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To assess sociodemographic, nutritional and health conditions associated with vitamin D sufficiency among young Brazilian children living at different latitudes.
Cross-sectional analysis with a four-level model of inflammation to correct micronutrient concentrations. Prevalence ratios (PR; 95 % CI) were estimated for factors associated with vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/l), adjusting for child’s sex, age, skin colour, stunting and vitamin A+D supplementation.
Primary health-care units in four Brazilian cities located at lower (7°59′26·9016″S and 9°58′31·3864″S) and higher latitudes (16°41′12·7752″S and 30°2′4·7292″S).
In total 468 children aged 11–15 months were included in the analysis.
Only 31·8 % of children were vitamin D sufficient (concentration <30 nmol/l and <50 nmol/l among 32·9 and 68·2 %, respectively). Living at higher latitudes was associated with reduced prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency compared with lower latitudes (PR = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·85). Maternal education ≥9 years positively influenced a sufficient vitamin D status in children. After correction for inflammatory status, each increase of 1 µmol/l in vitamin A concentration was associated with a 1·38-fold higher prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency (95 % CI 1·18, 1·61). Progressive decline in the prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency was associated with marginal and deficient status of vitamin A (Ptrend = 0·001).
Lower latitude, higher maternal education and vitamin A concentration were positively associated with vitamin D sufficiency in young Brazilian children. These findings are relevant for planning public health strategies for improving vitamin D status starting in early infancy.
We present a sufficient and necessary condition for a function module space
to have the approximate hyperplane series property (AHSP). As a consequence, we have that the space
of bounded and continuous
-valued mappings defined on the locally compact Hausdorff space
has AHSP if and only if
This article builds on a legal institutionalist approach to assess market-based regulatory change in British television production over the last three decades. It explores how formal rules governing television production constitute market relations, and whether these rules are likely to be evaded by television producers and commissioners in a context where contracting depends heavily on social norms of cooperation, reciprocity and flexibility. Using qualitative data, this article suggests that changes in law and terms of trade intended to promote a market in television production have not had a straightforward or linear effect: compulsory independent production quotas and licensing models of terms of trade have redrawn organizational boundaries in unexpected ways, disturbed the public service remit and engendered new financial flows. Formal rules were nonetheless central to the trajectory of the television production industry, as they were a constitutive element of changes in the power structure of the sector towards producers’ interests.
We present an infinite-dimensional version of Cartan's theorem concerning the existence of a holomorphic inverse of a given holomorphic self-map of a bounded convex open subset of a dual Banach space. No separability is assumed, contrary to previous analogous results. The main assumption is that the derivative operator is power bounded, and which we, in turn, show to be diagonalizable in some cases, like the separable Hilbert space.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent and often debilitating condition with a vast impact on modern societies worldwide. Although it interferes significantly with functioning, MDD is frequently unresponsive to conventional treatment approaches and pharmacotherapy failure has been reported in approximately one third of patients. Current knowledge of the exact underlying disease mechanisms is insufficient, and may thus largely contribute to such therapeutic limitations. Optogenetics, a novel study field employing the expression of genetically-encodable light-sensitive proteins in specific cell types, circumvents the limitations of other forms of neuromodulation and enables temporally precise, bidirectional control of cellular activity in well-defined neuronal populations. This strategy has been used successfully to dissect neural pathways and circuitries involved in complex mental diseases such as MDD.
A systematic literature search was conducted using the terms “Optogenetics”, “Depression” and “Major depressive disorder” on the databases MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, Pubmed and BIREME. Inclusion criteria were adopted: articles published in the English language from 1971 (description of bacteriorhodopsin as a light-activated regulator of transmembrane ion flow) to 2017 and articles based on experimental studies were selected.
By using highly validated animal models based on the exposure of phenotypically susceptible rodents to different forms of chronic stress, researchers have been able to reproduce the hallmark symptoms of Depression as well as the histopathological abnormalities found in human brain specimens post-mortem. Several brain regions and neuron populations involved in MDD have been identified by use of a variety of molecular resources including viral vectors, genetically engineered animals, multiple promoters and bacterial opsins. Important areas of dysfunction underlying depression including the medial prefrontal cortex, the ventral tegmental area, the nucleus accumbens, the hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala have been investigated by using optogenetic neuromodulation, yielding new insights into the pathological processes underlying MDD. Researchers have been able to pinpoint affected circuitries and employ time-precise light modulation to successfully revert symptoms of MDD, restoring normal function. It is important to highlight that although promising, studies using optogenetics are controversial, largely due to the variable set tools, models and tests employed in research.
Light modulation using optogenetics has greatly aided to establish accurate models to unveil the neurobiological basis of Depression. Further research will continue to help build more complete pathophysiological constructs and pave the way for new treatment strategies.
Determining the predictors of serum retinol at mid-pregnancy is relevant for planning interventions aimed at improving vitamin A status of pregnant women and their offspring. This prospective study assessed predictors of serum retinol at the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy. We enrolled 442 pregnant women living in the urban area of Cruzeiro do Sul, Western Brazilian Amazon. Demographic, socio-economic, environmental and clinical characteristics as well as obstetric history, anthropometric, dietary and biochemical data, including serum retinol, were gathered between 16 and 20 gestational weeks. Serum retinol also measured at the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy (approximately 28 gestational weeks) was the outcome of interest. Multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate associations with the outcome. Overall, the following variables explained serum retinol at the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy in the adjusted model (R2 = 11·1 %): seasonality (winter season – November to April; β=0·134; 95 % CI 0·063, 0·206), weekly consumption of Amazonian fruits (β=0·087; 95 % CI 0·012, 0·162) and retinol concentrations between 16 and 20 gestational weeks (β=0·045; 95 % CI 0·016, 0·074) were positively associated, whereas having a smoker in the house was negatively associated (β=–0·087; 95 % CI: –0·166, –0·009). Consumption of pro-vitamin A-rich fruits by pregnant women should be encouraged. Passive smoking may play a role in decreasing vitamin A status as a proxy of smoking exposure during pregnancy.
One key aspect of data-centric applications is the manipulation of data stored in persistent repositories, which is moving fast from querying a centralized relational database to the ad-hoc combination of constellations of data sources. The extension of general purpose languages with query operations is increasingly popular, as a tool to improve reasoning and optimizing capabilities of interpreters and compilers. However, not much is being done to integrate and orchestrate different and separate sources of data. We present a data manipulation language that abstracts the nature and location of data-sources. We define its semantics and a type directed query localization mechanism to be used in development tools for heterogeneous environments to efficiently compile them into native queries. We introduce a localization procedure based on rewriting of query expressions that is confluent, terminating and provides the maximum mapping between site capabilities and the structure of the query. We provide formal type safety results that support the sound distribution of query fragments over remote sites. Our approach is also suitable for an interactive query construction environment by rich user interfaces that provide immediate feedback on data manipulation operations. This approach is currently the base for the data layer of a development platform for mobile and web applications.
In Portugal there is an increasing interest in animal welfare studies directed mainly to the improvement of the housing systems. It is recognised that housing is an important factor that affect the behaviour, the production and the health of dairy cattle (Bowell et al., 2003). However, in Portugal few data on the welfare of dairy cattle are available. Therefore this study aimed to determine some housing, health and other welfare indicators in dairy farms in Northwest of Portugal.
In Portugal consumers prefer low weight carcasses from kids. Some studies on carcass and meat characteristics were conducted with this type of carcasses (Santos et al., 2007). However, there is little information on the effect of increasing the live weight at slaughter by supplementing the diets fed to kids with concentrate in order to maximize meat production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet, sex and degree of maturity of kids from Serrana breed on carcass composition and in muscle chemical composition.
In ruminant feeding, the prediction of metabolizable protein requires accurate estimates of feed protein degradation in the rumen. Some common feed protein sources have a high concentration of neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (N-NDF) whose degradation may be dependent on neutral detergent fibre (NDF) degradation and, consequently, on rumen cellulolytic activity. This may lead to an underestimation of the undegraded protein that reaches the small intestine, particularly when animals are fed high starch diets. The objective of this study was to verify if there is a relationship between the ruminal degradability of the NDF and N-NDF of eight feed supplements currently used in ruminant feeding with the in sacco technique.
The interaction between man-animal has a great impact on farm animal welfare and it constitutes an area of dynamic research. Typically the goal this kind of studies is to reach good management practices with lower costs and providing a better welfare to the animals. To evaluate the interaction man-animal many behavioural tests have been developed and applied to different animal species (Pajor et al., 2003; Lansade et al., 2004; Tallet et al., 2006). These tests are used to evaluate relationship between farm animals and their stockperson and how it affects the animal behaviour. The objective of this study is to compare the lamb behaviours of activity and vocalization of two breeds -Île-de-France (IF) and Churra da Terra Quente (CTQ) in a man-animal standard test.
It is a general believe that the local sheep breed Churra da Terra Quente (CTQ), reared in the Northeast of Portugal is well adapted to the conditions of its production system. However, there are large gaps on our knowledge to allow understanding of such claimed adaptation. Several researchers have found differences in digestibility between sheep breeds (e.g. Givens and Moss, 1994; López et al., 2001), suggesting that those fed natural resources can have an improved ability to digest fibre. This experiment was designed to compare digestibility coefficients of a high– and a low–roughage diet measured on sheep from CTQ and Ile-de-France (IF) breeds at the same degree of maturity.
In Northeast of Portugal sheep is reared under extensive systems. These systems frequently involve expressive body composition changes due to the storing and mobilization of body reserves, mainly fat. Body condition score (BCS) is the most common way to assess these reserves and the nutritional status of ewes. However due to the subjective nature of BCS, their quality has been questioned and other alternatives has been studied. For cattle there are some studies that use the real time ultrasonography (RTU) to evaluate the BCS (Schwager-Suter et al., 2000; Broring et al., 2003), but this approach was not tested in ewes. Therefore the aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between the BCS and ultrasound subcutaneous fat (SF) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (LM) measurements.
Information on starch degradation is required to promote a more efficient use of energy and protein in dairy cow diets. Several in vitro and in situ methods have been proposed to estimate starch degradability. However, they are not suitable for application in routine analysis as they often require the use of cannulated animals. The objective of this study was to determine starch degradation of cereal grains using a method based on boiling extraction for 30 minutes with αamylase solution. The starch degradation after incubation in sacco for 6 and 24 h was used to evaluate the new method proposed.
Beef cattle production based in tropical pasture has a period of low daily weight gains during dry seasons, because the lowest quality and quantity pastures in this period. This study evaluated the effects of protein supplementation in animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore cattle on tropical pasture.
Leibovich et al. claim that number representations are non-existent early in life and that the associations between number and continuous magnitudes reside in stimulus confounds. We challenge both claims – positing, instead, that number is represented independently of continuous magnitudes already in infancy, but is nonetheless more deeply connected to other magnitudes through adulthood than acknowledged by the “sense of magnitude” theory.
The exposure of oocytes to heat stress during the maturation process results in harmful effects to their internal organelles, low fertilization capability and higher embryonic losses. In the present experiment the effect of heat shock (HS) during the maturation process was assessed. In Assay 1, oocytes from winter (December–March; n = 100) and summer (June–September; n = 100) months were collected and matured to analyse their HS tolerance. Total RNA was extracted from matured oocytes and cDNA synthesis was performed, followed by qPCR for selected genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1, HSPA14), compared with two reference genes (GAPDH and SDHA). In Assay 2, oocytes collected during the winter were subjected to kinetic HS by stressing them at 39.5°C for 6, 12, 18 or 24 h and were afterwards matured at control temperature (38.5°C), and subsequently subjected to the previously described gene analysis procedure. Results of Assay 1 show that summer-collected oocytes exhibited lower maturation rate than winter-collected oocytes, which may be due to the down-regulation of the HSPA 14 gene. Assay 2 showed that 6 h of HS had no effect on gene regulation. CDH1 and DNMT1 up-regulation was observed starting at 12 h, which may represent the effect of heat shock on oocyte development.