To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
New technological methods, such as rapidly developing molecular approaches, often provide new tools for scientific advances. However, these new tools are often not utilized equally across different research areas, possibly leading to disparities in progress between these areas. Here, we use empirical evidence from the scientific literature to test for potential discrepancies in the use of genetic tools to study parasitic vs non-parasitic organisms across three distinguishable molecular periods, the allozyme, nucleotide and genomics periods. Publications on parasites constitute only a fraction (<5%) of the total research output across all molecular periods and are dominated by medically relevant parasites (especially protists), particularly during the early phase of each period. Our analysis suggests an increasing complexity of topics and research questions being addressed with the development of more sophisticated molecular tools, with the research focus between the periods shifting from predominantly species discovery to broader theory-focused questions. We conclude that both new and older molecular methods offer powerful tools for research on parasites, including their diverse roles in ecosystems and their relevance as human pathogens. While older methods, such as barcoding approaches, will continue to feature in the molecular toolbox of parasitologists for years to come, we encourage parasitologists to be more responsive to new approaches that provide the tools to address broader questions.
Preventing suicide and self-harm is a global health priority. Although there is a growing evidence base for the effectiveness of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapies for a range of disorders, to date there has been no systematic review of its effectiveness in reducing suicidal and self-harming behaviours.
To systematically review randomised controlled trials of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapies for suicidal attempts and self-harm.
We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Psycharticles, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomise controlled trials of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapies for reducing suicide attempts and self-harm.
Twelve trials (17 articles) were included in the meta-analyses. Psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapies were effective in reducing the number of patients attempting suicide (pooled odds ratio, 0.469; 95% CI 0.274–0.804). We found some evidence for significantly reduced repetition of self-harm at 6-month but not 12-month follow-up. Significant treatment effects were also found for improvements in psychosocial functioning and reduction in number of hospital admissions.
Psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapies are indicated to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour and to have short-term effectiveness in reducing self-harm. They can also be beneficial in improving psychosocial well-being. However, the small number of trials and moderate quality of the evidence means further high-quality trials are needed to confirm our findings and to identity which specific components of the psychotherapies are effective.
Le présent article propose une analyse des transformations récentes de la laïcité française, observées à partir d’un changement dans la hiérarchisation des différentes normes laïques. Après un retour sur le dispositif juridique et historique de la laïcité et sur son interprétation comme « libéralisme ambigu » (Jean-Pierre Machelon), nous mettons en lumière le rapport particulier qu’elle entretient avec l’islam. Une deuxième partie est consacrée à la période 2002-2012 et particulièrement à l’action politique de l’ancien ministre de l’Intérieur puis Président de la République Nicolas Sarkozy. Nous reconstruisons trois étapes de transformation : de la « nouvelle laïcité » à la « laïcité falsifiée » en passant par la laïcité dite « positive ».
Crevasses and englacial fracture networks route meltwater from a glacier's surface to the subglacial drainage system and thus influence glacial hydraulics. However, rapid fracture growth may also lead to sudden and potentially hazardous structural failure of unstable glaciers and ice dams, rifting of ice shelves, or iceberg calving. Here, we use passive seismic recordings to investigate the englacial fracture network on Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland. Glacier dynamics and the drainage of an ice-marginal lake give rise to numerous icequakes, the majority of which generate dispersed, high-frequency Rayleigh waves. A wide distribution of events allows us to study azimuthal anisotropy between 10 and 30 Hz in order to extract englacial seismic velocities in regions of preferentially oriented crevasses. Beamforming applied to a 100-m-aperture array reveals azimuthal anisotropy of Rayleigh-wave phase velocities reaching a strength of 8% at high frequencies. In addition, we find that the fast direction of wave propagation coincides with the observed surface strike of the narrow crevasses. Forward modeling and inversion of dispersion curves suggest that the azimuthal anisotropy is induced by a 40-m-thick crevassed layer at the surface of the glacier with 8% anisotropy in shear-wave velocity.
We consider equivariant continuous families of discrete one-dimensional operators over arbitrary dynamical systems. We introduce the concept of a pseudo-ergodic element of a dynamical system. We then show that all operators associated to pseudo-ergodic elements have the same spectrum and that this spectrum agrees with their essential spectrum. As a consequence we obtain that the spectrum is constant and agrees with the essential spectrum for all elements in the dynamical system if minimality holds.
Based on the abstract version of the Smital property, we introduce an operator
. We use it to characterise the class of semitopological abelian groups, for which addition is a quasicontinuous operation.
We investigate the trajectories of rigid fibres as they are transported in a pressure-driven flow, at low Reynolds number, in shallow Hele-Shaw cells. The transverse confinement and the resulting viscous friction on these elongated objects, as well as the lateral confinement (i.e. the presence of lateral walls), lead to complex fibre trajectories that we characterize with a combination of microfluidic experiments and simulations using modified Brinkman equations. We show that the transported fibre behaves as an oscillator for which we obtain and analyse a complete state diagram.
We report on a target system supporting automated positioning of nano-targets with a precision resolution of
in three dimensions. It relies on a confocal distance sensor and a microscope. The system has been commissioned to position nanometer targets with 1 Hz repetition rate. Integrating our prototype into the table-top ATLAS 300 TW-laser system at the Laboratory for Extreme Photonics in Garching, we demonstrate the operation of a 0.5 Hz laser-driven proton source with a shot-to-shot variation of the maximum energy about 27% for a level of confidence of 0.95. The reason of laser shooting experiments operated at 0.5 Hz rather than 1 Hz is because the synchronization between the nano-foil target positioning system and the laser trigger needs to improve.
ISM abundances in nearby spiral galaxies are well known from HII region studies (Zaritsky et al. 1994). While early type spirals, Sa, Sb, have rather uniform abundances and a narrow range of present star formation rates (SFR) the galaxy-to-galaxy variations both in HII region abundances and in present SFR increase towards late spiral types Sc, Sd (see e.g. Kennicutt & Kent 1983). ISM abundances of spiral galaxies or their progenitors up to the highest redshifts can be studied via the absorption properties imprinted in the spectra of background QSOs. While MgII- and CIV- absorption lines are produced in the low column density gas of the extended haloes around galaxies, the Damped Lyα Absorption (DLA) is believed to originate in (proto-)galactic disks. High resolution spectroscopy of a large number of metal lines associated with DLA systems reveal the redshift evolution of ISM abundances from z ≳ 4 to z ~ 0.6.
We present an investigation of the galaxy distribution in the huge underdense region between the Hercules, Coma and Local Superclusters, the so-called Northern Local Void (NLV), using void statistics (for details refer to Lindner et al. this Volume). Reshift data for galaxies and poor clusters of galaxies are available in low and high density regions as well. Samples of galaxies with different morphological type and various luminosity limits have been studied separately and void catalogues have been compiled from three different luminosity limited galaxy samples for the first time. Voids have been found using the empty sphere method which has the potential to detect and describe subtle structures in the galaxy distribution. Our approach is complementary to most other methods usually used in Large–Scale Structure studies.
Empirical studies of the Large–Scale Structure in the nearby Universe come in two complementary modes, namely the investigation of either the distribution of luminous matter or voids: (i) The description of the galaxy and cluster distribution employs correlation functions, clustering analysis, topological methods, et cetera. (ii) The investigation of the empty regions between systems of galaxies uses void probability functions, mean diameters of voids, the compilation of void catalogues, and so forth.
We describe a versatile infrared camera/spectrograph, IRIS, designed and constructed at the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. A variety of optical configurations can be selected under remote control to provide several direct image scales and a few low-resolution spectroscopic formats. Two cross-dispersed transmission echelles are of novel design, as is the use of a modified Bowen-Burch system to provide a fast f/ratio in the widest-field option. The drive electronics includes a choice of readout schemes for versatility, and continuous display when the array is not taking data, to facilitate field acquisition and focusing.
The linearity of the detector has been studied in detail. Although outwardly good, slight nonlinearities prevent removal of fixed-pattern noise from the data without application of a cubic linearising function.
Specific control and data-reduction software has been written. We describe also a scanning mode developed for spectroscopic imaging.