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First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
The Emerald project's focus is on how to strengthen mental health systems in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda). This was done by generating evidence and capacity to enhance health system performance in delivering mental healthcare.
A common problem in scaling-up interventions and strengthening mental health programmes in LMICs is how to transfer research evidence, such as the data collected in the Emerald project, into practice.
To describe how core elements of Emerald were implemented and aligned with the ultimate goal of strengthening mental health systems, as well as their short-term impact on practices, policies and programmes in the six partner countries.
We focused on the involvement of policy planners, managers, patients and carers.
Over 5 years of collaboration, the Emerald consortium has provided evidence and tools for the improvement of mental healthcare in the six LMICs involved in the project. We found that the knowledge transfer efforts had an impact on mental health service delivery and policy planning at the sites and countries involved in the project.
This approach may be valid beyond the mental health context, and may be effective for any initiative that aims at implementing evidence-based health policies for health system strengthening.
Ceramic–metal composites are an important group of materials that have gained interest recently because of their peculiar properties. There have been numerous studies on the reinforcement of alumina through the incorporation of various ductile metals in it. However, these studies have been limited to determining the effect of the addition of metals on the mechanical properties of ceramics, without determining the effect of these metal additions on other physical properties of the resulting composite. In this way, in agreement with the obtained results, we have that because of the conductive nature of metals, there is a considerable decrease in the electrical resistivity of alumina, mainly when copper is added to it. However, in terms of optical performance, alumina matrix composites showed significant changes in absorbance in the visible spectra. The addition of iron, titanium, and yttrium enhanced the absorbance of alumina, whereas manganese addition significantly decreased the optical absorption.
The main aim of this study was to confirm the relationship between executive performance and salivary alpha-amylase (SAA) activity in a sample of 64 healthy children (39 boys), and compare it to the association of SAA output and salivary flow rate (SFR). Executive functioning was assessed via fluency, trail-making, rings and inhibition tasks from the Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en Niños [Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children] (ENFEN), merged into an ENFEN total score. SAA activity, output, and SFR were measured at baseline, one minute before, and one minute after the end of a neuropsychological testing session. Our results confirmed a direct, linear and significant association between SAA activity and executive functioning, r(64) = .351, p < .05, and extended it to SAA output, r(64) =.431, p < .05. The mean level of SAA output was the best predictor of executive functioning (β = .431, p < .05) and explained 18.2 % of the variance in ENFEN total score. In sum, and compared to SAA activity, measuring SAA output may be a more precise and indirect marker to assess executive functioning in children.
Earlier activities on health technology assessment (HTA) started in Spain around 1984, with the creation of a National Advisory Board on HTA, and the development of national and regional HTA organizations in the early 1990s. In 2012, the Spanish Health Ministry established the Spanish Network for Health Technology Assessment of the National Health System (RedETS); funded at national level and including all public HTA organizations at national and regional levels. RedETSis focused on the assessment of nondrug health technologies to inform the revision (approval and funding or disinvestment) of the Benefit Portfolio of the Spanish NHS. In parallel with European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA), RedETS has been setting-up and sharing common procedures and methodological guidelines to ensure effective cooperation and mutual recognition of the scientific and technical production in HTA. The output of RedETS is fifty to sixty annual reports, including the production of full HTA reports, Clinical Practice Guidelines, methodological guidance reports, relative effectiveness assessments, tools to support shared decision making between patients and healthcare professionals, and monitoring studies. The HTA assessments requested by the Regional Health Authorities are the biggest component of the annual RedETS working plan. These assessment needs are identified according to a yearly process and prioritized by a Commission composed of representatives from all Spanish regions with the aid of the PRITEC tool. The objectives of this study are to report and update the normative and organizational state of HTA in Spain; describing noteworthy advances witnessed over the past 10 years, as well as discussing existing challenges.
Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) has been shown to be a valuable tool for the anatomo-electroclinic definition of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in some patients with medically refractory epilepsy considered for surgery. In Spain, many of those patients are not offered this diagnostic procedure. The objective of our health technology assessment (HTA) report was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of SEEG to define the EZ in patients with refractory epilepsy considered for surgery compared to no SEEG intervention (i.e. remaining with further antiepileptic drugs).
We undertook a systematic review with meta-analyses on the effectiveness and safety of SEEG. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a Markov model which simulates the costs and health outcomes of individuals for a lifetime horizon from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS). The effectiveness measure was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We ran extensive sensitivity analyses, including a probabilistic sensitivity analysis.
The EZ was found in 92 percent of patients who underwent SEEG, 72 percent were eligible for epilepsy surgery and 33 percent were free of seizures after surgery (47 percent of those who received surgery). Any complications related to insertion and monitoring of SEEG and the subsequent intervention occurred in 1.3 percent of patients. In the base case analysis, SEEG led to higher QALYs and healthcare costs with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of EUR 10,368 (USD 12,217) per QALY. The sensitivity analyses showed that the results of the study were robust.
SEEG is a cost-effective technology in patients with refractory epilepsy considered for surgery when compared to no SEEG intervention.
Earthquakes may lead to a reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders (RSSAD). On September 7, 19, and 23, 2017, Mexico was struck by many severe earthquakes. The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an increase in the number of consultations and RSSAD in a psychiatric emergency department in Mexico City after these earthquakes.
We studied retrospectively the diagnosis and triage assessment from a Mexican psychiatric emergency department database from September 1 to November 30, 2017, and analyzed RSSAD and the number of consultations after the earthquakes.
A total of 1,811 psychiatric emergency consultations were registered from the period of study. A total of 141 consultations represented RSSAD. There was a significant increase of RSSAD after the September 23, 2017, earthquake. The triage assessment revealed that the urgency of the consultations was higher immediately after the earthquakes.
Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, may trigger diverse RSSAD leading to increased emergency consultations, especially when those disasters are repetitive. Mental health professionals should be adequately trained and sensitized for possible acute disaster victims. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:686–690).
In this work, the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was analyzed by direct light with visible radiation (λ > 450 nm) of a dye solution in the presence of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) or silicon nanowires with copper nanoparticles (SiNWs-CuNPs). The SiNWs were synthesized by metal assisted etching from monocrystalline silicon wafers in aqueous HF / AgNO3 solution, and the CuNPs were deposited on the SiNWs via electroless. Discoloration with visible irradiation of aqueous methyl orange solution (C14H14N3NaOS) in the presence of SiNWs showed an efficiency of 71% after 120 min of illumination. The deposition of copper nanoparticles on the nanowires improves the efficiency of the photocatalytic reaction achieving 89% discoloration after 120 min exposure to visible light. The MO photocatalytic degradation with visible radiation in aqueous solution shows to be efficient in discoloration reaching up to 92% in a time of 150 min in the presence of SiNWs-CuNPs.
Research on the Neolithic monuments and dwellings of Atlantic Europe has shown that plays of light and colour were tools for the social and symbolic construction of the world. The integration of the architectures into the surrounding landscape and the incorporation of the surrounding landscape into the architectures were an essential part of this logic. In this context, recent research in the megalithic passage grave of Dombate has evidenced an unusual physical manifestation of sunlight, which interacts with the decorated back stone. The light-and-shadow phenomenon occurs at sunrise during the period of winter solstice. In this paper we discuss the particulars of this phenomenon and we argue that sunlight when it penetrates the passage and chamber at sunrise on these dates may have dictated how the art was located and applied to the structural stone. Such differentiation seems to have had important cultural and ritual significance and encoded/embedded meaning for the tomb builders and may have implications for the consideration of the symbolic dimension of similar architectures in Atlantic Europe.
The Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) is widely validated and used as a screening tool for bipolar disorder. However, there is no BSDS validated version for its use in Mexican population. The aim of the present study was to examine the BSDS diagnostic capacity, and to evaluate its criterion validity and internal consistency for its use in Mexican psychiatric patients. We recruited 200 patients who attended the psychiatric outpatient service of a Mental Health Specialized Hospital and were screened for bipolar disorder using BSDS. To determine the cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity, we used the SCID–I diagnosis as the gold standard in 100 participants with bipolar disorder and 100 with major depression. Internal consistency according to Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was .81. The area under ROC curve for the overall discriminability of BSDS against the criterion of SCID–I for bipolar disorder was .90. Finally, a cut-off value of 12 reached the most stable sensitivity and specificity, with predictive powers higher than .80. In conclusion, the properties of the scale including internal consistency, sensitivity and specificity, make of BSDS a valuable instrument for screening bipolar disorder in Mexican psychiatric population.
Chagas disease, whose aetiological agent is the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, mainly occurs in Latin America. In order to know the epidemiology and the geographical distribution of this disease in Mexico, the present work analyses the national surveillance data (10 years) for Chagas disease issued by the General Directorate of Epidemiology (GDE). An ecological analysis of Chagas disease (2007–2016) was performed in the annual reports issued by the GDE in Mexico. The cases and incidence were classified by year, state, age group, gender and seasons. A national distribution map showing Chagas disease incidence was generated. An increase of new cases was identified throughout the country (rates from 0.37 to 0.81 per 100 000 inhabitants). Of the total cases accumulated (7388), the major cases were attributed to the states of Veracruz, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Oaxaca, Morelos and Yucatán. The analysis per age groups and gender revealed that, in most age groups, the incidence was higher in the male population. The most number of cases was identified in spring and summer; a direct relationship between the environmental temperature increase and the number of new cases was identified. The analysis showed that the rate of Chagas disease increased presumably due to state programmes; the search for new cases has expanded and we speculate that the disease is associated with occupational activities. These results summarise and recall how important it is to implement the monitoring of Chagas disease mainly in south states of the Mexican Republic in order to implement strategies to control this disease.
The purpose of this work is to study the effect of SiO2- and Al2O3-NPs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld bead (WB) created by a process of Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) between two AISI 1025 steel plates. Also it was necessary consider the chemical compositions of slags and burned fluxes, in order to determine the elements that are deposited and contribute in the final microstructure of WB. The welding materials to form each WB were a M12K electrode, a commercial fused flux (CFF) and AISI 1025 steel plates bevelled at 45°. In addition SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs an ethylic alcohol mixture were applied directly to the beveled surfaces, just before the SAW process, which was carried out according to the AWS A5.17 norm. Microstructural and phase changes at the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Welding Zone (WZ) were analysed by metallographic Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopies. The mechanical properties of the WBs were determined through Tensile, Charpy impact and Vickers Hardness tests. By means of metallography of WBs, it was determined that the length of the AF needles increases in 113 and 183 % when adding SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs, respectively. Related to the mechanical properties of the WB, the tensile and yield strength decreases with both additions, SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs. The microhardness at WZ was found to decrease by adding such oxide-NPs. Moreover, the impact energy absorbed by the WBs increases approximately by 83 or 57% due to SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs addition, respectively.
A thermoset polymer can be used for specific applications by creating a unique chemical composition that is designed for certain characteristic environments. To know the behavior of a thermoset polymer, it is necessary to thermally analyze its behavior during the curing process, as well as its mechanical behavior under certain loads that are applied in its field of application. In this study, the epoxy resin X was created at high temperatures, which there was no record of its thermal or mechanical behavior; the resin was analyzed to determine if it was possible to make a reduction in its curing cycle that was at temperature of 425° F with a time of 24 hours. As a result, through thermal analysis such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), rheometry, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA); as well as mechanical analysis, such as stress, hardness and planar cutting tests; it was possible to reduce the curing cycle of resin X, which is used in aerospace generators, from 24 hours at 425 ° F to 8 hours at 425 ° F. In the same way, this reduction of the cure cycle was verified by means of a qualification of a product that involved the reduction of the curing cycle of the epoxy resin obtaining very similar results to the original ones, verifying that the change of curing in the epoxy resin did not affected the functioning of the component. This methodology can be used and applied for the study of thermoset polymers that are used in several industries such as aerospace, automotive, among others.
Formaldehyde is a precursor of sugars, which are compounds essential in all forms of life and a necessary molecule for prebiotic processes. This work focuses on evaluating the stability of formaldehyde exposed to a high radiation field simulating prebiotic conditions on primitive Earth, such as the ocean or shallow waters. Formaldehyde may have been formed from reactions in the atmosphere and from rainout processes reached water bodies. In our experiments, we employed γ radiation and found that formaldehyde was labile towards radiation and decomposed even at low irradiation doses due to the fact that aldehyde/hydrate groups present in formaldehyde structure are very reactive under irradiation. However, after exposing this molecule to several doses of irradiation, we detected the formation of formic acid and glycolaldehyde – both of which are of prebiotic interest. We also observed formaldehyde regeneration by one of its radiolytic products: formic acid.
Newly discovered archaeological sites in the Uribe Kosta region of northern Spain are illuminating the establishment of late prehistoric coastal farming settlements and specialised tool-production activities.
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the development of premature children, including attachment, child psychological adjustment and parental variables. 130 children < 1,500 g or < 32 weeks at birth from two public hospitals, assessed at two years corrected age, together with their parents. Parental socio-demographic data was collected. Infant development, attachment and child psychological adjustment were evaluated, as was parental stress. The percentage of preterm children with developmental delays ranged from 5% to 21%. Girls tend to show higher levels of development than boys with effect sizes ranging from small, η2p = .02, to medium, η2p = .07. Secure attachment was the most frequent pattern in the sample. No significant differences, p < .05, between preterm children and the normative population were found on children´s behavioral problems and maternal stress levels. Despite the fact prematurity is considered to be a risk factor for a child´s development, a significant proportion of these children do not show problems in terms of developmental levels, attachment pattern and maternal stress. However, socio-emotional and affective domains, as well as psychological support programs for parenthood, should be followed up from a multidisciplinary perspective.
During the INDEMARES/CHICA 0610, 0211 and 0412 expeditions, carried out in the northern Spanish sector of the Gulf of Cádiz (Spain), samples were collected with a box-corer in 11 mud volcanoes and their adjacent bottoms. Chemoautotrophic communities were found in nine mud volcanoes. Among Decapoda, a rare eucalliacid, belonging to the genus Calliax and related to the Mediterranean infralittoral species C. lobata (de Gaillande and Lagardère 1966), was present in three of them. Data on its morphology, biogeographic distribution, vertical distribution within the burrows, sediment composition, pH and redox potential values (each in 5 cm intervals) are given; information on the chemoautotrophic communities associated with this species are also provided.