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Portion size images are advantageous in dietary assessment. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate new culturally specific image-series for portion size estimation to be used in a new Norwegian version of a British web-based dietary assessment tool (myfood24). Twenty-three image-series of different foods, each containing seven portion size images, were created and validated in a group of adults (n 41, 58 % female) aged 19–44 (median 23), out of which 63 % had higher (tertiary) education. The participants compared 46 portions of pre-weighed foods to the portion size images (1886 comparisons in total). Portion size estimations were either classified as correct, adjacent or misclassified. The weight discrepancy in percentage between the chosen and the correct portion size image was also calculated. Mann–Whitney U tests were used to explore if portion size estimation accuracy differed across sample characteristics, or if it depended on how the foods were presented. For thirty-eight of the forty-six presented food items, the participants selected the correct or adjacent portion size image 98 % on average. The remaining eight food items were on average misclassified by 27 % of the participants. Overall, a mean weight discrepancy of 2⋅5 % was observed between the chosen and the correct portion size images. Females estimated portion size more accurately than males (P = 0⋅019). No other significant differences in estimation accuracy were observed. In conclusion, the new image-series performed satisfactorily, except for the image-series depicting bread, caviar spread and marzipan cake, which will be altered. The present study demonstrates the importance of validating portion size estimation tools.
Eucalyptus species are grown for fiber, fuel, and other uses on more than 17.8 million ha worldwide, yet some species are considered invasive and may have adverse environmental or social impacts outside their native range. Aminocyclopyrachlor (AMCP) and standard applications of imazapyr and triclopyr herbicides were compared for eucalyptus control using a basal stem application method. At 6 and 12 mo after treatment (MAT), basal stem applications using 5% (vol/vol) AMCP (120 g ae L−1) in methylated soybean oil (MSO) resulted in 97% to 99% eucalyptus crown reduction and generally provided greater control across all diameter classes than standard treatments of 28% imazapyr (240 g ae L−1) or 75% triclopyr ester (480 g ae L−1). AMCP at 5% was as effective as 40% vol/vol. Increases in stem live height at 24 MAT suggest that the effect of triclopyr ester basal stem treatment may be impermanent. AMCP treated trees did not have regrowth by 24 MAT.
Rudolph Lorentz, Science Program, Texas A…M University at Qatar, Doha, Qatar,
Salvatore Tringali, Institute for Mathematics and Scientific Computing, University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Heinrichstr. 36, 8010 Graz, Austria,
Catherine H. Yan, Department of Mathematics, Texas A…M University, College Station TX 77845, USA
To assess the potential invasiveness of common eucalyptus species planted for pulpwood, mulch wood or bioenergy crops, field surveys of eucalyptus seedling recruitment were conducted in north and central Florida locations within seed bearing eucalyptus stands and in the proximate plant communities where seed dispersal may occur. Plant communities included non-grazed pasture, intensively site-prepared forestland, abandoned forest road and upland mixed pine- hardwood forest. No eucalyptus seedlings were found in any of the 310 1-m2 survey plots across the two locations. Second, seed addition studies were conducted to determine the relative potential for seedling emergence and survival among Eucalyptus amplifolia, E. camaldulensis and E. grandis added into plots at two seed densities, under disturbed and nondisturbed conditions, in the understory of the eucalyptus stands and in each of the aforementioned proximate plant communities. Overall, the probability of emergence of added seed was very low (P = 0.0 to 0.0032), and seed density effects were not significant. Emergence was significantly greater in disturbed conditions compared to nondisturbed conditions for seedlings originating from natural seed rain from the eucalyptus canopy in central Florida. The amount of time that seedlings survived was greater for E. camaldulensis compared to the other species but no seedlings survived more than 13 wk. These data indicate that under specific favorable conditions, eucalyptus seedlings may establish within or proximate to planted stands, but the overall level of invasiveness demonstrated by E. amplifolia and E. grandis is low for north or central Florida. The demonstrated role of disturbance in facilitating eucalyptus seedling recruitment suggests that a stable perennial plant community (native grasses) should be established instead of bare soil buffer zones to mitigate spread.
This paper focuses on how the human body, and the dead body in particular, was used to create social categories and identities in prehistoric Cyprus. Specifically, it explores how a particular condition, such as death, was integrated into social processes, and how the treatment of dead bodies both created and reinforced social categories and identities. The material the paper focuses on is the mortuary evidence from Chalcolithic Cyprus (3800–2300 BC). In particular, it argues that the extensive, intentional manipulation of dead bodies and human remains visible in Cypriot Chalcolithic cemeteries was aimed at integrating the individual to communal, collective wholes on the occasion of death and during the time period that followed.
The Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853–1928) was educated at the University of Leiden, where he later became a Professor of Theoretical Physics. A leading figure in his field, he established the basic mathematical principles that were later used by Albert Einstein for his theory of relativity. Lorentz and his colleague Pieter Zeeman won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1902 for their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena (the Zeeman effect). In 1905 Lorentz was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, which awarded him the Rumford and Copley Medals. Contributing to the discussion of the theory of a luminiferous ether - soon to be superseded by special relativity - this work, first published in 1895, looks at electromagnetic phenomena (the propagation of light) in relation to moving bodies and optics.
Background. The frequency and clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging correlates of apathy in patients who have had a stroke are inadequately defined.
Method. A total of 167 consecutive patients admitted to the stroke units of two university hospitals after an ischaemic stroke and 109 controls received extensive medical, psychiatric and neuropsychological assessments; a subset received a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The groups were matched for sex and age. Patients were assessed 3–6 months after their stroke. The sample for this study comprised 135 patients and 92 controls who completed the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES).
Results. Apathy was present in 26·7% of stroke patients compared to 5·4% of controls. Apathetic stroke patients were older, more functionally dependent and had lower Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores than those without apathy. Apathy was not associated with risk factors for cerebrovascular disease or stroke severity. There was a weak but significant correlation between apathy and self-reported depression but not with clinician-rated depression. Neuropsychologically, after correction for age, premorbid intelligence (IQ) and depression, apathy was associated with reduced attention and speed of information processing. On neuroimaging there were trends for associations of apathy with the extent of hyperintensities in the right hemisphere and right fronto-subcortical circuit, but not with total stroke volume or number of strokes.
Conclusions. Apathy is common following a cerebrovascular event. Presence of apathy may be related to older age and right fronto-subcortical pathway pathology, rather than stroke severity. It is associated with functional impairment and cognitive deficits.