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Uterine fibroids are very common in women of reproductive age and are mostly benign. However, they are often a cause of abnormal bleeding and, in severe cases, can cause infertility. This comprehensive guide reviews the clinical management of uterine fibroids, with a particular focus on practical surgical techniques. Engage with topics such as the anatomy of the pelvis, key theatre equipment and surgical treatments including hysteroscopic and laparoscopic techniques. Features also include debates around morcellation and less invasive treatments such as uterine artery embolisation are also covered.An online video library of surgical procedures reinforces the practical techniques taught in the book and detailed colour images supplement the book's thorough coverage of fibroid management. This makes Modern Management of Uterine Fibroids an essential resource for practicing gynaecologists and IVF specialists, as well as students.
Task-based language teaching is an approach which differs from traditional approaches by emphasising the importance of engaging learners' natural abilities for acquiring language incidentally through the performance of tasks that draw learners' attention to form. Drawing on the multiple perspectives and expertise of five leading authorities in the field, this book provides a comprehensive and balanced account of task-based language teaching (TBLT). Split into five sections, the book provides an historical account of the development of TBLT and introduces the key issues facing the area. A number of different theoretical perspectives that have informed TBLT are presented, followed by a discussion on key pedagogic aspects - syllabus design, methodology of a task-based lesson, and task-based assessment. The final sections consider the research that has investigated the effectiveness of TBLT, addresses critiques and suggest directions for future research. Task-based language teaching is now mandated by many educational authorities throughout the world and this book serves as a core source of information for researchers, teachers and students.
Above-threshold ionization (ATI) is one of the most fundamental processess when atoms or molecules are subjected to intense laser fields. Analysis of ATI process in intense laser fields by a Wigner-distribution-like (WDL) function is reviewed in this paper. The WDL function is used to obtain various time-related distributions, such as time-energy distribution, ionization time distribution, and time-emission angle distribution and so on, of atoms in laser field pulses with different laser parameters. For the linearly polarized laser pulses, the time-energy distribution intuitively shows from a quantum point of view the relationship between the ionization moment and the final energy and clearly reveals the origin of interference structures in the photoelectron spectrum. In particular, for linearly polarized few-cycle laser pulses, all calculated distributions show the dependence of electron behavior on the ionization time, emission direction, and carrier-envelope phase (CEP). For elliptically polarized few-cycle pulses, we calculate the angular distribution, ionization time distribution, and time-emission distribution, which are compared with the semiclassical calculations. Analysis shows that the offset angle (difference between positions of the peaks in the angular distributions obtained by two methods) in the angular distributions does not correspond to the offset time (difference between positions of the peaks in the ionization time distributions obtained by two methods) in the ionization time distributions, which implies that the attosecond angular streaking technique based on this correspondence between the offset angle and time is in principle inaccurate. Furthermore, the offset time cannot be interpreted as tunneling time.
Hot extrusion experiments were conducted on Al–5.50Zn–2.35Mg–1.36Cu (wt%) alloy under various temperatures and extrusion speeds. Results indicated that dynamic recovery occurred at low temperature and then dynamic recrystallization was triggered at higher temperature or speed. High billet temperature reduced the grain size and increased the volume fraction of Al23CuFe4 and AlMgZn. When the extrusion speed was enhanced to 0.5 mm/s, the peak of MgZn2 phase diminished in the results of X-ray diffraction. The strong brass and S components appeared in all the extruded specimens. Texture intensity gradually decreased with increasing temperature and the fraction of texture components was also significantly affected by the extrusion parameters. The extruded alloy exhibited the highest ultimate tensile strength of 350.2 MPa at 480 °C and 0.5 mm/s and the best elongation of 16.78% at 520 °C and 0.1 mm/s. Moreover, the extrusion speed had more significant effects on the tensile properties than that of the temperature.
Flaxseed oil is rich in ɑ-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the metabolic precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This study investigated the effect of flaxseed oil supplementation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced muscle atrophy and carbohydrate oxidation impairment in a piglet model. Twenty-four weaned pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment including dietary treatment (5% corn oil vs. 5% flaxseed oil) and LPS challenge (saline vs. LPS). On day 21 of treatment, the pigs were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μg/kg BW LPS, or sterile saline. At 4 h after injection, blood, gastrocnemius muscle and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were collected. Flaxseed oil supplementation increased ALA, EPA, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids contents, protein/DNA ratio, and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) quantity in muscles (p<0.05). In addition, flaxseed oil reduced mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD) 2 and their downstream signaling molecules in muscles, and decreased plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8, and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (p<0.05). Moreover, flaxseed oil inclusion increased the ratios of phosphorylated Akt 1/ total Akt 1 and phosphorylated forkhead Box O (FOXO) 1/ total FOXO1, and reduced mRNA expression of FOXO1, muscle RING finger (MuRF) 1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) 4 in muscles (p<0.05). These results suggest that flaxseed oil might have a positive effect on alleviating muscle protein loss and carbohydrates oxidation impairment induced by LPS challenge through regulation of TLR4/NOD and Akt/FOXO signaling pathway.
A series of double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) catalysts with mesoporous morphology was prepared by a sol–gel method and further applied into photothermal synergistic degradation of gaseous toluene. Transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller characterizations confirmed that double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) had obvious mesoporous structure, which can provide a larger specific surface area and further enhancing the reactivity of catalyst. UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization illustrated that LaSmMnNiO6 possessed higher adsorption oxygen content and light absorption capacity, which contribute to the occurrence of catalytic oxidation in the Mars–van Krevelen redox cycle mechanism. A group of active tests showed that the double-perovskite LaSmMnNiO6 catalyst had a lower reaction initiation temperature (starting reaction at 75 °C) and a lower activity temperature of optimal reaction (more than 90% at 255 °C). Moreover, the research on reaction kinetics of the catalyst demonstrated that LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) had lower activation energy and thus exhibited better catalytic activity. The results of the study indicate that the double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) has broad application prospects in the field of volatile organic pollutant degradation.
To support people with dementia to live at home, a key national and international policy driver is to create dementia-friendly communities which draws attention to the importance of a local neighbourhood and living well with dementia. However, there is a lack of evidence about how people with dementia define and interact with their neighbourhood. This longitudinal narrative research aimed to uncover the meaning, construction and place of neighbourhood in the lives of people with dementia and their care partners through a participatory approach. Five couples, where one partner had an early diagnosis of dementia and capacity to consent, participated in the (up to) one-year mixed qualitative method study. During this time-frame, 65 home visits were conducted, resulting in over 57 hours of interview data alongside the development of other artefacts, such as neighbourhood maps, photographs, diaries and field notes. Narrative analysis was applied within and across the data-sets. This led to the emergence of three themes to describe a connected neighbourhood. First, ‘connecting to people’ is about the couples’ connections with family members, friends and neighbours through a sense of belonging, group identification and responsibilities. Second, ‘connecting to places’ shares the couples’ emotional and biographical attachment to places. Third, ‘connecting to resources’ refers to the couples actively seeking support to live independently and to retain neighbourhood connections.
Languages differ typologically in motion event encoding (Talmy, 2000). Furthermore, the cross-linguistic variations in lexicalization modulate cognition in a dynamic and task-dependent manner (Slobin, 1996a). This study aims to investigate whether early Cantonese–English bilinguals behave differently from monolinguals in each language when lexicalizing and categorizing voluntary motion in different language contexts. Specifically, monolinguals were instructed and narrated in their native languages. We assigned bilinguals to a monolingual and a bilingual context by manipulating immediate language use in their oral descriptions. Results from monolinguals suggested an effect of language on event conceptualization. However, results from bilinguals showed that their performances patterned with English monolinguals in both event lexicalization and conceptualization regardless of the language context. These findings indicate that early exposure to a second language has motivated speakers to converge to a single lexicalization pattern compatible for both languages. And the degree of convergence is modulated by the amount of language contact with each language. The study demonstrates that participants draw on their linguistic knowledge during the non-verbal task and provides evidence for L2-biased cognitive restructuring within the framework of thinking-for-speaking.
This study systematically reviewed literature on the neighbourhood food environment in relation to diet and obesity among residents in China.
A keyword search of peer-reviewed articles was performed in Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria include study designs: longitudinal/cohort studies or cross-sectional studies; study participants: people of all ages; exposures: neighbourhood food environment (e.g. restaurants, supermarkets, wet markets, fast-food restaurants, or convenience stores); outcomes: diet and/or body weight status; and country: China.
Seventeen studies met all criteria and were included. Among the eight studies that assessed the neighbourhood food environment in relation to diet, six reported at least one statistically significant relationship in the expected direction, whereas the remaining two exclusively reported null effects. Among the eleven studies that assessed the neighbourhood food environment in relation to body weight or overweight/obesity, ten reported a significant association whereas the remaining one reported a null relationship. Variety, density, and proximity of food outlets were positively associated with local residents’ dietary diversity, portion size, and daily caloric intake. Density and proximity of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores were positively associated with local residents’ adiposity in some but not all studies. Evidence linking any specific food outlet type to diet/obesity remains lacking due to the small number of studies and heterogeneities in food environment measures, geographical locations, and population subgroups.
The neighbourhood food environment may influence diet and obesity among Chinese residents but the evidence remains preliminary. Future studies adopting an experimental study design and objective/validated environment and dietary measures are warranted.
Risk factors and prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases were retrospectively evaluated in 1208 suspected pulmonary TB patients seeking care at the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University between July 2018 and December 2018. Further analysis of 390 culture-positive cases demonstrated that 358 (358/390, 91.8%) were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), 24 (24/390, 6.2%) with NTM and eight (8/390, 2.0%) with both MTB and NTM. M. intracellulare was the most prevalent NTM isolated (16/24, 66.7%), followed by M. abscessus (3/24), M. kansasii (2/24), M. avium (1/24), M. szulgai (1/24) and M. fortuitum (1/24). The difference between NTM and TB case rates for the ⩾65-year-old age group significantly exceeded the difference for the reference group (patients aged 25–44 years) (OR (95% CI): 4.63 (1.03–20.90)). Pulmonary NTM diseases incidence positively correlated with prior TB history (OR (95% CI): 12.92 (3.24–31.82)). Moreover, pulmonary NTM patients were significantly more likely to exhibit underlying bronchiectasis than pulmonary TB patients (OR (95% CI): 18.89 (7.54–47.88)). In conclusion, approximately one-tenth of culture-positive suspected pulmonary TB patients are infected with NTM (most frequently M. intracellulare) in Zhejiang Province, China. The elderly and those with bronchiectasis or a history of TB are at the greatest risk of contracting pulmonary NTM disease.
Food insecurity, or self-reports of inadequate food access due to limited financial resources, remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We examined the impact of food insecurity on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence within an integrated care programme that provides services to PLHIV, including two meals per day.
Adjusted OR (aOR) were estimated by generalized estimating equations, quantifying the relationship between food insecurity (exposure) and cART adherence (outcome) with multivariable logistic regression.
We drew on survey data collected between February 2014 and March 2016 from the Dr. Peter Centre Study based in Vancouver, Canada.
The study included 116 PLHIV at baseline, with ninety-nine participants completing a 12-month follow-up interview. The median (quartile 1–quartile 3) age was 46 (39–52) years at baseline and 87 % (n 101) were biologically male at birth.
At baseline, 74 % (n 86) of participants were food insecure (≥2 affirmative responses on Health Canada’s Household Food Security Survey Module) and 67 % (n 78) were adherent to cART ≥95 % of the time. In the adjusted regression analysis, food insecurity was associated with suboptimal cART adherence (aOR = 0·47, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·93).
While food provision may reduce some health-related harms, there remains a relationship between this prevalent experience and suboptimal cART adherence in this integrated care programme. Future studies that elucidate strategies to mitigate food insecurity and its effects on cART adherence among PLHIV in this setting and in other similar environments are necessary.
Altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) has been noted in large-scale functional networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, identifying consistent abnormalities of functional networks is difficult due to varied methods and results across studies. To integrate rsFC alterations and search for coherent patterns of intrinsic functional network impairments in ADHD, this research conducts a coordinate-based meta-analysis of voxel-wise seed-based rsFC studies comparing rsFC between ADHD patients and healthy controls. A total of 25 datasets from 21 studies including 700 ADHD patients and 580 controls were analyzed. We extracted the coordinates of seeds and between-group effects. Each seed was then categorized into a seed-network by its location within priori 7-network parcellations. Then, pooled meta-analyses were conducted for the default mode network (DMN), frontoparietal network (FPN) and affective network (AN) separately, but not for the ventral attention network (VAN), dorsal attention network (DAN), somatosensory network (SSN) and visual network due to a lack of primary studies. The results showed that ADHD was characterized by hyperconnectivity between the FPN and regions of the DMN and AN as well as hypoconnectivity between the FPN and regions of the VAN and SSN. These findings not only support the triple-network model of pathophysiology associated with ADHD but also extend this model by highlighting the involvement of the SSN and AN in the mechanisms of network interactions that may account for motor hyperactivity and impulsive symptoms.
Cinnamomum chago is a woody species of the family Lauraceae endemic to Yunnan province, China, previously known from only one location, and categorized as a Plant Species with Extremely Small Population. We surveyed to determine the distribution and population size of C. chago, characterize its habitat, identify any threats, assess its conservation status, and provide guidelines for its management and conservation. During 2014–2017 we found only 64 mature C. chago, in five locations. These small, fragmented populations occur along Lancang River in Dali Prefecture at altitudes of 2,200–2,400 m. The species' extent of occurrence is c. 923 km2, with an area of occupancy of c. 60 km2. The habitat of the species has been degraded by expansion of pastoral activities and deforestation. We recommend categorization of C. chago as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, prevention of the collection of seeds and wood of the species, protection and monitoring, and ex situ propagation for future reintroductions.
Applying a novel approach based on online query volume data, this study provides the first large-scale portrait of revolutionary nostalgia among the Chinese, undertaking an empirical analysis of how the aggregate level of nostalgia is shaped. For each Chinese province, we use the normalized frequency of searches for red songs on Baidu, the most widely used online search engine in China, to quantify the local level of nostalgia. We find that the evolving trends of nostalgia among the provinces are similar but stratified. The results from the dynamic panel data analysis using the Generalized Method of Moments indicate that revolutionary nostalgia is significantly affected by a set of socio-economic determinants, including GDP per capita, income inequality, social development, legal development and the degree of globalization.
Delay discounting refers to the reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases, which is related to various problematic behaviors, such as substance abuse. In this study, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of delay discounting by employing voxel-based morphometry and the individual difference approach. We found that participants’ delay discounting, measured by the Monetary Choice Questionnaire, was correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) of two cortical regions. On the one hand, individuals with a larger GMV of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were likely to discount future values less steeply and choose large but delayed rewards. On the other hand, individuals with a larger GMV of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are likely to discount the future value more steeply and prefer small but immediate rewards. Our study revealed the neuroanatomical correlates of delay discounting across the whole brain, and may help to understand the delay discounting in the frame of the hot versus cool system, which demonstrates the dynamics of resisting present temptation for future rewards.
The hierarchical Au-loaded SnO2 nanoflowers were synthesized using a new developed self-reductive hydrothermal method, of which the gas-sensing properties were enhanced significantly. The SnO2 hierarchical nanoflowers were composed of well-defined nanosheets with a specific surface area of around 84 m2/g. Gas sensors made of pure and Au-doped SnO2 were fabricated, and their gas-sensing properties were characterized. The 1.0 at.% Au-loaded SnO2 sensor prepared by the new developed self-reductive method showed much more excellent selectivity toward ethanol at 200 °C than the one prepared with the conventional hydrothermal method. Its response to ethanol was around 3 times higher than that of the pure SnO2 sensor. A very wide detection range of 1–500 ppm for ethanol, good repeatability, and long-term stability were also approved.
The evolution of an
layer surrounded by air is experimentally studied in a semi-annular convergent shock tube by high-speed schlieren photography. The gas layer with a sinusoidal outer interface and a circular inner interface is realized by the soap-film technique such that the initial condition is well controlled. Results show that the thicker the gas layer, the weaker the interface–coupling effect and the slower the evolution of the outer interface. Induced by the distorted transmitted shock and the interface coupling, the inner interface exhibits a slow perturbation growth which can be largely suppressed by reducing the layer thickness. After the reshock, the inner perturbation increases linearly at a growth rate independent of the initial layer thickness as well as of the outer perturbation amplitude and wavelength, and the growth rate can be well predicted by the model of Mikaelian (Physica D, vol. 36, 1989, pp. 343–357) with an empirical coefficient of 0.31. After the linear stage, the growth rate decreases continuously, and finally the perturbation freezes at a constant amplitude caused by the successive stagnation of spikes and bubbles. The convergent geometry constraint as well as the very weak compressibility at late stages are responsible for this instability freeze-out.
A novel solid-clad-by-liquid method was developed to form a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite tape. Three deformation routes (cold rolling, cold rolling with intermediate annealing, and cold rolling combined with warm rolling) have been investigated in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate. To optimize the dynamic continuous annealing parameters for the long composite substrates, air-cooled and furnace-cooled annealing procedures were compared in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrates. Improved cube texture of 98.7% in a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate was achieved via warm rolling deformation at 550 °C and two-step dynamic continuous annealing (750 °C for 1 h followed by 1200 °C for 1 h). The yield strength, Curie temperature, and saturation magnetization of 176 MPa, 324 K, and 18 emu/g, respectively, were obtained.
The dipeptide DL-methionyl-DL-Methionine (Met-Met) has extremely low water solubility and better absorption than other methionine sources (such as DL-methionine and L-methionine) available in the market. Therefore, six diets (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6) containing 0 %, 0.07%, 0.15%, 0.21%, 0.28% and 0.38% Met-Met were formulated to investigate the effects of Met-Met on Oreochromis niloticus. The results indicated that percent weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed with D2 and D3 diets were higher than those fed with D1, D4-D6 diets. The levels of total essential amino acid in whole body of fish fed with D3 and D4 diets were significantly higher than those fed the D1 diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde content were no significant difference in fed the diet with or without Met-Met supplementation. Majority of reads derived from the fish intestines belonged to members of Fusobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria. Diversity of intestinal microbiota and total antioxidant capacity in fish fed with D3 diet was significantly higher than that of other groups. Since due to the growth results the authors conclude the optimal proportion of Met was 0.61%, and the addition of Met-Met was 0.15% in O. niloticus.
Three-dimensional nano-mulberries consisting of SnO2 nanoparticles have been successfully anchored onto the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) to construct hierarchical hybrids—SnO2@RGO with a one-pot approach. The SnO2 nano-mulberries with different amounts of RGO have been produced for optimizing their composition effect on Li storage performance. Specifically, SnO2@RGO hybrids incorporated with optimized amount of RGO nanosheets (∼20.8%) exhibit highly enhanced capacity of ∼1025 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and a reversible capacity of 750 mA h/g over 100 cycles at 0.2 A/g. The materials also deliver much better rate performance with average specific capacity of ∼498 mA h/g at 2 A/g in comparison with that of SnO2 nano-mulberries. After cycling for 600 times at 1 A/g, the SnO2@RGO electrodes still maintain high reversible capacity of ∼602 mA h/g, corresponding to 35% of the second cycle and 133% of the 70th discharge capacity.