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Historically, it is known that women had an important role in computing. History lessons on computer science narrate that women were some of the first software engineers until technology and practices changed the role of women as programmers.
Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a worldwide neglected disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode and responsible for various complications and neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the use of specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY) produced by laying hens immunized with a hydrophobic fraction of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (hFTc) in NCC diagnosis. Egg yolk IgY antibodies were fractionated, purified and characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the production kinetics and avidity maturation of anti-hFTc IgY antibodies throughout the IgY obtention process. Antigen recognition tests were carried out by Western blotting and immunofluorescence antibody test using purified and specific anti-hFTc IgY antibodies for detection of parasitic antigens of T. crassiceps and T. solium metacestodes. Sandwich ELISA was performed to detect circulating immune complexes formed by IgG and parasitic antigens in human sera. The results showed high diagnostic values (93.2% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity) for immune complexes detection in human sera with confirmed NCC. In conclusion, specific IgY antibodies produced from immunized hens with hFTc antigens were efficient to detect T. solium immune complexes in human sera, being an innovative and potential tool for NCC immunodiagnosis.
The aim of the current study was to evaluate energy intake misreporting prevalence, its associated factors and its effects on nutrient intake, in the Portuguese population aged from 18 to 84 years.
Adults participants from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, IAN-AF, 2015–2016, who provided two complete 24 h dietary recall and complete covariate information.
Under, plausible and over-reporters were identified according to the Goldberg method. Total misreporting prevalence was 29·9 %, being 28·5 % of under-reporting and 1·4 % of over-reporting. The current study found higher odds of being classified as an under-reporter especially in participants with higher BMI and in those who self-reported health perception status as non-favourable. Energy intake estimation increases by 853.5 kJ/d (204 kcal/d) when misreporters are excluded, and the same tendency is observed for macro and micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the prevalence of inadequacy for protein intake decreases by about 5 % when considering plausible reporters.
The exclusion of misreporters has a small impact on the crude energy and nutrient estimates as well as on assessing the contribution of nutrients to total energy intake. However, a moderate impact was observed in the estimation of nutrient inadequacy prevalence.
Pregnant individuals who overeat are more likely to predispose their fetus to the development of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Physical training is a prevention and treatment interventional strategy that could treat these disorders, since it improves metabolism and body composition. This study assessed the protective effect of physical exercise against possible metabolic changes in generations F1 and F2, whose mothers were subjected to a high-sugar/high-fat (HS/HF) diet. Wistar rats belonging to generation F0 were distributed into four groups (n = 10): sedentary control (CSed), exercised control (CExe), sedentary HS/HF diet (DHSed) and exercised HS/HF diet (DHExe). From 21 to 120 days of age, maintained during pregnancy and lactation period, CSed/CExe animals received standard feed and DHSed/DHExe animals a HS/HF diet. Animals from the CExe/DHExe underwent physical training from 21 to 120 days of age. Male and female F1 and F2 received a normocaloric feed and did not perform any physical training, categorized into four groups (n = 10) according to the maternal group to which they belonged to. An increase in body weight, adiposity and glucose, and a change in lipid profile in F0 were observed, while exercise reduced the biochemical parameters comparing DHSed with DHExe. Maternal exercise had an effect on future generations, reducing adiposity, glucose and triglyceride concentrations, and preventing deleterious effects on glucose tolerance. Maternal overeating increased health risks both for mother and offspring, demonstrating that an HS/HF diet intake promotes metabolic alterations in the offspring. Importantly, the physical training performed by F0 proved to be protective against such effects.
To assess total sugar (TS), added sugar (AS) and free sugar (FS) intakes, dietary sources, adherence to recommendations and determinants of consumption, in a Portuguese national sample.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary assessment was obtained by two food diaries in children aged <10 years and two non-consecutive 24 h recalls for other age groups. TS, AS and FS intakes were estimated by using SPADE software. TS content in food was estimated at the ingredient level. AS content in food was assessed through a systematic methodology and FS was based on the WHO definition.
National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (IAN-AF 2015–2016), Portugal.
Representative sample from the Portuguese population, aged from 3 months to 84 years (n 5811).
Mean daily intake and contribution to total energy intake (E%) were 84·3 g/d (18·5 E%) for TS, 32·1 g/d (6·8 E%) for AS and 35·3 g/d (7·5 E%) for FS. Of the population, 76 % adhered to the FS recommendation (FS < 10 E%). The lowest adherence was in children (51·6 %) and adolescents (51·3 %). The main dietary source of TS was fruit across all ages, except in adolescents which was soft drinks. In children, the main dietary sources of FS were yoghurts and sweets, soft drinks in adolescents and table sugar in adults/elderly. FS intake was lower in children with more educated parents and in adults who practised physical activity regularly, and higher among smokers.
Interventions ought to be planned towards decreasing intakes of added and free sugars considering population-specific characteristics.
Human ascariasis is a neglected tropical disease of great relevance to public health and is considered the most frequent helminthiasis in poor regions. Accurately diagnosing this parasite has been challenging due to limitations of current diagnostic methods. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) technology is a very effective alternative for the production of highly specific and profitable antibodies. This study aimed to produce and apply anti-Ascaris suum IgY antibodies in the immunodiagnosis of human ascariasis. Five immunizations comprising total saline extract from A. suum adult life forms were given at 14-day intervals to Gallus gallus domesticus hens of the Isa Brown line. Eggs and blood samples were collected weekly and fortnightly, respectively, to monitor the production of antibodies. The specificity of antibodies was confirmed by dot-blot, kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), avidity ELISA, immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests. The application for disease diagnosis was performed through the detection of immune complexes in human serum samples by sandwich ELISA. Peaks of IgY anti-A. suum production occurred at weeks 6 and 8. IgY showed high avidity levels after the second dose of immunization, ranging from 64% to 93%, with a mean avidity index of 78.30%. Purified IgY recognized 12 bands of proteins from A. suum saline extract. Eggs, the uterine portion and cuticles of A. suum female adult are reactive in immunofluorescence. The detection of immune complexes showed diagnostic values of 80% sensitivity and 90% specificity. In conclusion, specific IgY have been shown to be a potential immunodiagnostic tool with promising future applications in human ascariasis.
We analysed the impact of the national general truck drivers’ strike on the availability, variety and price of foods sold by a food supply centre.
Descriptive study using secondary data to examine the percentage change in the mean price of fruits, vegetables and eggs before, during and after the strike. The strike in Brazil lasted 10 d from 21 to 30 May 2018. The drivers were on strike in order to make diesel oil tax-free and to obtain better working conditions.
The food supply centre, named CEASA-Minas Grande BH, was located in the metropolitan area of a Brazilian city.
We examined twenty types of foods.
After 10 d, there was a ~30 % reduction in the availability of all types of foods and prices increased. Foods with the highest price increases included cabbage (233·3 %), potatoes (220·0 %), papaya (160·0 %) and oranges (78·6 %). At the end of the strike, we observed reductions in the price of eggs, fruits, vegetables, roots and tubers; however, some foods remained more expensive than before the strike, including chayote (203·2 % higher), cucumber (66·7 % higher) and potatoes (60·0 % higher).
The general truck drivers’ strike was correlated with a reduction in the availability of food and, consequently, increases in price and possibly restrictions on access. The strike demonstrated the dependence of metropolises on road transportation and the conventional market. We speculate that initiatives aiming to shorten the food supply chain and promote food sovereignty and resilience of the supply circuits could be important.
The dietary inclusion of feed additives to improve the carcass characteristics of the final product is of great importance for the pork production chain. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the association of ractopamine (RAC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance traits of finishing pigs during the last 26 days prior to slaughter. In total, 810 commercial hybrid barrows were used. Animals were distributed among treatments according to a randomised block design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, with three RAC levels (0, 5 or 10 ppm) and three CLA levels (0, 0.3 or 0.6%). Pigs fed the diet with 5 ppm RAC had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.83 kg; P < 0.05) when compared with those fed 10 ppm RAC and the control diet (2.75 and 2.74 kg, respectively). Lower ADFI values (P < 0.01) were observed with the diets containing CLA compared with the control diet with no CLA (2.73 and 2.75 v. 2.85 kg/day, respectively). The average daily weight gain of pigs fed 5 and 10 ppm RAC was +148 and +173 g/dayhigher (P < 0.001), respectively, than those fed the control diet. Dietary RAC levels influenced (P < 0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR), which was reduced as RAC levels increased, with the pigs fed 10, 5 and 0 ppm RAC presenting FCR values of 2.57, 2.71 and 3.05, respectively. FCR also improved (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of 0.6% CLA relative to the control diet (2.70 v. 2.84, respectively). There was a significant interaction between CLA × RAC levels (P < 0.01) for final BW, loin eye area (LEA) (P < 0.05) and backfat thickness (BT) (P < 0.05). The treatments containing 10 ppm RAC + 0.6% or 0.3% CLA increased LEA and reduced BT. In conclusion, the level of 10 ppm inclusion of RAC increased the overall performance parameters of pigs and therefore improved production efficiency. The combined use of RAC and CLA promoted a lower feed conversion ratio as well as better quantitative carcass traits, as demonstrated by the higher LEA and lower BT. The dietary inclusion of CLA at 0.3% improved feed efficiency, however, without affecting LEA or BT yields.
To describe urinary tract infection (UTI) treatment among Veterans’ Affairs (VA) Community Living Centers (CLCs) nationally and to assess related trends in antibiotic use.
Setting and participants:
All UTI episodes treated from 2013 through 2017 among residents in 110 VA CLCs. UTI episodes required collection of a urine culture, antibiotic treatment, and a UTI diagnosis code. UTI episodes were stratified into culture-positive and culture-negative episodes.
Frequency and rate of antibiotic use were assessed for all UTI episodes overall and were stratified by culture-positive and culture-negative episodes. Joinpoint software was used for regression analyses of trends over time.
We identified 28,247 UTI episodes in 14,983 Veterans. The average age of Veterans was 75.7 years, and 95.9% were male. Approximately half of UTI episodes (45.7%) were culture positive and 25.7% were culture negative. Escherichia coli was recovered in 34.1% of culture-positive UTI episodes, followed by Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella spp, which were recovered in 24.5% and 17.4% of culture-positive UTI episodes, respectively. The rate of total antibiotic use in days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 bed days decreased by 10.1% per year (95% CI, −13.6% to −6.5%) and fluoroquinolone use (ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin) decreased by 14.5% per year (95% CI, −20.6% to −7.8%) among UTI episodes overall. Similar reductions in rates of total antibiotic use and fluoroquinolone use were observed among culture-positive UTI episodes and among culture-negative UTI episodes.
Over a 5-year period, antibiotic use for UTIs significantly decreased among VA CLCs, as did use of fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic stewardship efforts across VA CLCs should be applauded, and these efforts should continue.
Childhood is considered an important period for the development of healthy eating behaviours. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of early life factors and sociodemographic characteristics, including early diet quality, on diet quality at 7 years. The sample includes 5013 children evaluated at the ages of 4 and 7 years from the Portuguese birth cohort Generation XXI with complete information on FFQ. A healthy eating index was developed at both ages to assess adherence to the WHO’s dietary recommendations, including eight food groups. Consumption quartiles were obtained for each group at 4 years and assigned a score between 1 and 4. A higher score represents a higher adherence to a better diet (range: 8 to 32). The associations between early life factors and sociodemographic characteristics and the score of the healthy eating index at 7 years were evaluated through linear regression models. The healthy eating index had an average score of 21⋅4 ± 3⋅53 (range: 12 to 32) at 4 years and 20⋅3 ± 3⋅36 (range: 11 to 31) at 7 years. After adjustment for confounders, a positive association was found between the healthy eating index at 4 and 7 years (β = 0⋅384, 95 % CI 0⋅356, 0⋅441). Maternal years of education (β = 0⋅094, 95 % CI 0⋅071, 0⋅116) and dietary score (β = 0⋅182, 95 % CI 0⋅155, 0⋅209) were positively associated with increasing dietary quality from 4 to 7 years. A healthier diet at preschool age, higher maternal education and a healthier diet increase the likelihood of maintaining a high healthy eating index score at school age.
We introduced a pragmatic concept of on site droplet precautions instead of single room isolation for rural hospitals in a tiered network. A survey among healthcare workers revealed that this approach was considered comprehensive, safe, and acceptable. This concept could be an alternative for hospitals with few single rooms available for isolation.
Regeneration from seed affects species assembly in plant communities, and temperature is the most important environmental factor controlling the germination process. Thermal dependence of seed germination is thus associated with species occurrence in an ecosystem. Hence, we aimed to investigate the role of temperature on seed germination of ten tree species from the western Brazilian Amazon. Seeds were collected in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and set to germinate under constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C in germination chambers. We calculated germination capacity (G%), germination rate (GR50, reciprocal of germination time), and thermal parameters, such as cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirements. Most species had a large range of temperatures showing G% ≥80%, with optimal temperature varying from 20 to 40°C. Base temperature ranged from 6 to 12°C and ceiling temperatures were mainly >40°C. Astronium lecointei and Parkia nitida showed high germination capacity under temperatures of 35–40°C, while germination of Theobroma cacao dropped from 100% to zero under temperatures between 37 and 40°C. The climax species Cedrela fissilis had the slowest germination time (10 days) and highest thermal time requirement, while seeds of Enterolobium schomburgkii (a late-successional species) germinated within the first day of the experiment. Rapid recruitment of Amazon species could be favoured with treefall disturbance, which increases temperatures in the understory, but sharp limits might be found in the supra-optimal range of temperatures. Such patterns might indicate different regeneration strategies in the tropical rainforest, providing important information regarding seed germination among Amazon species.
Feed efficiency (FE) is one of the most important traits in pig production. However, it is difficult and costly to measure it, limiting the collection of large amount of data for an accurate selection for better FE. Therefore, the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with FE-related traits to be used in the genetic evaluation is of great interest of pig breeding programs for increasing the prediction accuracy and the genetic progress of these traits. The objective of this study was to identify SNPs significantly associated with FE-related traits: average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). We also aimed to identify potential candidate genes for these traits. Phenotypic information recorded on a population of 2386 three-way crossbreed pigs that were genotyped for 51 468 SNPs was used. We identified three loci of quantitative trait (QTL) regions associated with ADG and three QTL regions associated with ADFI; however, no significant association was found for FCR. A false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.005 was used as the threshold for declaring an association as significant. The QTL regions associated with ADG on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 1 were located between 177.01 and 185.47 Mb, which overlaps with the QTL regions for ADFI on SSC1 (173.26 and 185.47 Mb). The other QTL region for ADG was located on SSC12 (2.87 and 3.22 Mb). The most significant SNPs in these QTL regions explained up to 3.26% of the phenotypic variance of these traits. The non-identification of genomic regions associated with FCR can be explained by the complexity of this trait, which is a ratio between ADG and ADFI. Finally, the genes CDH19, CDH7, RNF152, MC4R, PMAIP1, FEM1B and GAA were the candidate genes found in the 1 Mb window around the QTL regions identified in this study. Among them, the MC4R gene (SSC1) has a well-known function related to ADG and ADFI. In this study, we identified three QTL regions for ADG (SSC1 and SSC12) and three for ADFI (SSC1). These regions were previously described in purebred pig populations; however, to our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm the relevance of these QTL regions in a crossbred pig population. The potential use of the SNPs and genes identified in this study in prediction models that combine genomic selection and marker-assisted selection should be evaluated for increasing the prediction accuracy of these traits in this population.
Early-life chronic exposure to environmental contaminants, such as bisphenol-A, particulate matter air pollution, organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceutical drugs, among others, may affect central tissues, such as the hypothalamus, and peripheral tissues, such as the endocrine pancreas, causing inflammation and apoptosis with severe implications to the metabolism. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept articulates events in developmental phases of life, such as intrauterine, lactation, and adolescence, to later-life metabolism and health. These developmental phases are more susceptible to environmental changes, such as those caused by environmental contaminants, which may predispose individuals to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and chronic noncommunicable diseases later in life. Alterations in the epigenome are explored as an underlying mechanism to the programming effects on metabolism, as the expression of key genes related with central and peripheral metabolic functions may be altered in response to environmental disturbances. Studies show that environmental contaminants may affect gene expressions in mammals, especially when exposed to during the developmental phases of life, leading to metabolic disorders in adulthood. In this review, we discuss the current obesity epidemics, the DOHaD concept, pollutants’ toxicology, environmental control, and the role of environmental contaminants in the central and peripheral programming of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Improving environmental monitoring may directly affect the quality of life of the population and help protect the future generations from metabolic diseases.
To evaluate daily eating frequency (main meals and snacks) in relation to weight status in children aged 3–9 years, representative of the Portuguese population.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary intake was estimated as the mean of two non-consecutive days of food diaries, followed by face-to-face interviews. Weight and height were measured by trained observers. Eating occasions (EO) were defined by the children’s caregiver; an EO was considered separate if the time of consumption was different from other EO and it provided at least 209 kJ (50 kcal). Main meals defined as ‘breakfast’, ‘lunch’ and ‘dinner’ could be selected only once per day. The remaining EO were considered snacks. The association between eating frequency and overweight/obesity was evaluated through logistic regressions weighted for the population distribution.
National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey of the Portuguese population, 2015–2016.
Portuguese children aged 3–9 years with complete dietary data and anthropometric measurements (n 517).
Overall, the number of daily EO ranged from 3·5 to 11, and on average children had 5·7 daily EO. After adjustment for child’s sex, age and total energy intake, and considering only plausible energy intake reporters, having < 3 snacks/d was positively associated with being overweight/obese (OR = 1·98; 95 % CI 1·00, 3·90), compared with having ≥ 3 snacks/d.
Lower daily frequency of EO was associated with increased odds of being overweight or obese in children. A higher eating frequency, maintaining the same energy intake, seems to contribute to a healthy body weight in children.
This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse the molluscan assemblages associated with a Halodule wrightii seagrass bed in a rarely studied area within a conservation unit in north-eastern Brazil. Seasonal and spatial changes in several seagrass meadow characteristics, including sediment, were evaluated to explain temporal and spatial variations in the molluscs found there. The molluscan community differed in its structure among periods and meadows, as well as in the composition of its infaunal and epifaunal assemblages. The results of this study indicated that molluscs are affected by the particular characteristics of a seagrass meadow, especially by its location in the intertidal zone, more than by the area of the meadow. Molluscs were also affected by other characteristics of the seagrass meadow, such as above-ground biomass and shoot density. Changes in all molluscan assemblages were also mediated by differences among months and seasons in this region of the western equatorial Atlantic, but not by seasonal changes of the meadow. The studied meadow was found to be one of the densest in Brazil, which has considerable importance to its associated fauna.
Childhood maltreatment is an important factor associated with adverse mental health outcomes including geriatric depression and the “big five” personality characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate a model where personality characteristics mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and geriatric depression.
In this cross-sectional study, elderly subjects from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Porto Alegre, Brazil (n = 260) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0 (MINI plus). We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate the mediation hypothesis.
The five personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness) were related to childhood maltreatment and depression. Mediation analysis revealed that neuroticism and extraversion are complete mediators, agreeableness and conscientiousness are partial mediators, and openness is not a mediator.
These ﬁndings support the hypothesis in which childhood maltreatment is associated with geriatric depression and mediated by personality factors. These results suggest that reducing the maladaptive personality trait in elderly people who suffered childhood maltreatment could prevent geriatric depression.