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We report the development of a regression model to predict the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies on a population level based on self-reported symptoms. We assessed participant-reported symptoms in the past 12 weeks, as well as the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during a study conducted in April 2020 in Ischgl, Austria. We conducted multivariate binary logistic regression to predict seroprevalence in the sample. Participants (n = 451) were on average 47.4 years old (s.d. 16.8) and 52.5% female. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were found in n = 197 (43.7%) participants. In the multivariate analysis, three significant predictors were included and the odds ratios (OR) for the most predictive categories were cough (OR 3.34, CI 1.70–6.58), gustatory/olfactory alterations (OR 13.78, CI 5.90–32.17) and limb pain (OR 2.55, CI 1.20–6.50). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.773 (95% CI 0.727–0.820). Our regression model may be used to estimate the seroprevalence on a population level and a web application is being developed to facilitate the use of the model.
Dietary habits developed during childhood and adolescence are likely to continue into adulthood. An unbalanced diet may cause nutrient deficiencies and excessive energy intake; these enhance the risk for developing overweight and obesity and their co-morbidities. In the present analysis, food consumption of adolescents is described and evaluated against German food-based dietary guidelines with special focus on socio-economic status (SES) and region of residence.
Within the ‘German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents’ (KiGGS Wave 2), the cross-sectional ‘Eating Study as a KiGGS Module’ (EsKiMo II) was conducted from 2015 until 2017 to provide data about dietary behaviour.
1353 adolescents aged 12–17 years from a nationwide representative sample with food consumption data from computer-assisted dietary history interviews.
The median consumption of fruits, vegetables, starchy foods and milk/dairy products among adolescents in Germany was below the recommendation. The median consumption of both meat/meat products and unfavourable foods, like confectionery, which should be consumed sparingly, was about 1·5 times the recommended amount. The total amount of beverages consumed by most adolescents was above the minimum amount recommended. Soft drink consumption of adolescents with a low SES was three to five times higher than soft drink consumption of adolescents with a high SES.
The results indicate the need for an improvement of dietary habits among adolescents in Germany. Further approaches to promote healthy diets in Germany should be continued, and the focus on social inequalities should be strengthened.
There are three truly pioneering versions of King Lear on film: Grigori Kozintsev’s Korol Lir (1970), Peter Brook’s King Lear (1971), and Akira Kurosawa’s Ran (1985). These adaptations not only represent the best versions of King Lear ever made but also rank among the most important Shakespeare films of all time. None of these films are inventive or subtle in their representation of women, nor are they sophisticated in their approach to gender roles in what is arguably Shakespeare’s most misogynistic play. Silent and obedient, Cordelia is in many ways the perfect Renaissance woman, while Goneril and Regan play the demons to her saint. These rigid binariesand the impossible subject positions they impose on women are the inventions of patriarchy, and of misogyny in particular. Of the three films that I will examine here, only one of them begins to challenge this disabling binary and the concomitant spectacle of patriarchy restored over women’s dead bodies.
When one mentions ‘opera’ and ‘Africa’ together in Germany, most people immediately think of the work of German film and theatre director and controversial action artist Christoph Schlingensief (1960–2010) and his ‘African Opera Village’ project. This project began when he was diagnosed with lung cancer in 2008 and he began a ‘cancer diary’ entitled So schön wie hier kanns im Himmel gar nicht sein (Heaven could never be as beautiful as here). In his diary recordings, Schlingensief recounts visiting his father's grave and vowing to build a church, a school, a hospital, a theatre and an opera house in Africa (2009: 17). This vow gained the aura of a ‘divine’ vision, one that cannot be taken back and has to be fulfilled, no matter where and when. Thus, his idea of the ‘African Opera Village’ was born. This chapter will consider the project's genesis, critically analyse its early ‘manifesto’ (2009), which contained an ‘extended opera concept’, and the implications for this manifesto for the encounter between Schlingensief and Burkina Faso; and finally assesses the effectiveness of the Opera Village as a dynamic cultural entity that would include the viewpoints and cultural expressions of neighbouring communities.
Schlingensief's vision is controversial, particularly insofar as it highlights ongoing neo-colonial perceptions and engagements with Africa, which Schlingensief, in the early stages of the project, seemed to see as some unified, romantic place that could heal and renew him as an individual and German opera as an art form. This was picked up by German journalists who often compared Schlingensief to the eponymous protagonist from Werner Herzog's 1982 film Fitzcarraldo to stress the bizarre and neocolonial character of the project. However, while Fitzcarraldo buys a steamboat to go deep into the Amazonas, with the aim of building an opera house and staging European grand operas in the midst of the Peruvian rainforest, Schlingensief was not interested in bringing elaborate stage spectacles to Africa. Instead, he aimed at creating a space for local artistic expressions in whichever form and genre they took, as part of his extended opera concept.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the patent office of the German state Wuerttemberg strategically discriminated against foreign inventors by charging comparatively high patent fees. We show that this administrative practice was driven by fiscal and protectionist motives.
Social distancing policies are key in curtailing severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread, but their effectiveness is heavily contingent on public understanding and collective adherence. We studied public perception of social distancing through organic, large-scale discussion on Twitter.
Retrospective cross-sectional study.
Between March 27 and April 10, 2020, we retrieved English-only tweets matching two trending social distancing hashtags, #socialdistancing and #stayathome. We analyzed the tweets using natural language processing and machine-learning models, and we conducted a sentiment analysis to identify emotions and polarity. We evaluated the subjectivity of tweets and estimated the frequency of discussion of social distancing rules. We then identified clusters of discussion using topic modeling and associated sentiments.
We studied a sample of 574,903 tweets. For both hashtags, polarity was positive (mean, 0.148; SD, 0.290); only 15% of tweets had negative polarity. Tweets were more likely to be objective (median, 0.40; IQR, 0–0.6) with ~30% of tweets labeled as completely objective (labeled as 0 in range from 0 to 1). Approximately half of tweets (50.4%) primarily expressed joy and one-fifth expressed fear and surprise. Each correlated well with topic clusters identified by frequency including leisure and community support (ie, joy), concerns about food insecurity and quarantine effects (ie, fear), and unpredictability of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its implications (ie, surprise).
Considering the positive sentiment, preponderance of objective tweets, and topics supporting coping mechanisms, we concluded that Twitter users generally supported social distancing in the early stages of their implementation.
Pre-mature birth impacts left ventricular development, predisposing this population to long-term cardiovascular risk. The aims of this study were to investigate maturational changes in rotational properties from the neonatal period through 1 year of age and to discern the impact of cardiopulmonary complications of pre-maturity on these measures.
Pre-term infants (<29 weeks at birth, n = 117) were prospectively enrolled and followed to 1-year corrected age. Left ventricular basal and apical rotation, twist, and torsion were measured by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and analysed at 32 and 36 weeks post-menstrual age and 1-year corrected age. A mixed random effects model with repeated measures analysis was used to compare rotational mechanics over time. Torsion was compared in infants with and without complications of cardiopulmonary diseases of pre-maturity, specifically bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and patent ductus arteriosus.
Torsion decreased from 32 weeks post-menstrual age to 1-year corrected age in all pre-term infants (p < 0.001). The decline from 32 to 36 weeks post-menstrual age was more pronounced in infants with cardiopulmonary complications, but was similar to healthy pre-term infants from 36 weeks post-menstrual age to 1-year corrected age. The decline was due to directional and magnitude changes in apical rotation over time (p < 0.05).
This study tracks maturational patterns of rotational mechanics in pre-term infants and reveals torsion declines from the neonatal period through 1 year. Cardiopulmonary diseases of pre-maturity may negatively impact rotational mechanics during the neonatal period, but the myocardium recovers by 1-year corrected age.
Identifying a need for developing a conceptual framework for the future development of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) in Europe, The Federation of European Nutrition Sciences established a Task Force for this purpose. A workshop was held with the specific objective to discuss the various dimensions considered as particularly relevant. Existing frameworks for FBDG were discussed, and presentations from various countries illustrated not only several commonalities but also a high degree of heterogeneity in the guidelines from different countries. Environmental aspects were considered in several countries, and dimensions like food safety, dietary habits and preparation were included in others. The workshop provided an overview of the use of FBDG – both in developing front-of-pack nutrition labels and for reformulation and innovation. The European FBDG dimensions were described with examples from the close connection between FBDG and European Union (EU) policies and activities and from the compilation of a database of national FBDG. Also, the challenges with communication of FBDG were discussed. Considering the current scientific basis and the experiences from several countries, the Task Force discussed the various dimensions of developing FBDG and concluded that environmental aspects should be included in the future conceptual framework for FBDG. A change in terminology to sustainable FDBG (SFBDG) could reflect this. The Task Force concluded that further work needs to be done exploring current practice, existing methodologies and the future prospects for incorporating other relevant dimensions into a future Federation of European Nutrition Societies conceptual framework for SFBDG in Europe and working groups were formed to address that.
The purpose of this paper is to report on new parents’ experiences of using the available range of parenting resources that help to guide parenting choices and practices. Using a semi-structured interview schedule, 30 participants were asked about their engagement with parenting resources. The types of resources considered most salient to the participants of this study in Victoria, Australia, included professional services, peers, family and friends, and written material. On the whole, these parents valued expert opinion when they encountered problems but experienced a level of frustration when they did not ‘feel heard’ by professionals or when faced with mixed messages. While they reported some resistance to overt advice offered by family and friends, especially if the information was considered ‘out-dated’, they relied heavily on informal advice and support from peers, even if this was supported only by anecdotal evidence.
Anti-refugee violence often accompanies refugee migration, but the factors that fuel or mitigate that violence remain poorly understood, including the common policy response in such settings of humanitarian aid. Existing theory and policy debates predict that aid to refugees exacerbates anti-refugee violence by increasing hosts’ resentment toward refugees. In contrast, however, aid may reduce violence in ways such as increasing host communities’ well-being through more demand for local goods and services and refugees sharing aid. We test for the sign and mechanisms of this relationship. Evidence from original survey data and a regression discontinuity design suggests that cash transfers to Syrian refugees in Lebanon did not increase anti-refugee violence, and if anything they reduced violence. Exploring why aid does not increase hostility, we find evidence that aid allows recipients to indirectly compensate locals through higher demand for local goods and services, directly benefit locals by offering help and sharing aid, and reduce contact with potential aggressors.
Increased system robustness is one of the promises of modularity. However, research on the topic has provided conflicting findings. By generating more than 2000 system architectures, this paper shows that the relation between modularity and robustness is multifaceted: Modularity decreases topological robustness, increases robustness to change propagation, and provides economic benefits. Results here confirm the importance of modularity, enable reconciliation of opposing findings from prior research, and guides researchers and practitioners in the selection of appropriate robustness measures.
Ptychites is among the most widely distributed ammonoid genera of the Triassic and is namesake of a family and superfamily. However, representatives of the genus mostly show low-level phenotypic disparity. Furthermore, a large number of taxa are based on only a few poorly preserved specimens, creating challenges to determine ptychitid taxonomy. Consequently, a novel approach is needed to improve ptychitid diversity studies. Here, we investigate Ptychites spp. from the middle and late Anisian of Nevada. The species recorded include Ptychites embreei n. sp., which is distinguished by an average conch diameter that is much smaller and shows a more evolute coiling than most of its relatives. The new species ranges from the Gymnotoceras mimetus to the Gymnotoceras rotelliformis zones, which makes it the longest-ranging species of the genus. For the first time, the ontogenetic development of Ptychites was obtained from cross sections where possible. Cross-sectioning highlights unique ontogenetic trajectories in ptychitids. This demonstrates that, despite showing little phenotypic disparity, Ptychites was highly ontogenetically differentiated, and thus the high taxonomic diversity at the species level is justified for the species investigated.
Primary objective was to evaluate the influence of atomoxetine on standard variables of a computer-based Continuous Performance Test (cb-CPT) that reflects executive function and inhibitory control in children with ADHD.
Two-arm, 8-week, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study in ADHD patients (6-12yrs). Atomoxetine was initiated at 0.5 mg/kg qd for 1 week, followed by 7 weeks on the target dose of 1.2 mg/kg qd. Primary outcome were the q-scores of the cb-CPT standard variables after 8 weeks using mixed models for repeated measurement. Additionally, ADHD-RS scores, WREMB (Weekly Ratings of Evening and Morning Behavior) and CGI-S-ADHD were assessed (weeks 0,1,2,4,6,8).
N=128 patients were randomized, N=125 evaluated (atomoxetine/placebo: 63/62). Baseline characteristics were comparable (77.6% boys; 40.0% patients with ODD/CD; 24.8% prior stimulant treatment; mean (±SD) age 9.0±1.79yrs; mean ADHD-RS total score 36.99±11.56). At Week 8, all primary outcomes (cb-CPT q-scores) were significantly reduced vs. placebo (all p< 0.001) for mean (effect size [ES] 0.41), variance (ES=0.71), and normalized variance (ES=0.50) of “Reaction time”, “Number of microevents” (ES=1.00), “Commission errors” (ES=0.50), “Omission errors” (ES=0.70), “Distance of movement” (ES=0.90) and “Area of movement” (ES=1.08), “Time active” (ES=0.69), and “Motion simplicity” (ES=0.38). Secondary endpoints at Week 8 improved significantly in favor of atomoxetine: ADHD-RS: total score ES=1.30, p< 0.001; hyperactive/impulsive subscore ES=1.37, p< 0.001; inattentive subscore ES=1.07, p< 0.001). WREMB: total score ES=1.00, p< 0.001; morning subscore ES=0.59, p=0.002.; evening subscore ES=1.02, p< 0.001. CGI-S-ADHD: ES=1.11; p< 0.001.
Atomoxetine for 8 weeks significantly reduced ADHD symptoms as measured by the objective cb-CPT.