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Extensively revised and updated, this second edition provides, in an A-Z format, an analysis of the most important generalizations that have been made on the unidirectional change of grammatical forms and constructions. Based on the analysis of more than 1,000 languages, it reconstructs over 500 processes of grammatical change in the languages of the world, including East Asian languages such as Chinese, Korean and Japanese. Readers are provided with the tools to discover how lexical and grammatical meanings can be related to one another in a principled way, how such issues as polysemy, heterosemy, and transcategoriality are dealt with, and why certain linguistic forms have simultaneous lexical and grammatical functions. Definitions of lexical concepts are provided with examples from a broad variety of languages, and references to key relevant research literature. Linguists and other scholars will gain a better understanding of languages on a worldwide scale.
Cardiac trauma is a critical injury, with penetrating cardiothoracic injury accounting for up to a third of traumatic deaths.1–4 These injuries often involve the heart or great vessels and include traumatic insertion of a foreign body, including invasive iatrogenic injury.1–8 Blunt cardiac trauma occurs in a wide range of patients, with 8–71% of patients with cardiothoracic trauma demonstrating signs of cardiac injury.1,2,8 Blunt cardiac injury encompasses all types of injury associated with blunt thoracic trauma to the heart.8–13 Up to 20% of deaths from motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are due to this type of injury. Patients with thoracic great vessel injury due to penetrating injury have a high mortality rate (over 90% die at the scene),14,15 and blunt injury to the thoracic vessels is commonly due to motor vehicle accident.12,13,16,17 These injuries can result in chest, upper abdominal, back, arm/shoulder, or lower neck pain, as well as hemodynamic instability, nausea/vomiting, and shortness of breath.
Head trauma is a significant cause of death around the world, especially in patients 1–45 years old.1–5 Close to 80% of patients are managed in the emergency department (ED).1.2 Head injury not only causes initial primary injury, but it is associated with several secondary injuries.1–5
Hemorrhage is a leading cause of death in trauma, following head injury. Shock is defined by inadequate tissue perfusion with hemodynamic instability and organ dysfunction.1–10 In trauma, the most common cause of shock is due to acute hemorrhage. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) describes four classes of hemorrhage,1 but these are not relevant to real world practice, due to different injury types (blunt vs. penetrating), age (due to blunted physiologic responses in the elderly), comorbidities, and medication use (beta blockade reduces the chance of tachycardia in response to decreased blood pressure).6–14 Bradycardia may also be seen in hemorrhage, due to several causes including vagal stimulation and failure to mount a tachycardic response.13,14
According to the United States Eye Injury Registry, eye injury is the leading cause of monocular blindness, and there are approximately 2.4 million eye injuries occurring annually in the US, resulting in 500,000 years of lost eyesight annually.1 These injuries occur more often in males (>70%), and 95% of occupational injuries occur in males.2,3 This chapter will describe the approach to the patient with eye trauma in the emergency department (ED), including how to perform a detailed history and physical examination related to eye injuries, as well as covering the traumatic presentations in Table 9.1.
Knowledge of population structure and breed composition of a population can be advantageous for a number of reasons; these include designing optimal (cross)breeding strategies in order to maximise non-additive genetic effects, maintaining flockbook integrity by authenticating animals being registered and as a quality control measure in the genotyping process. The objectives of the present study were to 1) describe the population structure of 24 sheep breeds, 2) quantify the breed composition of both flockbook-recorded and crossbred animals using single nucleotide polymorphism BLUP (SNP-BLUP), and 3) quantify the accuracy of breed composition prediction from low-density genotype panels containing between 2000 and 6000 SNPs. In total, 9334 autosomal SNPs on 11 144 flockbook-recorded animals and 1172 crossbred animals were used. The population structure of all breeds was characterised by principal component analysis (PCA) as well as the pairwise breed fixation index (Fst). The total number of animals, all of which were purebred, included in the calibration population for SNP-BLUP was 2579 with the number of animals per breed ranging from 9 to 500. The remaining 9559 flockbook-recorded animals, composite breeds and crossbred animals represented the test population; three breeds were excluded from breed composition prediction. The breed composition predicted using SNP-BLUP with 9334 SNPs was considered the gold standard prediction. The pairwise breed Fst ranged from 0.040 (between the Irish Blackface and Scottish Blackface) to 0.282 (between the Border Leicester and Suffolk). Principal component analysis revealed that the Suffolk from Ireland and the Suffolk from New Zealand formed distinct, non-overlapping clusters. In contrast, the Texel from Ireland and that from New Zealand formed integrated, overlapping clusters. Composite animals such as the Belclare clustered close to its founder breeds (i.e., Finn, Galway, Lleyn and Texel). When all 9334 SNPs were used to predict breed composition, an animal that had a majority breed proportion predicted to be ≥0.90 was defined as purebred for the present study. As the panel density decreased, the predicted breed proportion threshold, used to identify animals as purebred, also decreased (≥0.85 with 6000 SNPs to ≥0.60 with 2000 SNPs). In all, results from the study suggest that breed composition for purebred and crossbred animals can be determined with SNP-BLUP using ≥5000 SNPs.
To promote the rights, well-being and development of the child, and for the benefit of families and the community, attachment should be a central focus of early childhood intervention (ECI) under the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS). ECI Key Workers have the opportunity to positively influence parent–child relationships and are encouraged to do so by the ECI national guidelines. This article identifies how elements of the NDIS design and implementation may be counterproductive to fostering attachment security in children. These elements can lead to delayed intervention; increased parental stress; reduced expertise of service providers; and financial disincentives for best practice in working with disadvantaged families. The article highlights the implications for children with a disability and their families in Australian society and identifies lessons for the design and implementation of social policy.
To explore the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Chinese adults aged 45–59 years.
Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis was used to identify the major dietary patterns. Logistic regression models were applied to clarify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of CKD.
The present study population was a part of the population-based Nutrition and Health Study performed in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, eastern China.
A total of 2437 eligible participants (45–59 years) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study from June 2015 to December 2016.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: ‘traditional southern Chinese’, ‘Western’ and ‘grains–vegetables’ patterns, collectively accounting for 25·6 % of variance in the diet. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the Western pattern had greater odds for CKD (OR = 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·81; P < 0·05) than those in the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of the grains–vegetables pattern, the highest quartile had lower odds for CKD (OR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·93; P < 0·05). In addition, there was no significant association between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and risk of CKD (P > 0·05).
Our results suggest that the Western pattern is associated with an increased risk, whereas the grains–vegetables pattern is associated with a reduced risk for CKD. These findings can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of CKD in a middle-aged Chinese population.
Architected materials play an essential role in achieving next-generation electrochemical systems with unprecedented power and energy capabilities. The geometry and chemistry of architected materials can be engineered to address key areas of performance, including electrochemical kinetics and mechanics. Electrochemical kinetics impact key metrics such as power density, efficiency, and lifetime in batteries, fuel cells, and sensors. Additionally, electrochemical reactions can dramatically change material composition, which may result in large strains (in the hundreds of percent) that cause mechanical failure. In this article, we summarize advances in energy storage offered by architected materials and highlight fabrication methods used to realize these advances. We also discuss electrochemistry as an enabling tool for architected materials with functionality beyond energy storage and sensing.
A piezoelectric biomedical microelectromechanical system (bioMEMS) cantilever device was designed and fabricated to act as either a sensing element for muscle tissue contraction or as an actuator to apply mechanical force to cells. The sensing ability of the piezoelectric cantilevers was shown by monitoring the electrical signal generated from the piezoelectric aluminum nitride in response to the contraction of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes cultured on the piezoelectric cantilevers. Actuation was demonstrated by applying electrical pulses to the piezoelectric cantilever and observing bending via an optical detection method. This piezoelectric cantilever device was designed to be incorporated into body-on-a-chip systems.
Anatase phase NOx/S6+–TiO2 (x= 0, 1) film with high solar-driven activity has been successfully prepared via electro-assisted oxidation processes. The morphological and structural properties of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, while the optical property was detected by UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the NOx/S6+–TiO2 film was composed of “flower-like” microvoids structure and displayed broad and strong optical absorption at around 544 and 1500 nm. Transient photocurrent response, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the generation and separation of photogenerated charges were significantly enhanced under simulated solar irradiation. The NOx/S6+–TiO2 film exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), and the decoloration rate and TOC removal respectively reached 98.97 and 59.44% at 20 min under solar irradiation. The film still had good stability after reusing ten times. Furthermore, a possible mechanism of photoelectrocatalysis was suggested in MO degradation by using NOx/S6+–TiO2 film.
Despite trends towards greater LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) rights in industrialized democracies, the rights of sexual minorities have become increasingly politicized and restricted throughout Africa. Recognizing religion's central role in shaping attitudes toward gays and lesbians, we hypothesize that local religious diversity could expose individuals to alternative religious perspectives, engender tolerance toward marginalized communities, and therefore dislodge dogmatic beliefs about social issues. Employing cross-national Afrobarometer survey data from 33 countries with an index of district-level religious concentration, we find that respondents living in religiously pluralistic communities are 4–5 points more likely to express tolerance of homosexual neighbors (50% increase) compared to those in homogeneous locales. This effect is not driven by outlier countries, the existence of specific religious affiliations within diverse communities, respondents' religiosity, or other observable and latent factors at the country, sub-national, district, and individual level. Further robustness checks address potential threats to validity. We conclude that religious diversity can foster inclusion of sexual minorities in Africa.
The rate of hyperglycemia in people around the world is increasing at an alarming rate at present, and new innovative methods of alleviating hyperglycemia are needed. The effects of Jerusalem artichoke inulin on hyperglycemia, the liver-related genes and the intestinal microbiota in mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) and treated with streptozocin (STZ) to induce hyperglycemia were investigated. Inulin-treated hyperglycemic mice had decreased average daily food consumption, body weight, average daily water consumption and relative liver weight and blood concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. Liver-related gene expressions in hyperglycemic (HFD-fed and STZ-treated) compared with control mice showed 84 differentially expressed genes (49 up-regulated and 35 down-regulated). In contrast, hyperglycemic mice treated with inulin had 22 differentially expressed genes compared with control ones. Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology, the rarefaction and the rank abundance curves as well as the alpha diversity indices showed the treatment-induced differences in bacterial diversity in intestine. The linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis showed that the inulin treatment improved intestinal microbiota; in particular, it significantly increased the number of Bacteroides in the intestine of mice. In conclusion, inulin is potentially effective functional food for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperglycemia.