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In the years just before the First World War, Henri Bergson (1859–1941) was at the height of his fame. His first two books, Time and Free Will (1889) and Matter and Memory (1896), had established him as the preeminent philosopher of France. But it was the publication of Creative Evolution in 1907 that made him a genuine cultural sensation. Avant-garde artists and writers flocked to his lectures at the Collège de France. As did “high society”: so much so that students, tired of losing their seats to those able to send valets hours in advance to reserve seats, circulated an (ultimately unsuccessful) petition to ban the general public. And on the day Bergson was elected to the French Academy, he found his lectern showered with flower petals, leading him to protest, “but … I am not a dancer!”
The chapter presents Bergson as an underacknowledged yet first-rate social theorist, demonstrating that in Two Sources Bergson is in extensive, albeit implicit, dialogue with his two great predecessors in the tradition -Émile Durkheim and Auguste Comte - and that his encounter with them turns on three questions at the heart of sociology as a unique field of inquiry: first, what binds people together in society? second, what is the origin of society? and third, what is the nature of social change? By working through Bergson’s engagement with these key authors and themes, the chapter presents Bergson’s own original theory of society and sociability, which, as with all his work, centers on creativity, but this time in connection with personal and collective transformation.
Intermediate morphologies of a new fossil crinoid shed light on the pathway by which crinoids acquired their distinctive arms. Apomorphies originating deep in echinoderm history among early nonblastozoan pentaradiate echinoderms distinguish Tremadocian (earliest Ordovician) crinoid arms from later taxa. The brachial series is separated from the ambulacra, part of the axial skeleton, by lateral plate fields. Cover plates are arrayed in two tiers, and floor plates expressed podial basins and pores. Later during the Early Ordovician, floor plates contacted and nestled into brachials, then were unexpressed as stereom elements entirely and cover plates were reduced to a single tier. Incorporation of these events into a parsimony analysis supports crinoid origin deep in echinoderm history separate from blastozoans (eocrinoids, ‘cystoids’). Arm morphology is exceptionally well-preserved in the late Tremadocian to early Floian Athenacrinus broweri new genus new species. Character analysis supports a hypothesis that this taxon originated early within in the disparid clade. Athenacrinus n. gen. (in Athenacrinidae new family) is the earliest-known crinoid to express what is commonly referred to as ‘compound’ or ‘biradial’ morphology. This terminology is misleading in that no evidence for implied fusion or fission of radials exists, rather it is suggested that this condition arose through disproportionate growth.
Bergson was a pre-eminent European philosopher of the early twentieth century and his work covers all major branches of philosophy. This volume of essays is the first collection in twenty years in English to address the whole of Bergson's philosophy, including his metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of science, philosophy of life, aesthetics, ethics, social and political thought, and religion. The essays explore Bergson's influence on a number of different fields, and also extend his thought to pressing issues of our time, including philosophy as a way of life, inclusion and exclusion in politics, ecology, the philosophy of race and discrimination, and religion and its enduring appeal. The volume will be valuable for all who are interested in this important thinker and his continuing relevance.
We report the case of a fetus with anamnios sequence and VACTERL syndrome, having a circumflex right aortic arch. Two arterial ducts join anteriorly to form a common vessel that connects to the pulmonary trunk with confluent pulmonary branches. Embryologically, the dorsal right 6th aortic arch did not disappear and the aortic arch development stopped in a symmetrical state with an exceptional “Y-shaped” merged bilateral arterial duct.
Analysis of milk BHB concentration by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry more frequently than regular milk testing could help dairy producers in decision making, particularly if it would be possible to use small hand-stripped samples (hereinafter simply called samples) taken between dairy herd improvement (DHI) test-samples analysed using DHI algorithms. The aim of this Research Communication was to evaluate milk BHB concentration and the prevalence of elevated milk BHB concentration analysed by FTIR spectrometry compared with flow-injection analysis (SKALAR) from samples taken at different times relative to the milking. A total of 293 early-lactation cows in 44 commercial dairy herds were involved in the study. Herds were visited once during the morning milking when a routine DHI test-sample was obtained using in-line milk samplers. Additional milk samples were taken by hand stripping as follows: (1) Just before connecting the milking machine; (2) immediately after removing the milking machine; (3) 3 h after milking and (4) 6 h after milking. Milk samples were analysed for BHB concentration by FTIR and SKALAR, the latter being the reference method. Milk BHB concentration from samples taken before milking was different between FTIR and SKALAR whereas no difference was noted for other sampling times, although milk BHB concentration rose as time after milking increased. Except for DHI test-samples for which prevalence was not different between analysis methods, prevalence of elevated milk BHB concentration (≥0.15 mmol/l) was greater for FTIR analysis. However, no difference in prevalence was observed between SKALAR and FTIR when using a threshold of ≥0.20 mmol/l. In summary, hand-stripped milk samples taken any time after removing the milking machine until 6 h after the milking can be recommended for FTIR analysis of elevated milk BHB concentration prevalence provided a threshold of 0.20 mmol/l is used.
Objectives: Although the influence of prior knowledge on associative memory in healthy aging has received great attention, it has never been studied in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study aimed at assessing whether AD patients could benefit from prior knowledge in associative memory and whether such benefit would be related to the integrity of their semantic memory. Methods: Twenty-one AD patients and 21 healthy older adults took part in an associative memory task using semantically related and unrelated word pairs and were also submitted to an evaluation of their semantic memory. Results: While participants of both groups benefited from semantic relatedness in associative discrimination, related pairs recognition was significantly predicted by semantic memory integrity in healthy older adults only. Conclusions: We suggest that patients benefitted from semantic knowledge to improve their performance in the associative memory task, but that such performance is not related to semantic knowledge integrity evaluation measures because the two tasks differ in the way semantic information is accessed: in an automatic manner for the associative memory task, with automatic processes thought to be relatively preserved in AD, and in a controlled manner for the semantic knowledge evaluation, with controlled processes thought to be impaired in AD. (JINS, 2019, 25, 443–452)
It has been long suggested that public pension wealth may crowd out household savings. However, there remains controversy about the extent of this displacement effect. In this paper we use an original microsimulation model based on retrospective survey data collected through the third wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to estimate the displacement effect of public pension wealth on other wealth in Belgium. Combining this rich dataset with an accurate estimation of the individual pension entitlements allows us to circumvent some of the main measurement error problems faced by previous studies. We estimate that an extra euro of public pension wealth is associated with about 14–25 cent decline in households’ non-pension wealth.
We performed a molecular and epidemiologic study of a healthcare-associated rhinovirus outbreak to better understand transmission in neonatal intensive care settings. Sequencing of the 7 outbreak strains revealed 4 distinct clades, indicating multiple sources. A single clade infected 3 patients in adjacent rooms, suggesting horizontal transmission. We observed 1 rhinovirus-associated death.
Paul Levay and Jenny Craven have amassed, as editors of this book, an impressive, international array of information specialists and librarians together with other information retrieval experts and methodologists from academia, evidence synthesis organizations, libraries and elsewhere with considerable but diverse experience and expertise in systematic searching. In the early days of evidence-based practice, the role of the information specialist or librarian tended to be to help practitioners and researchers to identify systematic reviews and other evidence-based syntheses in the published literature, through searches of bibliographic databases and other related resources. Nowadays, information specialists and librarians serve as expert searchers in efficiently identifying not only systematic reviews but also relevant studies for inclusion in systematic reviews and other evidence syntheses across a wide spectrum of disciplines. The focus on searching for published studies identified solely from bibliographic databases has been replaced with a recognition of the importance of considering unpublished studies and those published in grey literature and the need to use a much wider range of sources, including trials registers, regulatory agency sources and other diverse sources of data. In order to do this, they employ an increasingly diverse and complex range of skills and techniques in both identifying a wider range of resources and exploiting these resources to their full potential, to meet the ever-changing needs of the evidence synthesis community.
Systematic searching is essential for ‘traditional’ systematic reviews within highly-focused research topics and for broader-based topics such as public health, for mixed methods reviews, rapid reviews, realist syntheses, scoping reviews and surveillance, to name but a few. There is a growing recognition of the need for timeliness in evidence syntheses, not only with respect to the amount of time taken to identify the studies and assess their eligibility for inclusion but also with respect to how out-of-date the searches might be at the time of publication of the evidence synthesis. The concept of living systematic reviews and guidelines has been developed to address this, where surveillance techniques are employed to identify studies as soon as their results are made available (either in published or unpublished sources) and the results of the studies are incorporated as quickly as possible into the reviews or guidelines.
Increasing numbers of research papers about information retrieval for Health Technology Assessments (HTA), systematic reviews and other evidence syntheses are being published. It is time-consuming for information specialists to keep up-to-date with the latest developments in the field. To help searchers with this challenge, the Interest Group on Information Retrieval (IRG) of Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) has compiled the best available research evidence on information retrieval aspects into an open-access web resource: Summarized Research in Information Retrieval for HTA (SuRe Info). The resource can be accessed at http://www.sure-info.org
The Sure Info team run topic-specific search strategies in selected relevant databases to identify information retrieval methods publications that fulfil the SuRe Info inclusion criteria. Eligible publications receive a structured abstract containing a brief critical appraisal. Key messages for search practice based on the appraisals and accepted best practice are summarized into topic-specific chapters.
SuRe Info currently offers fourteen chapters, with more in development. SuRe Info chapters fall into two categories: (i) chapters about general search methods that are used across all types of research, such as how to develop search strategies and the availability and use of search filters, and (ii) chapters summarizing the methods to use when searching for specific aspects of HTA (as defined in the European Network for HTA (EUnetHTA) HTA Core Model®), including searching for evidence on clinical effectiveness and safety, and identifying economic evaluations. References at the end of each chapter are linked to appraisals of publications that have been used to develop each chapter. Links to the full-text of the publications are provided when freely available. The SuRe Info chapters are reviewed every six months and updated if new evidence is identified or if resources change.
SuRe Info is a unique resource, identifying and summarizing current best research evidence on information retrieval aspects for HTA. It supports the timely uptake of potential efficiencies arising from new evidence that may be incorporated into the evidence identification processes of HTA organizations.