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In vitro embryo production (IVEP) is a procedure that can promote genetic improvement in a short time frame. However, the success rates obtained with this biotechnology in water buffaloes are still inconsistent, and can be associated with the high concentration of lipids in the cytoplasm of oocytes and embryos. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reduced concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and/or use of l-carnitine during in vitro maturation (IVM) on the preimplantation development and lipid accumulation in bubaline embryos. In a first experiment, the lowest concentration of FBS in the IVM medium (0%, 2.5%, 5% or 10%) was determined, and the lowest concentration that maintained good embryo development rates was 5%. In a second experiment, the addition of 5 mM of l-carnitine into the maturation medium was evaluated. The blastocysts produced were submitted to lipid evaluation involving staining followed by observation using optical (Oil Red O) and confocal (BODIPY 493/503) microscopy. No difference was observed between the 5% and 10% FBS groups, which were superior to the 0% and 2.5% groups. Furthermore, the performance of the groups treated with 5% and 10% FBS was better than the groups supplemented with l-carnitine. There was no difference regarding embryo lipid accumulation. The results indicated that it is possible to reduce the FBS concentration to 5% in in vitro maturation medium for production of bubaline embryos, and supplementation with 5 mM l-carnitine does not increase embryo production.
To examine associations between economic residential segregation and prevalence of healthy and unhealthy eating markers.
Cross-sectional. A stratified sample was selected in a three-stage process. Prevalence of eating markers and their 95 % CI were estimated according to economic residential segregation: high (most segregated); medium (integrated) and low (less segregated or integrated). Segregation was measured at the census tract and assessed using the Getis–Ord local
statistic based on the proportion of heads of household in a neighbourhood earning a monthly income of 0–3 minimum wages. Binary logistic regression using generalized estimating equations were used to model the associations.
Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Adults (n 1301) residing in the geographical environment (178 census tracts) of ten units of the Brazilian primary-care service known as the Health Academy Program.
Of the 1301 participants, 27·7 % lived in highly segregated neighbourhoods, where prevalence of regular consumption of fruit was lower compared with more affluent areas (34·6 v. 53·2 %, respectively). Likewise, regular consumption of vegetables (70·1 v. 87·6 %), fish (23·6 v. 42·3 %) and replacement of lunch or dinner with snacks (0·8 v. 4·7 %) were lower in comparison to more affluent areas. In contrast, regular consumption of beans was higher (91·0 v. 79·5 %). The associations of high-segregated neighbourhood with consumption of vegetables (OR = 0·62; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·98) and beans (OR = 1·85; 95 % CI 1·07, 3·19) remained significant after adjustments.
Economic residential segregation was associated with healthy eating markers even after adjustments for individual-level factors and perceived food environment.
The worst rates of preventable mortality and morbidity among women and children occur in humanitarian settings. Reliable, easy-to-use, standardized, and efficient tools for data collection are needed to enable different organizations to plan and act in the most effective way. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) commissioned a review of tools for data collection on the health of women and children in humanitarian emergencies. An update of this review was conducted to investigate whether the recommendations made were taken forward and to identify newly developed tools. Fifty-three studies and 5 new tools were identified. Only 1 study used 1 of the tools identified in our search. Little has been done in terms of the previous recommendations. Authors may not be aware of the availability of such tools and of the importance of documenting their data using the same methods as other researchers. Currently used tools may not be suitable for use in humanitarian settings or may not include the domains of the authors’ interests. The development of standardized instruments should be done with all key workers in the area and could be coordinated by the WHO.
The present study investigated the association between eating frequency (EF), diet quality and nutritional status of fifty-five women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT), with three follow-ups, before the first cycle (T0), after the intermediate cycle (T1) and after the last cycle of CT (T2). Dietary data were obtained by nine 24-h dietary recalls (24HR), and the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R) was used for qualitative analysis of diet. The average EF was established by adding the number of daily eating episodes in the three 24HR of each time. Anthropometric variables were obtained at three times. Women who reported higher EF (equal to or above median value (T0 and T1: 4·67; T2: 4·33 eating episodes)) presented better anthropometric parameters, in T0 and T1, as well as higher scores for BHEI-R specific groups and BHEI-R Total score in T1 and T2. In generalised linear models, the continuous variable EF was negatively associated with all the anthropometric variables in T0 and with the waist:height ratio in T1. There were positive associations for the BHEI-R groups at the three times: Total Fruit; Whole Fruit; Total Vegetables; Dark Green and Orange Vegetables and Legumes. At T1 and T2 the EF was positively associated with the BHEI-R Total score, and also with Whole Grains in T1. The results suggest that a higher EF was associated with a better diet quality during CT in women with BC. In contrast, an inverse association was observed between EF and anthropometric parameters before the first cycle of treatment.
The giant Hii region W 31 hosts the populous star cluster W 31-CL and others projected on or in the surroundings. The most intriguing object is the stellar cluster SGR 1806-20, which appears to be related to a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV)—a luminous supergiant star. We used the deep VVV J-, H-, and
-band photometry combined with 2MASS data in order to address the distance and other physical and structural properties of the clusters W 31-CL, BDS 113, and SGR 1806-20. Field-decontaminated photometry was used to analyse colour–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and stellar radial density profiles, using procedures that our group has developed and employed in previous studies. We conclude that the clusters W 31-CL and BDS 113 are located at 4.5 and 4.8 kpc and have ages of 0.5 and 1 Myr, respectively. This result, together with the pre-main sequence distribution in the CMD, characterises them as members of the W 31 complex. The present photometry detects the stellar content, addressed in previous spectroscopic classifications, in the direction of the cluster SGR 1806-20, including the LBV, Wolf–Rayet, and foreground stars. We derive an age of
and a distance of
. The cluster is extremely absorbed, with
. The present results indicate that SGR 1806-20 is more distant by a factor 1.8 with respect to the W 31 complex, and thus not physically related to it.
Identification of common weeds is fundamental in determining adequate recommendations for management practices. The aim of this study was to identify the patterns of weed management adopted by rice farmers and the perspectives of consultants who work in flooded rice areas in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. Fifty-three public and 50 private consultants who worked with rice in RS in 2017 and 2018 were interviewed. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Both weedy rice and Echinochloa sp. occurred and escaped more often from chemical control because they remained in the field until harvest in 59% of the area. According to consultants, the main reasons for reduced weed control were related to herbicide resistance and late herbicide application. Fifty-six percent of farmers used imidazolinone herbicides at rates that were greater than those indicated on the label for POST application. The consultants’ main challenges were weed escapes, resistance management, and guidelines on herbicide rates. Survey results show that the use of herbicide rates above label recommendations and consultants’ work on control of weed escapes are directly related to the high occurrence of herbicide resistance.
The constant search for the improvement of the performance of materials of industrial application, evaluated under aspects of weight reduction, greater resistance, greater resistance to wear and better thermal stability, among others, associated with the search for the development of ecologically viable products, that convert the context of environmental degradation in preservation and sustainability, reflects the need to conduct research that results in new materials. The objective of this work is to obtain composites of the AA6061 aluminum alloy reinforced with different contents of coke coal blast-furnace slag by powder metallurgy. The processing of these materials was done by sieving, mixing and compacting powders of reinforced aluminum alloy with 5, 10 and 15% of blast-furnace slag. The cold uniaxial compaction was realized at a pressure of 500MPa. The obtained materials were sintered at 580°C for 3h under inert atmosphere. Unreinforced aluminum alloy samples were also produced. The characterization of the materials was realized by density and hardness measurements and three-point bending tests. The analysis of its microstructure was realized by scanning electron microscopy. As results, the composites presented a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcing particles and also a progressive improvement of the hardness and the bending strength with the increase of the slag content, producing an increase of 79% in hardness and 128% in flexural strength, when compared to the material without reinforcement obtained by the same process. Such results give the coke coal blast-furnace slag a new possibility of exploitation in the metal-mechanical sector, besides contributing with the environmental issue.
The present study evaluated the effect of knockout serum replacement (KSR), fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the viability and growth of bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro for 12 days. To this end, secondary follicles were isolated (185–202 μm) and cultured in vitro in TCM-199+ medium supplemented with KSR (5% and 10%), FBS (5% and 10%) or BSA (3 mg/ml) at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 in air. Follicular diameters were evaluated on days 0, 4, 8 and 12. After 12 days of culture, follicular survival analysis was performing by using calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer. Before and after culture, follicles were fixed in paraformaldehyde for histological evaluation. Follicular diameter at different days of culture were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test, while the percentages of viable follicles were analyzed by chi-squared test (P < 0.05). Results showed that follicles cultured in the presence of KSR at both concentrations presented higher follicular survival rates than those cultured in control medium alone or supplemented with FBS or BSA. Conversely, the presence of KSR, BSA or FBS did not increase follicular diameter after 12 days of culture. Histology analysis showed that, among the tested treatments, follicles cultured in the presence of KSR had preserved rounded oocytes, juxtaposed granulosa cells and intact basal membrane. In conclusion, supplementation of culture medium with KSR increases the follicular survival of bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro.
This study evaluated the effects of oocyte meiosis inhibitors roscovitine (ROS) and butyrolactone I (BL-I) on in vitro production of bovine embryos. Bovine oocytes were maintained in pre in vitro maturation (pre-IVM) with 25 µM ROS or 100 µM BL-I for 24 h to delay meiosis and for 24 h in in vitro maturation (IVM). Following this treatment, the nuclear maturation index was evaluated. All embryos degenerated following this procedure. In the second set of experiments, oocytes were maintained for 6 or 12 h in pre-IVM with the following three treatments: ROS (25 µM or 12.5 µM), BL-I (100 µM or 50 µM) or a combination of both drugs (6.25 µM ROS and 12.5 µM BL-I). Oocytes were cultivated for 18 or 12 h in IVM. When a meiosis-inducing agent was used during pre-IVM for 24 h, more degenerated oocytes were observed at the end of the IVM period. This effect decreased when the meiotic blocking period was reduced to 6 or 12 h. No significant differences were observed in the blastocyst production rate of oocytes in pre-IVM for 6 h with ROS, BL-I, or ROS + BL-I compared with that of the control group (P > 0.05). However, inhibition of oocytes for 12 h resulted in decreased embryo production compared with that in the controls (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the post-vitrification embryo re-expansion rate between the study groups, showing that the meiotic inhibition for 6 or 12 h did not alter the embryo cryopreservation process.
The Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus was once an abundant species in the Cabo Verde Islands. Since the 1960s though, and especially during the 1980–1990s, it consistently declined to near extinction. Evidence collected indicates a remnant population of about a dozen pairs or less, scattered through the desert rangelands of only three islands. Extensive enquiry work revealed that this likely resulted from the concomitant effects of the rise in unnatural mortality due to the formerly widespread and long-lasting use of dangerous pesticides and the (still on-going) poisoning of stray dogs and other nuisance animals, and a decrease in food resources associated with factors linked with development, such as urbanisation, rural abandonment and better sanitation. Avoiding imminent extinction calls for emergency action against current threats to the remaining vultures, such as poisoning and electrocution, but also potential causes of impaired fecundity such as hazardous pesticides and shortage of food resources.
Family law is arguably one of the areas of law that is an ideal indicator of social change. Across countries, family law reflects social dynamics and it is thus most sensitive to vibrations in social perceptions when it comes to its fundamental notions. In recent years, European countries have seen their domestic family legislation undergo sweeping changes, as European societies have adopted more elaborate approaches to family law concepts like parenthood, family life, or what constitutes a union that should be afforded legal recognition. This change has undoubtedly paved the way for even further developments in the near future and is also mirrored in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (the ECtHR or ‘the Court’). Yet at any point during the long and never-ending process of the evolution of social norms and legal rules, it is important to evaluate the current state of affairs, so that we can better understand where we came from and what the rest of the journey looks like.
Among family law concepts, parenthood and its various manifestations is central for regulating family life and family ties. Parenthood is a sophisticated concept, and while a core understanding thereof is shared among European countries, the particulars can vary across different legal orders and across time. Yet establishing and dissolving parental ties, as well as regulating parent – child relationships, remains a central task for family law.
Against this setting, the ECtHR has been frequently called upon to examine parenthood in the context of the right to private and family life that is safeguarded under the European Convention on Human Rights (the ECHR or ‘the Convention’). Its case law is particularly helpful for any venture to assess ongoing family law trends, as well as any future directions. The ECtHR serves as a convergence point of a wide spectrum of Western jurisdictions, including most European states, as well as significant jurisdictions on Europe's periphery, like Russia and Turkey, which have been perceived as belonging to the European area in a broader sense.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
To verify differences in the availability, variety, quality and price of unprocessed and ultra-processed foods in supermarkets and similar establishments in neighbourhoods with different social deprivation levels at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
The Obesogenic Environment Study in São Paulo’s Food Store Observation Tool (ESAO-S) was applied in thirty-three supermarket chains, wholesale and retail supermarkets.
Fruits, vegetables and ultra-processed foods were available in almost all establishments, without differences according to Health Vulnerability Index (HVI; which varies from 0 to 1 point and the higher the worse; P > 0·05). Most establishments were concentrated in low vulnerability areas and offered healthy foods with greater variety and quality, despite higher prices. The Healthy Food Store Index (HFSI; which varies from 0 to 16 points and the higher the best) was calculated from the ESAO-S and the mean score was 8·91 (sd 1·51). The presence and variety of unprocessed foods count as positive points, as do the absence of ultra-processed products. When HFSI was stratified by HVI, low HVI neighbourhoods presented higher HFSI scores, compared with medium, high and very high HVI neighbourhoods (P = 0·001).
Supermarkets and similar establishments are less dense in areas of greater social deprivation and have lower prices of healthy foods, but the variety and quality of those foods are worse, compared with areas of low vulnerability. We found worse HFSI for supermarkets located in areas with greater vulnerability. Those findings can guide specific public policies improving the urban food environment.
Cerrado sensu stricto (a physiognomy of the Cerrado domain, the Brazilian savanna) is subject to the annual occurrence of fire. Data on the epiphytic community in this physiognomy is scarce, as is evaluation of the influence of fire on its structure and composition. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of the vascular epiphyte community and its relationships with phorophytes in the Cerrado domain, Southeast Region of Brazil, after the passage of fire. We found the greatest abundance of epiphytes in the upper strata (65% of the individuals occurring above 3 m in height) and the dominance of three generalist species (Tillandsia streptocarpa, T. recurvata and Epiphyllum phyllanthus), suggesting that fire has an influence on the structure and composition of the epiphytic community.
Benzimidazole derivatives such as albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole are important molecules used in helminthic treatment. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of acquired epilepsy throughout the world and is currently treated with ABZ. New molecules have been studied in order to aid in the treatment of this neglected tropical disease, among them RCB15 and RCB20. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic impact of RCB15 and RCB20 on Taenia crassiceps cysticerci intracranially inoculated in Balb/c mice. Thirty days after the inoculation the mice were treated with 50 mg kg−1 of RCB15, RCB20, ABZ or NaCl 0.9%. The euthanasia and cysticerci removal were performed 24 h after the treatment. The cysticerci were analysed through high performance liquid chromatography. After the treatments, there was an impairment in the main energetic pathways such as glycolytic pathway, homolactic fermentation or in mitochondrion energy production detected through the decrease in pyruvate, lactate, oxaloacetate, malate and fumarate concentrations. This induced the parasite to resort to alternative energetic pathways such as proteins catabolism, propionate fermentation and fatty acids oxidation. Therefore, benzimidazole derivatives are a promising alternative to ABZ use as they also reach the brain tissue and induce a metabolic stress in the cysticerci.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate could help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were: (1) control diet with no Yerba Mate or vitamin E; (2) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E; (3) diet containing 30 g/kg Yerba Mate; and (4) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E and 30 g/kg Yerba Mate. To increase unsaturated fatty acids in milk, cows were fed 172 g/kg soybean seeds (on a dry matter basis). There was no interaction between vitamin E and Yerba Mate supplementation for milk antioxidant-related (polyphenols, reducing power, conjugated dienes, and TBARS) analyses. Milk reducing power was increased when cows were supplemented with Yerba Mate. Our results suggest that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate does not help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk in UFA.
Steep slope vineyards are a complex scenario for the development of ground robots. Planning a safe robot trajectory is one of the biggest challenges in this scenario, characterized by irregular surfaces and strong slopes (more than 35°). Moving the robot through a pile of stones, spots with high slope or/and with wrong robot yaw may result in an abrupt fall of the robot, damaging the equipment and centenary vines, and sometimes imposing injuries to humans. This paper presents a novel approach for path planning aware of center of mass of the robot for application in sloppy terrains. Agricultural robotic path planning (AgRobPP) is a framework that considers the A* algorithm by expanding inner functions to deal with three main inputs: multi-layer occupation grid map, altitude map and robot’s center of mass. This multi-layer grid map is updated by obstacles taking into account the terrain slope and maximum robot posture. AgRobPP is also extended with algorithms for local trajectory replanning during the execution of a trajectory that is blocked by the presence of an obstacle, always assuring the safety of the re-planned path. AgRobPP has a novel PointCloud translator algorithm called PointCloud to grid map and digital elevation model (PC2GD), which extracts the occupation grid map and digital elevation model from a PointCloud. This can be used in AgRobPP core algorithms and farm management intelligent systems as well. AgRobPP algorithms demonstrate a great performance with the real data acquired from AgRob V16, a robotic platform developed for autonomous navigation in steep slope vineyards.