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Economic liberalization has been contested and defeated in France to an unparalleled extent in comparison to other leading political economies in Western Europe. Levy offers a historical explanation, centered on the legacies of France's postwar statist or dirigiste economic model. Although this model was dismantled decades ago, its policy, party-political, and institutional legacies continue to fuel the contestation of liberalizing reforms today. Contested Liberalization offers a comprehensive analysis of French economic and social policy since the 1980s, including the Macron administration. It also traces the implications of the French case for contestation in East Asia and Latin America. Levy concludes by identifying ways that French liberalizers could diminish contestation, notably by adopting a more inclusive process and more equitable allocation of the costs and benefits of liberalizing reform. This book will interest scholars and students of political economy and comparative politics, especially those working on economic liberalization, French politics, and the welfare state.
Estimates suggest as much as 17% of the US workforce may be neuroatypical, a term used to describe individuals whose neurological functioning is at the tail ends of the distribution of naturally occurring variation. Although the neuroatypical population has a history of under- and unemployment, their inclusion in the modern workplace (i.e., promotion of neurodiversity within organizations) is gaining recognition by scholars and organizations as an important dimension of organizational diversity. Despite this burgeoning interest in examining neuroatypicality in the context of organizational diversity, surprisingly little research has been conducted that bridges these two research areas. The literature that does exist is scattered across several different academic disciplines, largely outside of industrial-organizational psychology, and rarely examines the employment of neuroatypical workers explicitly from a diversity perspective. In this article we argue that as the nature of work evolves and jobs continue to become more specialized, neurodiversity will become an increasingly relevant dimension of organizational diversity and is likely to play a key role both in terms of individual employees’ well-being and performance outcomes, as well as organizational success.
This chapter offers an interpretation of Part VI of The Spirit of the Laws, the least-discussed and least-understood section of the book: The Spirit of the Laws and its purpose in the book. Part VI systematically unravels all of the various accounts of a unitary founding moment of a unitary French state, all the attempts to find an ancient legitimate principle that could dictate what lawful government would mean in the eighteenth century. Montesquieu rejected founding narratives in favor of evolutionary history and unplanned development; he connected that move to his rejection of legal uniformity in favor of pluralism. Montesquieu rejects all of the contemporaneous theories of political normativity grounded in foundings and origins – la thèse nobiliaire as much as la thèse royale, historical contractarianism as is found in the monarchomachs as much as both hypothetical contractarianism and Machiavellian-republican founding principles. He demonstrates the falseness and impossibility of all of these, rejecting them as incompatible with the pluralism and complexity of history, the contingency and accident that shaped the development of political authority.
There are three primary theoretical perspectives detailing why gender differences in workplace stressors may exist: the differential exposure perspective, the psychological/coping perspective, and the biological sex differences perspective. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss how and at what point gender is proposed to influence the stressor–well-being process in addition to summarizing empirical evidence regarding gender differences in the mean levels of common work stressors: work–family conflict, job demands, job autonomy/decision latitude, work hours, and career concerns. Gaps in the present literature are identified and recommendations for future research are provided.
We report 2 outbreaks of genetically unrelated carbapenem-resistant New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli caused by contaminated duodenoscopes. Using endoscopes with disposable end caps, adherence to the manufacturer’s reprocessing instructions, routine audits, and manufacturer evaluation are critical in preventing such outbreaks.
We describe a case of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection due to Mycobacterium fortuitum. Whole-genome sequencing showed that the same strain was isolated from the shared shower water of the unit. Nontuberculous mycobacteria frequently contaminate hospital water networks. Preventative actions are needed to reduce the exposure risk for immunocompromised patients.
“According to [Bayesian] models” in cognitive neuroscience, says a recent textbook, “the human mind behaves like a capable data scientist”. Do they? That is: do such models show we are rational? I argue that Bayesian models of cognition, perhaps surprisingly, don’t and indeed can’t, show that we are Bayesian-rational. The key reason is that they appeal to approximations, a fact that carries significant implications. After outlining the argument, I critique two responses, seen in recent cognitive neuroscience. One says that the mind can be seen as approximately Bayes-rational, while the other reconceives norms of rationality.
The United Nations (UN) established an umbrella of organizations to manage distinct clusters of humanitarian aid. The World Health Organization (WHO) oversees the health cluster, giving it responsibility for global, national, and local medical responses to natural disasters. However, this centralized structure insufficiently engages local players, impeding robust local implementation. The Gorkha earthquake struck Nepal on April 25, 2015, becoming Nepal’s most severe natural disaster since the 1934 Nepal-Bihar earthquake. In coordinated response, 2 organizations, Empower Nepali Girls and International Neurosurgical Children’s Association, used a hybrid approach integrating continuous communication with local recipients. Each organization mobilized its principal resource strengths—material medical supplies or human capital—thereby efficiently deploying resources to maximize the impact of the medical response. In addition to efficient resource use, this approach facilitates dynamic medical responses from highly mobile organizations. Importantly, in addition to future earthquakes in Nepal, this medical response strategy is easily scalable to other natural disaster contexts and other medical relief organizations. Preemptively identifying partner organizations with complementary strengths, continuous engagement with recipient populations, and creating disaster- and region-specific response teams may represent viable variations of the WHO cluster model with greater efficacy in local implementation of treatment in acute disaster scenarios.
The Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative aims to decrease new HIV infections and promote test-and-treat strategies. Our aims were to establish a baseline of HIV outcomes among newly diagnosed PWH in Washington, DC (DC), a ‘hotspot’ for the HIV epidemic. We also examined sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with retention in care (RIC), antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and viral suppression (VS) among newly diagnosed PWH in the DC Cohort from 2011–2016. Among 455 newly diagnosed participants, 92% were RIC at 12 months, ART was initiated in 65% at 3 months and 91% at 12 months, VS in at least 17% at 3 months and 82% at 12 months and 55% of those with VS at 12 months had sustained VS for an additional 12 months. AIDS diagnosis was associated with RIC (aOR 2.99; 1.13–2.28), ART initiation by 3 months (aOR 2.58; 1.61–4.12) and VS by 12 months (aOR4.87; 1.69–14.03). This analysis contributes to our understanding of the HIV treatment dynamics of persons with recently diagnosed HIV infection in a city with a severe HIV epidemic.
Field studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of physical weed management of Palmer amaranth management in cucumber, peanut, and sweetpotato. Treatments were arranged in a three by four factorial in which the first factor included a treatment method of electrical, mechanical, or hand-roguing Palmer amaranth control, and the second factor consisted of treatments applied when Palmer amaranth was approximately 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, or 1.2 m above the crop canopy. Four weeks after treatment (WAT), the electrical applications controlled Palmer amaranth at least 27 percentage points more than the mechanical applications when applied at the 0.3 and 0.6 m timings. At the 0.9 and 1.2 m application timings 4 WAT, electrical and mechanical applications controlled Palmer amaranth by at most 87%. Though hand removal generally resulted in the greatest peanut pod count and total sweetpotato yield, mechanical and electrical control resulted in similar yield to the hand rogued plots depending on the treatment timing. With additional research to provide insight into the optimal applications, there is potential for electrical control and mechanical control to be used as alternatives for hand-removal. Additional studies were conducted to determine the effects of electrical treatments on Palmer amaranth seed production and viability. Treatments consisted of electricity applied to Palmer amaranth at first visible inflorescence, two weeks after first visible inflorescence (WAI), or four WAI. Treatments at varying reproductive maturities did not reduce the seed production immediately after treatment. However, after treatment, plants primarily died and ceased maturation, reducing seed production assessed at 4 WAI by 93% and 70% when treated at 0 and 2 WAI, respectively. Treatments did not have a negative effect on germination or seedling length.
This systematic literature review aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics and methods used in studies applying the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) concept for infectious diseases within European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and the United Kingdom. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched for articles reporting the assessment of DALY and its components. We considered studies in which researchers performed DALY calculations using primary epidemiological data input sources. We screened 3053 studies of which 2948 were excluded and 105 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 22 were multi-country and 83 were single-country studies, of which 46 were from the Netherlands. Food- and water-borne diseases were the most frequently studied infectious diseases. Between 2015 and 2022, the number of burden of infectious disease studies was 1.6 times higher compared to that published between 2000 and 2014. Almost all studies (97%) estimated DALYs based on the incidence- and pathogen-based approach and without social weighting functions; however, there was less methodological consensus with regards to the disability weights and life tables that were applied. The number of burden of infectious disease studies undertaken across Europe has increased over time. Development and use of guidelines will promote performing burden of infectious disease studies and facilitate comparability of the results.
Risk attitudes implied by valuations of risk-increasing assets depart markedly from those implied by valuations of risk-reducing assets. For instance, many are unwilling to pay the expected value for a risky asset or for its perfect hedge. Although nearly every theory of risk preference (and logic) demands a negative correlation between valuations of bets and hedges, we observe positive correlations. This inconsistency is difficult to expunge.
The literature on behavioral decision-making and negotiations to date usually advocates first-mover advantage in distributive negotiations, and bases this preference on the anchoring heuristic. In the following paper, we suggest that the preference for moving first vs. moving second in negotiations may not be as clear-cut as presumed, especially in situations characterized by information asymmetry between negotiating counterparts. In Study 1, we examined people’s initiation preferences and found that unless taught otherwise, people intuitively often prefer to move second. In Studies 2–4, we experimentally tested the suggested advantage of moving second, and demonstrated that in information-asymmetry scenarios – when one party has perfect background information and the other has none — it is actually preferable for both counterparts not to give the first offer while negotiating. We discuss the implications of our findings on the field of negotiation and decision-making, and lay the groundwork for future studies examining this issue.
The current study explored the impact of cancer-related fertility concerns on existential distress and meaning making among female breast cancer (BC) patients of childbearing age and assessed support needs.
The current study was embedded within a larger study. A seven-question online survey was administered to female BC participants to explore meaning and identity in their lives. Applied thematic analysis was used to analyze participants’ written responses.
A total of 98 participants completed the survey, the majority of whom identified as white, married or partnered, and employed full time and with stage I or II BC. More than 50% of the participants expressed a need for support from a counselor or support group during their cancer experience. Three subthemes emerged related to existential distress and cancer-related fertility concerns: (1) loss of womanhood: treatment-related physical changes impact on gender identity; (2) existential distress due to treatment decisions impacting fertility; and (3) shattered vision: cancer-related infertility impact on meaning and purpose. Four subthemes emerged related to meaning making with fertility-related existential concerns: (1) coping with loss of meaning, (2) re-evaluating priorities in life; (3) resilience to loss, and (4) persistent loss of meaning.
Significance of Results
Study results offer valuable insights into the experiences of female BC survivors’ cancer-related fertility on existential distress and meaning making. Development of psychological interventions targeted to support this population to cope with existential distress due to cancer-related fertility concerns and meaning making are needed to improve the quality of life of this population.
Concussion affects 1.2% of the population annually; rural regions and children have higher rates of concussion.
Using administrative health care linked databases, all residents of Ontario with a physician diagnosed concussion were identified using ICD-9 code 850 or ICD-10 code S06. Cases were tracked for 2 years for concussion-related health care utilization with relevant specialist physicians (i.e., neurology, otolaryngology, physiatry, psychiatry, ophthalmology). Billing codes, specialist codes, and time from index to visit were analyzed. Factors associated with increased specialist visits were also examined.
In total, 1,022,588 cases were identified between 2008 and 2014 with 2 years of post-concussion health care utilization available. Follow-up by physician within 3 days of injury occurred in only 14% of cases. Mean time between ED diagnosis and follow-up by a physician was 83.9 days, whereas for rural regions it was >100 days. About half of adults (51.9%) and children (50.3%) had at least 1 specialist visit following concussion. Mean time between injury and first specialist visit was 203.8 (SD 192.9) days for adults, 213.5 (SD 201.0) days for rural adults, and 276.0 (SD 202.6) days for children. There were 67,420 neurology visits, 70,404 psychiatry visits, 13,571 neurosurgery visits, 19,780 physiatry visits, 101,788 ENT visits, and 103,417 ophthalmology visits in the 2 years tracking period. Factors associated with more specialist use included age > 18 years, urban residence, and pre-injury psychiatric history.
There are discrepancies in post-concussion health care utilization based on age group and rural/urban residence. Addressing these risk factors could improve concussion care access.
In this final chapter, I analyze Furūgh Farrukhzād’s innovative development of Nīmā’s earlier prosodic experiments and link Farrukhzād’s late modernist poetic project with Western modernist poetry. My purpose in avoiding lengthy comparisons with Western poetry up to this point in the book is to provincialize European poetic modernism and consider instead the significant links in poetic forms, themes, and politics that were more important for the elaboration of modernism in the Arab and Iranian contexts. However, I also readily admit that Western poetic influence plays a significant role in the Arab and Iranian modernists’ approaches to poetry. I thus take the opportunity in this last chapter to address Farrukhzād’s work not only in the context of local poetic connections, but also in light of the bonds she forged with Western modernist poetry. In so doing, I argue that Farrukhzād’s poetic persona is best understood as a flâneuse, the female Iranian counterpart to Charles Baudelaire’s Parisian poetic persona. I furthermore undertake a lengthy analysis of the close associations between Farrukhzād’s late poetry and T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land and “The Hollow Men,” from 1925.