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The nature and content of intellectual property (IP) law, which is heavily contingent on the state of technology and on social and market developments, has always been subject to ongoing transitions. How those transitions are effected and the shape they take is crucial to the ability of IP to achieve its stated goals and provide the necessary climate for investment in creativity, innovation and brand differentiation. Yet the need for change can run headlong into a desire for coherence. A search for coherence tests the limits of the concept of “intellectual property,” is imperiled by overlaps between different IP regimes, and calls for a unifying normative theme. This volume assembles contributors from across IP and the globe to explore these questions, including whether coherence is desirable. It should be read by anyone interested in understanding the conceptual underpinnings of one of the most important and dynamic areas of the law.
We study the dynamics of towers defined by fixed points of renormalization for Feigenbaum polynomials in the complex plane with varying order
of the critical point. It is known that the measure of the Julia set of the Feigenbaum polynomial is positive if and only if almost every point tends to
under the dynamics of the tower for corresponding
. That in turn depends on the sign of a quantity called the drift. We prove the existence and key properties of absolutely continuous invariant measures for tower dynamics as well as their convergence when
. We also prove the convergence of the drifts to a finite limit, which can be expressed purely in terms of the limiting tower, which corresponds to a Feigenbaum map with a flat critical point.
Building on past research, we implement a hierarchical latent class model to analyze political participation from a comparative perspective. Our methodology allows simultaneously: (i) estimating citizens’ propensity to engage in conventional and unconventional modes of participation; (ii) classifying individuals into underlying “types” capturing within- and cross-country variations in participation; and (iii) assessing how this classification varies with micro- and macro-level factors. We apply our model to Latin American survey data. We show that our method outperforms alternative approaches used to study participation and derive typologies of political engagement. Substantively, we find that the distribution of participatory types is similar throughout the continent, and that it correlates strongly with respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics and crime victimization.
For centuries philosophers and scientists have puzzled over the meaning of words and the intricacies of grammar. How did the human species develop such a complex system that allowed us to work collaboratively and to share experiences – be it about the past or future? How did the species derive a system that allowed for optimal representation of the world in a way that also optimized quick communication among members of the species? Our language can mend conflicts, share grand ideas, and allow us to express and grow our everyday thoughts.
To my astonishment, I find myself not “old,” not as we all feel at least for moments during middle age, but really old: eighty-seven-years-plus as I write this piece. It won't be finished until I am eighty-eight! That hard-to-swallow fact is what allows me this rather self-indulgent retrospective on a Victorianist career that has spanned several generations of criticism and scholarship. Perhaps, I dare to think, a look back at the arc of that career might be of interest to someone beside myself, moving as it does from the time—around Christmas 1958, when I began writing on a portable electric typewriter a dissertation on George Eliot and determinism—to this moment, when writing a dissertation on a single author seems rather risky and professionally unhelpful, especially if one tries to do it on a typewriter.
Cumulative evidence suggests that health-related risk factors during midlife and old-age are associated with cognitive impairment. However, studies are needed to clarify the association between early-life risk factors and impaired cognitive functioning to increment existing knowledge.
To examine the association between childhood infectious diseases and late-life cognitive functioning in a nationally representative sample of older adults.
Eligible respondents were 2994 community-dwelling individuals aged 65–85.
Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Childhood infectious diseases (i.e. chicken pox, measles, and mumps) were self-reported. The study covariates were age, sex, highest educational level achieved, smoking status, body mass index, and depression. The primary statistical analysis examined the association between the number of childhood infectious diseases and total MMSE scores, accounting for all study covariates. Regression models of progressive complexity were examined for parsimony. The robustness of the primary results was tested in 17 sensitivity analyses.
The most parsimonious model was a linear adjusted model (Bayesian Information Criterion = 12646.09). Late-life cognitive functioning significantly improved as the number of childhood infectious diseases increased (β = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.11, 0.26; p < 0.001). This effect was not significantly attenuated in all sensitivity analyses.
The current study results are consistent with prior ecological findings indicating that some childhood infectious diseases are associated with better cognitive functioning in old-age. This points to an early-life modifiable risk factor associated with older-life cognitive functioning. Our results may reflect selective mortality and/or beneficial effects via hormetic processes.
Researchers often want to increase the broader societal impact of their work. One way to do that is to discuss research findings directly with practitioners. Yet, such interactions are voluntary and do not regularly arise, which raises a key demand question: Under what conditions do practitioners want to connect with researchers? This article shows that relational considerations affect these decisions—that is, what practitioners expect the interaction will be like. I partnered with a US-based civic association to conduct a field experiment. I find that group leaders in this association are more likely to speak with researchers after learning that the researchers will (1) efficiently share information during the interaction, and (2) value practitioners’ knowledge. The results provide actionable guidance for how researchers should approach practitioners and also demonstrate one powerful way that social science evidence can inform efforts to bridge research and practice.
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) post-stroke is frequent but may go undetected, which highlights the need to better screen cognitive functioning following a stroke.
We examined the clinical utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in detecting cognitive impairment against a gold-standard neuropsychological battery.
We assessed cognitive status with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests in 161 individuals who were at least 3-months post-stroke. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to identify two cut points for the MoCA to maximize sensitivity and specificity at a minimum 90% threshold. We examined the utility of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, a processing speed measure, to determine whether this additional metric would improve classification relative to the MoCA total score alone.
Using two cut points, 27% of participants scored ≤ 23 and were classified as high probability of cognitive impairment (sensitivity 92%), and 24% of participants scored ≥ 28 and were classified as low probability of cognitive impairment (specificity 91%). The remaining 48% of participants scored from 24 to 27 and were classified as indeterminate probability of cognitive impairment. The addition of a processing speed measure improved classification for the indeterminate group by correctly identifying 65% of these individuals, for an overall classification accuracy of 79%.
The utility of the MoCA in detecting cognitive impairment post-stroke is improved when using a three-category approach. The addition of a processing speed measure provides a practical and efficient method to increase confidence in the determined outcome while minimally extending the screening routine for VCI.
To present our data evaluating the feasibility of simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma.
This paper describes a case series of eight adult patients with a radiologically suspected acoustic neuroma, treated at a tertiary referral centre in Newcastle, Australia, between 2012 and 2015. Patients underwent cochlear implantation concurrently with removal of an acoustic neuroma. The approach was translabyrinthine, with facial nerve monitoring and electrically evoked auditory brainstem response testing. Standard post-implant rehabilitation was employed, with three and six months’ follow-up data collected. The main outcome measures were: hearing, subjective benefit of implant, operative complications and tumour recurrence.
Eight patients underwent simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma over a 3-year period, and had 25–63 months’ follow up. There were no major complications. All patients except one gained usable hearing and were daily implant users.
Simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma has been shown to be a safe treatment option, which will be applicable in a wide range of clinical scenarios as the indications for cochlear implantation continue to expand.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Regardless of their career choices, today’s biomedical researchers need to blend great science with core skills ininnovation and entrepreneurship (I&E). The objective of this NIH-funded education program was to develop and test a pragmatic training program to teach relevant I&E skills. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used a modified Delphi approach to identify 15 relevant competencies for I&E and the essential topics to include in the program. Learner interviews identified preferences for online training programs (short, high-quality audio-visual content, ability to self-navigate, peer and instructor interactions). The inaugural program included 7 short, online courses that addressed how to identify and validate opportunities for innovation, sell your innovation to diverse audiences, assess its ethical consequences, work in teams, and develop resilience as an innovator. It also included mentor support, a team-based capstone project, and an optional in-person boot camp. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 51 students enrolled and 41 participants from 9 institutions completed the program, including pre- and post-doctoral students and junior faculty. They organized into 10 teams to complete the capstone project, with 6 teams pitching their innovation to fellow students and mentors at the boot camp. Students rated satisfaction with courses highly overall, with 79% stating they would be disappointed if the program was no longer available. Preliminary results suggest participants increased their knowledge about and ability to perform tasks taught throughout the program. Suggestions for improvement included providing more practical advice and real-world examples to complement educational videos. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The inaugural E4B program was well received and effective in increasing I&E skills. Improvements will include increased opportunity for mentor interactions and for advanced entrepreneurial training. The program is open for biomedical research trainees from all institutions with a CTSA award.