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“For the western direction, there is no road to reach it
For the northern direction, it is so difficult to go there.
For the southern direction, it is visible.
The only fear is the Da Vach [highlanders].”
Nguyen Cu Trinh (1750, p. 56)
INTRODUCTION: PROBLEMS OF SPATIAL ORIENTATION IN VIETNAMESE HISTORY
History was born when some specific times and places were connected. While the spatial frame defines historical experience, the agents who act in time and space give meaning to history. Approaches to the evolution of Vietnamese geography mostly concentrate on the internal structure of the historically mobile spaces in which the relationship between movement and imagination constructs the recognizable configuration of Vietnam. Keith Taylor's pattern of regional conflict and Li Tana's new way of conceptualizing Vietnam target the “Southeast Asian character” of Cochinchina, in contrast to the Sinicized Tonkin (Taylor 1998; Li 1998a). Victor Lieberman borrows Pierre Gourou's terminology to describe the Vietnamese coast as “the least coherent territory in the world” (Gourou 1936, p. 8; Lieberman 2003, p. 338). Nola Cooke (1991, 1995) and Choi Byung Wook (2004) recommend the process of political centralization and Confucianization under which modern Vietnamese states recognized the territorial status of the lower Mekong. The above-mentioned scholars aim to demonstrate the “Southeast Asian” cultural factors in the making of Vietnam, and in so doing, they challenge the conventional monotonous narrative of national unification offered by twentieth century nationalist historiography. This historiography has played down, for the interest of nationalism, Cochinchinese autonomy while defining the Sinicized North as a touchstone of historical evolution through the mythic discourse of nam tien or “marching to the south” as a territorial “manifest destiny”.
Another side of the coin, however, are the scholars who conceptualize Cochinchina as an “East Asian style” political project that settled in “Southeast Asian” landscape. One particular aspect of the Nguyen Cochinchina that has been tackled recently is Confucianism. Historian Liam Kelley challenges previous assumptions suggesting that the Nguyen “differentiated themselves from their own ancestral people in the north in order to secure their own political survival” because the Confucian repertoire was inappropriate for the southern political project (Li 1998b, p. 101).
Community stroke rehabilitation (CSR) is an effective program for survivors to recover at home supported by a multidisciplinary team. A home-based, specialized CSR program was delivered in Windsor, Ontario, to stroke patients who faced barriers to accessing outpatient services following inpatient rehabilitation. Preliminary results show program patients made significant functional improvements from baseline to program discharge. A subgroup analysis revealed that, after adjusting for age and resource intensity, moderate to severe stroke patients made greater functional gains compared to mild stroke patients. The individualized focus of CSR delivered in the home provides an effective model of rehabilitation for continued stroke care in the community.
A growing population of adults living with severe, chronic childhood-onset health conditions has created a need for specialized health care delivered by providers who have expertise both in adult medicine and in those conditions. Optimal care of these patients requires systematic approaches to healthcare transition (HCT). Guidelines for HCT exist, but gaps in care occur, and there are limited data on outcomes of HCT processes.
The Single Disease Workgroup of the Lifespan Domain Task Force of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences Clinical and Translational Science Award programs convened a group to review the current state of HCT and to identify gaps in research and practice. Using cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease as models, key themes were developed. A literature search identified general and disease-specific articles. We summarized key findings.
We identified literature characterizing patient, parent and healthcare provider perspectives, recommendations for transition care, and barriers to effective transition.
With increased survival of patients with severe childhood onset diseases, ongoing study of effective transition practices is essential as survival increases for severe childhood onset diseases. We propose pragmatic methods to enhance transition research to improve health and key outcomes.
The present research aimed to investigate the impact of the physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) front-of-pack label on consumption, prospective consumption and liking of familiar and unfamiliar discretionary snack foods.
In a within-subject randomised design, participants tasted and rated liking (9-point hedonic scale) and prospective consumption (9-point category scale) of four different snack foods with four different labels (i.e. blank, fake, PACE, PACE doubled) and four control snack foods. The twenty snack foods were presented during two 45 min sessions (i.e. ten snack foods per session) which were separated by one week. The amount participants sampled of each snack food was measured.
The study was conducted in the Centre for Advanced Sensory Sciences laboratory at Deakin University, Australia.
The participants were 153 university students (126 females, twenty-seven males, mean age 24·3 (sd 4·9) years) currently enrolled in an undergraduate nutrition degree at Deakin University.
When the PACE label was present on familiar snack foods, participants sampled 9·9 % (22·8 (sem 1·4) v. 25·3 (sem 1·5) g, P=0·03) less than when such label was not present. This was in line with a decreased prospective snack food consumption of 9·1 % (3·0 (sem 0·2) v. 3·3 (sem 0·2) servings, P=0·03). Such pattern was not seen in unfamiliar snacks.
The PACE label appears to be a promising way to decrease familiar discretionary snack food consumption in young, health-minded participants.
When an incident Herglotz wave function scatters from a periodic Lipschitz continuous surface with a Dirichlet boundary condition, the classical (quasi-)periodic solution theory for scattering from periodic structures does not apply, since the incident field lacks periodicity. Relying on the Bloch transform, we provide a solution theory in H1 for this scattering problem. First, we prove conditions guaranteeing that incident Herglotz wave functions propagating towards the periodic structure have traces in H1/2 on the periodic surface. Second, we show that the solution to the scattering problem can be decomposed by the Bloch transform into periodic components that solve a periodic scattering problem. Third, these periodic solutions yield an equivalent characterization of the solution to the original non-periodic scattering problem, which allows, for instance, new characterizations of the Rayleigh coefficients of each of the periodic components to be shown. A corollary of our results is that under the conditions mentioned above the operator that maps densities to the restriction of their Herglotz wave function on the periodic surface is always injective; this result generally fails for bounded surfaces.
The objective was to investigate parents’ motives for selecting foods for their children and the associations between these motives and children’s food preferences.
Cross-sectional survey. A modified version of the Food Choice Questionnaire was used to assess parents’ food choice motives. Parents also reported children’s liking/disliking of 176 food and beverage items on 5-point Likert scales. Patterns of food choice motives were examined with exploratory principal component analysis. Associations between motives and children’s food preferences were assessed with linear regression while one-way and two-way ANOVA were used to test for sociodemographic differences.
Two Australian cities.
Parents (n 371) of 2–5-year-old children.
Health, nutrition and taste were key motivators for parents, whereas price, political concerns and advertising were among the motives considered least important. The more parents’ food choice for their children was driven by what their children wanted, the less children liked vegetables (β =−0·27, P<0·01), fruit (β=−0·19, P<0·01) and cereals (β=−0·28, P<0·01) and the higher the number of untried foods (r=0·17, P<0·01). The reverse was found for parents’ focus on natural/ethical motives (vegetables β=0·17, P<0·01; fruit β=0·17, P<0·01; cereals β=0·14, P=0·01). Health and nutrition motives bordered on statistical significance as predictors of children’s fruit and vegetable preferences.
Although parents appear well intentioned in their motives for selecting children’s foods, there are gaps to be addressed in the nature of such motives (e.g. selecting foods in line with the child’s desires) or the translation of health motives into healthy food choices.
An etic approach was used to describe the values of Filipino adolescents and to show how pan-cultural comparisons using a values survey can complement emic approaches to studying values. Participants were 752 adolescents who answered the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ). The results indicate that PVQ has structural validity and adequate internal consistency. Ranks of the value types were compared with pan-cultural student norms; the results indicate that (a) Filipino adolescents’ value type hierarchies are substantially similar (same top, same middle, same bottom ranked values), and (b) Filipino adolescents gave higher rankings for hedonism and stimulation and lower ranking for achievement.
Consider time-harmonic electromagnetic wave scattering from a biperiodic dielectric
structure mounted on a perfectly conducting plate in three dimensions. Given that
uniqueness of solution holds, existence of solution follows from a well-known Fredholm
framework for the variational formulation of the problem in a suitable Sobolev space. In
this paper, we derive a Rellich identity for a solution to this variational problem under
suitable smoothness conditions on the material parameter. Under additional non-trapping
assumptions on the material parameter, this identity allows us to establish uniqueness of
solution for all positive wave numbers.
The present longitudinal investigation explored the extent to which physical wellbeing predicts psychological wellbeing in a sample transitioning from school to postschool life. The study comprised 213 young people assessed in their final year of high school (T1) and then one year later (T2). Longitudinal structural equation modeling supported hypothesised paths at each time point, with physical health positively predicting psychological health and perceived life quality and satisfaction. At T2, physical health also positively predicted a sense of meaning and purpose in life. Supplementary analysis showed a significant cross-time effect from T1 psychological health to T2 physical health. Findings hold substantive and practical implications highlighting the importance of multidimensional and integrative approaches to understanding and enhancing the wellbeing of young people who are making the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood.
Adaptability is proposed as individuals’ capacity to constructively regulate psycho-behavioral functions in response to new, changing, and/or uncertain circumstances, conditions and situations. The present investigation explored the internal and external validity of an hypothesised adaptability scale. The sample comprised 2,731 high school students. In terms of internal validity, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA) suggested a reliable higher order adaptability factor subsumed by a reliable first order cognitive-behavioural factor and a reliable first order affective factor. Multi-group CFA indicated invariance in factor structure as a function of gender, age, and language background. Further, age (younger adolescents), language background (non-English speaking), and parents’ education (higher levels) predicted higher order adaptability, while gender (males) predicted first order affective adaptability. In terms of external validity, consistent with hypotheses, higher and first order adaptability was differentially associated with cognate/aligned factors (personality, implicit theories of ability, buoyancy) and also with psycho-educational wellbeing ‘outcome’ factors (achievement, enjoyment of school, meaning and purpose, life satisfaction). Findings hold theoretical and empirical implications for researchers and practitioners seeking to better understand the constructive regulation of individuals confronted with situations involving novelty, change, and uncertainty.
To investigate the effect of front-of-pack labels on taste perception and use of table salt for currently available and sodium-reduced soups.
Participants (n 50, mean age 34·8 (sd 13·6) years) were randomly served nine soups (250 ml each) across 3 d. Servings differed in: (i) health label (i.e. no health label, reduced-salt label or Heart Foundation Tick); and (ii) sodium reduction (no reduction – benchmark, 15 % less sodium or 30 % less sodium). Before tasting, participants rated their expected salt intensity and liking. After tasting, participants rated their perceived salt intensity and liking, after which they could add salt to the soup to make it more palatable.
Reduced-salt labels generated a negative taste expectation and actual taste experience in terms of liking (P < 0·05) and perceived saltiness (P < 0·05). Perceived saltiness of sodium-reduced soups decreased more (P < 0·05), and consumers added more salt (P < 0·05), when soups carried the reduced-salt label. The tick logo and soups without health labels had no such influence on taste perception.
Emphasizing salt reduction by means of a front-of-pack label can have a negative effect on taste perception and salt use, especially when consumers are able to taste differences between their regular soup and the sodium-reduced soup. Overall health logos which do not emphasize the reduction in salt are less likely to affect perceived salt intensity and therefore are viable solutions to indicate the healthiness of sodium-reduced products.
Waldrip and Fisher (2000) proposed seven culturally relevant factors that are salient in the educational setting (gender equity, collaboration, competition, deference, modelling, teacher authority, congruence). In relation to these factors, the present study examined differences and congruencies in factor structure (i.e., differences of kind) and mean scores (i.e., differences of degree) among secondary school students in Australia, Singapore, the Philippines and Indonesia. The Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ; Waldrip & Fisher, 2000) was administered to 920 students (n = 230 for each country, with boys and girls equally represented; mean age = 16 years). Factor analyses showed congruencies across the four samples on five factors. Interestingly, items pertaining to students' deference to and modelling of teachers and peers grouped into one factor for the Australian sample, but separated into two factors (peers and teacher) for the South-East Asian samples. In terms of mean scores on each factor, Australian students were higher than the Singaporean, Filipino and Indonesian students in their inclination to challenge or disagree with the teacher. On the other hand, the three groups of South-East Asian students scored higher than the Australian students in their preferences for collaboration and conformity in the classroom. Implications for counselling relevant to multicultural classroom and school contexts were discussed.
Drop-on-demand inkjet printing is a fabrication technique that is capable of depositing materials layer-by-layer to form complex 3-dimensional (3-D) constructs. Here we present a new single drop delivery method in which both the matrix and cross-linker are present but separated through the use of vesicle packaging. Changing the printing parameters has little effect on the integrity of the calcium(II)-loaded vesicles, with calcium(II) released selectively by warming after printing. Alginate solutions containing calcium(II)-loaded vesicles were successfully printed and the printed layers were shown to gel on demand at 37 °C. The printed alginate layers were evaluated with regards to their potential to provide 3-D structures for cell culture.
Rare-earth doped oxides as bulk materials are well known for their numerous applications in light emitting devices. Emission properties of nanoparticles, in association with their small size, open the way to new applications such as the elaboration of transparent luminescent devices or new biological labels. The key issue for such applications is the control of the surface state of the particles in order to preserve their dispersion state, to guarantee a strong emission and/or ensure strong interactions with specific target sites. Our work in this field mainly concerns yttrium vanadate particles (YVO4:Ln with Ln=Eu, Dy and Yb/Er) that are obtained as aqueous suspensions through a simple reaction of coprecipitation . As compared to the bulk material, these particles (10-40 nm in diameter) exhibit the characteristic emission from the lanthanide dopant but with a lower efficiency (quantum yield of 15% and emission lifetime of 0.7 ms). The first part of our work is devoted to the improvement of the emission properties of particles. Our results show that the emission process is altered either by surface hydroxyl groups or by the poor cristallinity of the particles. We show that large improvement can be obtained following an original process which allows recovering the particles as colloidal dispersions after their thermal treatment at 1000°C. In the case of Eu3+ doped particles, quantum yield and emission lifetime were increased up to 40% and 0.8 ms respectively without notable increase of particle size. Moreover, the emission spectrum, either from colloidal suspensions or from single particles fits almost perfectly to the one from the bulk material. The second part of our work is devoted to the surface derivatization of the particles for applications as biological probes . We chose a general scheme involving the coating of the nanoparticles with a thin layer of amino-silane. This process was chosen in order to allow further versatile grafting reactions trough the surface amino groups. This strategy will be detailed in the case of the coupling between our particles and a protein through the use of a homo-bifunctional cross-linker. The quantification of the number of attached proteins was achieved using dual-color microscopy and fluorescently-tagged proteins, by observing the step-like photobleaching of the organic fluorescent tag. The observation of labelled toxins interacting with living cells shows the high potentiality of rare-earth-doped oxide particles as new biological probes.
In experiments with rare-earth-doped fibers impressively results have been demonstrated and shown that fiber lasers and amplifiers are an attractive and power scalable solid-state laser concept. With ytterbium-doped large-mode-area double-clad fibers, output powers approaching the kW-range with diffraction limited beam quality have been realized in the continuous regime. Also in the pulsed regime, even for femtosecond pulse duration average output powers in the range of 100 W have been demonstrated. Further power scaling is limited by the end facets damage, thermo-optical problems or nonlinear effects. To overcome these restrictions microstructured fibers can be used. This type of fibers has several new preferable features. In our contribution we will discuss the advantages of microstructured fibers to reduce nonlinear effects inside the fiber and the possibility to scale the output power of fiber lasers and amplifiers with excellent beam quality. We also show fiber based chirped pulse amplification system (CPA-System) with ultra short pulses, pulse energies of up to 100 μJ and high repetition rates.
Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) induces defects in semiconductor materials. These defects can serve as local non-radiative recombination centres for electron-hole pairs, affecting the radiative lifetimes and luminescence efficiencies of the semiconductors. Argon (Ar) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gases were used as etching gases to investigate the influence of ion energy on the RIE induced optical damage of Gallium Nitride (GaN). The significant result of etching by Ar and SF6 gases was that these etching induce defects, but as the total PL does not greatly change, it appears that this process is not increasing the density of nonradiative centres.
A retrospective review of 240 patients with T1/T2 squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx was performed. Seventy-two per cent had glottic primaries, 27 per cent had supraglottic tumours and one per cent had subglottic disease. Sixty-nine per cent presented with T1 disease and 31 per cent had T2 staged tumours. All patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1973 and 1997.
With a median follow-up of 68 months, 68 patients (28 per cent) have developed 72 other cancers. Ten of 68 presented with synchronous primaries (15 per cent). Thirty per cent of glottic patients and 25 per cent of the supraglottic/subglottic patients developed second cancers. The most frequent second malignancy was lung cancer: 28/72 (39 per cent). Fifteen patients developed second head and neck cancers (21 per cent). Other second primary sites included oesophagus (eight), prostate (six), colorectal (five), breast (two) and others (eight). The median time from radiotherapy until the development of a second cancer was 31 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival estimate at five years was significantly less for those patients developing second cancers (55 per cent) compared to those not developing second malignancies (70 per cent), (p<0.05). The median survival from the development of a second cancer was 14 months. More died as a result of a second cancer (41 patients) than their primary laryngeal cancer (40 patients). Second cancers are common and deadly in patients with early stage laryngeal carcinoma.
It has been predicted that amorphous GaN has a low density of states in the gap, and therefore has potential as a useful opto-electronic material in the blue-green spectral region. We have synthesised amorphous GaN films on various substrates by ion assisted deposition and investigated the effects of sample preparation conditions on the conducting and optical properties. The room temperature resistivity ρ0 of stoichiometric (Ga:N of 1:1) films is above 105 Ω cm, and these films exhibit a complex form for the temperature dependence of the resistivity. Films having an excess of Ga show a much lower ρ0. The optical absorption shows ar 0 band-gap of 3 eV, with the gap falling below that value when the amorphous network incorporates homopolar (Ga-Ga) bonds. The best films are thus transparent across the visible region with a low density of gap states, undetectable in optical absorption. The photoluminescence spectra obtained from these a-GaN films consist of a broad green light emission peaking at 528 nm. Preliminary photoconductivity measurements show sensitivity in the UV.