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Two dimensional temperature measurements of patterned wafers are presented. The measurements are made using a commercially available CCD camera operating at λ=900nm, yielding a spatial resolution of 1 pixel per mm2 and a relative accuracy of ±0.25 °C. The emissivity is determined using a reflectivity measurement made possible by the unique properties of a short wavelength arc lamp RTP chamber. The use of this measurement system for closed loop control is discussed and the application to maintaining accurate time temperature profiles independent of emissivity is described.
The new approaches that have been recently introduced to account
for the potential effects of the PWR water environment on the high
cycle thermal fatigue of austenitic stainless steel components have
been experimentally assessed under conditions matching the actual
in service loadings.
Examples of high cycle thermal fatigue (HCTF) damage cases on
PWR austenitic stainless steel components are reported. High cycle
thermal fatigue risk is primarily due to mixing of cold and hot water,
unexpected leaks of cold water through check valves or to turbulent
penetration of hot water running in a main pipe into a connected line.
When such thermal fatigue issues are identified in PWR power
plants, manufacturing improvement such as inner surface polishing
of austenitic stainless steel parts can be performed to increase the
fatigue resistance of the components.
This case study examines the exposure risk of Quebec drivers aged 68 and over in five different difficult driving situations. 307 cases were identified based on driving performance (three or more accidents or traffic violations over a 3-year period) and paired on a 2:1 basis according to age, sex and area (urban/rural) with a random-selected control group (clean driving record). The response rate to this mail survey was 60 per cent. Assumptions were validated using the logistic regression method. Results show that as drivers get older, they gradually give up driving in risky situations; regardless of age, the number of drivers who stop driving in difficult conditions is proportionally higher in the control group. On the other hand, vulnerability would seem to increase with the exposure level. The analysis also shows that rural drivers are more vulnerable than urban drivers, regardless of exposure factors. Finally, the perception of health would seem to have little impact on the elderly drivers' performance.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the reliability of the French version of the M.F.A.Q. method, a tool used to measure the physical health of the elderly. During the survey, four interviewers assessed 15 subjects each by using the M.F.A.Q. Following this, all 60 participants were evaluated two months later, this time without the subjects being present. In addition, a geriatric specialist also assessed the 60 questionnaires a posteriori. The results show an intra-rater reliability (a 96% performance rate within a 1-point difference on a scale of 6) and an inter-rater reliability (Kappas, on a scale from good to moderate; alpha of Cronbach = 0.93) which were acceptable. An analysis of the covariance reveals that age does not figure in the judgments. The authors express certain reservations, but conclude that this instrument of measurement is flexible, easy to administer, in addition to its metrological properties being satisfactory.
The debate regarding paradigms and investigation methods is at least partially responsible for the fragmentation of gerontologocial knowledge. First, the article presents arguments in favour of methodological pluralism as a research designed to facilitate the integration of knowledge and innovation. The main goal of methodological pluralism is to reconcile different approaches by combining a number of observation and data-collection scenarios within the same study. After presenting the arguments in favour of methodological pluralism and identifying the integration methods that can be applied to study results already obtained, the author proposes a taxonomy of multiple research strategies that may be utilized in the same study. He specifically discusses: pseudo-triangulation, parallel and sequential triangulation, composite methods, mixed methods and the multi-method approach.
Heterozygous 4.1(−) hereditary elliptocytosis results from the absence of one haploid set of protein 4.1, a major component of the red cell skeleton. Two successive epidemiological investigations revealed fifteen probands in the French Northern Alps. The frequency of this disease seems to be very high in four small villages isolated in the Aravis mountains. The genealogical study shows that eleven probands share common ancestors who lived eight or ten generations ago in these villages. Thus there was probably a founder effect from one pair of ancestors, strengthened by endogamy. In contrast, four probands originate from another area and are not genealogically related. Recent results in molecular genetics support the present data.
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