice sensory characteristics.
We investigated the growth of CdS nanoparticles in polymer films by means of ex-situ and in-situ x-ray scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation. The CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of a Cd thiolate precursor dispersed in a cyclic olefin copolymer. The films were deposited by spin coating. Grazing incidence diffraction (GID) reveals the Bragg reflections of the CdS nanoparticles. In-situ diffraction and grazing incidence small angle scattering (GISAXS) experiments were recorded during the thermal treatment of the precursor/polymer films from room temperature up to 250°C. The diffraction curves show that the initial precursor structure is soon lost at 100°C. Correspondingly, the GISAXS data show a peak at a momentum transfer value q ∼ 0.2Å−1 that shifts towards smaller values with the temperature. Under UV excitation the films show photoluminescence in the range 400 – 700 nm.
A thiolate precursor was dispersed in a polymer solution and a precursor/polymer film was obtained by casting. Thermal annealing of the precursor/polymer film leads to the formation of a nanocomposite of nanometer-sized CdS dispersed in the polymer (thermolytic process). Different polymers were used as matrix material; in particular we employed a cyclo-olefin copolymer for its good optical properties and extremely low water absorption. After annealing with a temperature between 230 and 250°C in vacuum (pressure of about 6×10−3 mbar) the CdS nanoparticles are found to be crystalline with a diameter of about 2nm in size. The nanoparticle size can be increased up to 15nm by annealing at higher temperatures (300°C). The details of the structural properties of the nanocomposite films have been investigated by small and wide angle x-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS, respectively). A simple dependence of the nanoparticle dimensions on the annealing temperature was found. Furthermore, SAXS measurements indicate that the separation between the nanoparticles compares with their diameter.
Lehar tries to build a computational theory that succeeds in offering the same computational model for both phenomenal experience and visual processing. However, the vision that Lehar has about isomorphism in Gestalttheorie as representational, is not adequate. The main limit of Lehar's model derives from this misunderstanding of the relation between phenomenal and physiological levels.
A maximum electric field E = 2.65 GV/m with an accelerated electron current of 1 KA has been obtained, for pulse lengths of 130 ps, in an electron gun based on Pulse Power Technology. This is the highest accelerating field ever achieved in the presence of such a large current. Measurements of beam emittance and energy from 0.4 to 2.65 MeV show that the scaling of the invariant emittance with electric field and with beam current is consistent with theoretical predictions. A few applications of high-gradient acceleration are discussed.
Compton scattering of laser light by an electron beam at large angles, in particular at 90°, produces coherent hard radiation if the density of the electron beam is high enough. In this case, the intensity of the scattered radiation is greatly enhanced in a small cone around the forward direction of propagation of the electron beam. As an example, the production of 1-KeV coherent X rays is discussed.
Coherent X rays can be produced by Compton scattering of laser light on a relativistic electron beam, whose current is periodically modulated by the same laser radiation in a suitable miniundulator. If electron and laser photon energy are properly matched, the modulated electron beam acts as a moving diffraction grating and the X rays show a high degree of coherence. A practical implementation of this scheme is shown.
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