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Since their widespread adoption in the nineteenth century, censuses have played both bureaucratic and ideological roles, as the classification of the population according to social and cultural characteristics facilitated the development of the administrative infrastructure required by emergent nation-states and the definition of national and group identity categories officialized particular ways of understanding difference. This chapter critically analyzes the questions about language asked by Statistics Canada and the US Census Bureau. I examine the relationship of language data to various policies in the two countries, as well as the ways that those policies, and specific ways of asking about language, reflect and reproduce particular ideologies of language. In addition to revealing differing perspectives on individual and societal multilingualism, this analysis demonstrates that census language statistics do not simply serve as "facts" undergirding policy, but instead produce particular representations of linguistic diversity and, thus, constitute official discourses on multilingualism.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our overarching theoretical framework is the health belief model (HBM). Guided by HBM, we aim to identify rural adults’ perceived barriers and motivations to participating in research. Specifically, our research questions are listed below. RQ1: What socio-cultural factors influence rural tobacco users’ intentions to a) participate in research studies and b) undertake tobacco cessation? RQ2: What bio-psychological and behavioral factors influence rural tobacco users’ intentions to a) participate in research studies and b) undertake tobacco cessation? RQ3: How do rural tobacco users perceive citizen scientists as disseminators of a) tobacco cessation and b) recruitment messages? METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In Phase I of this multi-stage project, we are conducting in-depth interviews with approximately 30 tobacco users in rural Florida. The interview consists of semi-structured questions and multiple validated questionnaires. Specifically, we ask a series of questions about participants’ barriers to participating in research. Additionally, we include questionnaires on participants’ tobacco use history, nicotine dependence, motivation to quit, and willingness to participate in research studies. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This study consists of two main phases. Data collection for Phase 1 of the study is ongoing, and we will discuss these recent findings. We anticipate data collection and data analysis to be finalized by May, 2019. Beginning in August 2019 through August 2020, we will focus on Phase II, which entails designing and implementing an intervention to increase rural tobacco users’ willingness to participate in research. Given existing literature on other underrepresented groups in research, we anticipate that rural tobacco users will express that logistical barriers, such as transportation and time, prevent them from participating in research. Additionally, we anticipate these individuals may have socio-cultural barriers to participating in research, including distrust in the medical system and apprehension over discipline-specific terminology. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The results of this formative research will be critical to our development of a targeted intervention to increase rural tobacco users’ participation in research. Additionally, our interdisciplinary and community-based approach in this study acknowledges the importance of involving the target population in the research process, which is in line with NIH’s updated model of translational research. We will discuss the process of collaborating with extension agents in rural counties in Florida to reach underrepresented communities.
Pressure transducer technology to measure gas production from microbial ecosystems has been utilized in a number of ways but predominantly for food evaluation. The approach also has considerable potential to increase our understanding of, and ability to manipulate, the rumen microbial ecosystem, but most research to date has concentrated on measurement of total gas production and not composition. The aim of this study was to extend the scope of the gas production technique to the quantitation of component gases, whilst investigating ruminal gas production in the presence and absence of methanogens.
Novel lines of high sugar ryegrass have been shown to increase the efficiency of N use and milk production in zero-grazed cattle (Miller et al., 1999). An experiment was carried out to determine whether this was in part due to an increase in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in response to the amount and availability of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) increasing the balance between energy and nitrogen supply to the rumen microbial population.
Although repeatedly associated with white matter microstructural alterations, bipolar disorder (BD) has been relatively unexplored using complex network analysis. This method combines structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to model the brain as a network and evaluate its topological properties. A group of highly interconnected high-density structures, termed the ‘rich-club’, represents an important network for integration of brain functioning. This study aimed to assess structural and rich-club connectivity properties in BD through graph theory analyses.
We obtained structural and diffusion MRI scans from 42 euthymic patients with BD type I and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Weighted fractional anisotropy connections mapped between cortical and subcortical structures defined the neuroanatomical networks. Next, we examined between-group differences in features of graph properties and sub-networks.
Patients exhibited significantly reduced clustering coefficient and global efficiency, compared with controls globally and regionally in frontal and occipital regions. Additionally, patients displayed weaker sub-network connectivity in distributed regions. Rich-club analysis revealed subtly reduced density in patients, which did not withstand multiple comparison correction. However, hub identification in most participants indicated differentially affected rich-club membership in the BD group, with two hubs absent when compared with controls, namely the superior frontal gyrus and thalamus.
This graph theory analysis presents a thorough investigation of topological features of connectivity in euthymic BD. Abnormalities of global and local measures and network components provide further neuroanatomically specific evidence for distributed dysconnectivity as a trait feature of BD.
Despite the frequent references to identity within the field of heritage language education, it is only in the past decade or so that scholars have begun to conduct empirical research on this topic. This article examines recent research on identity and heritage language education in the United States. The article begins with a discussion of the simultaneous development of heritage language education as a field and growth of interest in identity and language learning, followed by a critical examination of the terms “heritage language” and “heritage language education,” as well as of “heritage language learner” as an identity category. Next is a review of empirical studies conducted within the past 5 years, including survey-based research that considered identity in the exploration of students’ reasons for heritage language study, in addition to qualitative and ethnographic research that focused specifically on heritage language learners’ sense of themselves and their relationship to the heritage language, as well as on the ways that heritage language learner identities are constructed, indexed, and negotiated in classroom settings. The next section looks at recent research on pedagogical approaches designed to engage heritage language learners in critical considerations of language and identity. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.
Trade being the main theme of this Rencontre, I thought it of some interest to give some reflections on the theme from a general view-point, notably on the role of trade in connection with the diffusion of civilization and on trade as a factor in the economy of ancient Mesopotamia, in short trade as a cultural and an economic factor, and a possible connection between these two. Did trade play an important role in the diffusion of features of civilization in ancient Mesopotamia and surrounding countries? Can it be said that trade was an important element in the economy of that area?
The reflections are mainly based on my own observations and my own, I hope, logical reasoning, the theoretical literature being left out of consideration. I had not been able to gain access to the papers of the seminar held in Santa Fé in 1973, published under the title Ancient Civilization and Trade in 1975, before the Rencontre. Having taken cognizance of this book, it can be stated that the approach to the problems is different from that in this paper; the studies, analysing the trade itself, mainly in prehistoric and protohistoric times, have a clear theoretical character, whereas this paper only regards the two above-mentioned aspects in historical times, starting from some conspicuous facts and questions arising from them.
White matter (WM) abnormalities are proposed as potential endophenotypic markers of bipolar disorder (BD). In a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) voxel-based analysis (VBA) study of families multiply affected with BD, we previously reported that widespread abnormalities of fractional anisotropy (FA) are associated with both BD and genetic liability for illness. In the present study, we further investigated the endophenotypic potential of WM abnormalities by applying DTI tractography to specifically investigate tracts implicated in the pathophysiology of BD.
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were acquired from 19 patients with BD type I from multiply affected families, 21 of their unaffected first-degree relatives and 18 healthy volunteers. DTI tractography was used to identify the cingulum, uncinate fasciculus (UF), arcuate portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), corpus callosum, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC). Regression analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of participant group and genetic liability on FA and radial diffusivity (RD) in each tract.
We detected a significant effect of group on both FA and RD in the cingulum, SLF, callosal splenium and ILF driven by reduced FA and increased RD in patients compared to controls and relatives. Increasing genetic liability was associated with decreased FA and increased RD in the UF, and decreased FA in the SLF, among patients.
WM microstructural abnormalities in limbic, temporal and callosal pathways represent microstructural abnormalities associated with BD whereas alterations in the SLF and UF may represent potential markers of endophenotypic risk.