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to examine short and middle-term effectiveness of a group cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBT) in pathological gambling (PG) and to analyze predictors of therapy outcome.
Two hundred and ninety PG patients consecutively admitted to our Unit participated in the current study. All participants were diagnosed according to DSM-IV-criteria. Manualized outpatient group CBT [16 weekly sessions] was given. Specific assessment before and after the therapy and at 1, 3 and 6 months follow-up was conducted. Logistic regression analyses and survival analysis were applied.
outpatient group CBT was effective with abstinence rates by the end of therapy of 76.1%, and 81.5% at 6 months follow-up. The dropout rate during treatment decreased significantly after the fifth treatment session. Psychopathological distress (p = 0.040) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were identified as factors predicting relapses and drop-outs respectively.
our findings suggest that group CBT is effective for treating PG individuals. Several psychopathological and personality traits were identified as outcome predictors.
Chronic pain is a prevalent condition worldwide. Opioids have beneficial effects when treating pain, but also involve risks. Opioid iatrogenic dependence(OID) is becoming more prevalent in western countries. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are both among its predisposing factors and its complications.
To review factors predicting response to opioid treatment, especially those related with psychiatric comorbidities. We describe a case of OID as an example of the patient-type.
Attention needs to be paid to OID considering its growing health impact.
Throughout the case of a patient with chronic pain due to post-radiotherapic proctalgia, who suffered from depression and showed maladaptive personality traits, we describe a case of OID.
All patients assisted at our Pain Clinic have current or previous psychiatric disorders, and in almost half of the cases is major depression, as it happens in our case-example. Concomitant psychopharmacological treatment of opioid dependence and psychiatric comorbidities (including other drugs abuse/dependence) improves outcomes.
A global view of the opioid-consumer that includes comorbid psychiatric conditions is needed.
There has been an escalation of therapeutic use and abuse of opioids. Aberrant drug related behaviors (ADRB) have prevalence between 2.8% and 62.2% in chronic pain patients treated with opioids and dependence is estimated around 3.27%.
To estimate the prevalence of dependence, ADRB, risk of opioid abuse, and co-occurring disorders in patients with chronic pain in our environment.
A total of 115 (n = 115) patients attending our pain clinic were screened to evaluate the risk of opioid abuse and presence of dependence including a clinical interview, hamilton depression scale (HAD), opioid risk tool (ORT), diagnostic criteria for substance abuse and dependence (DSM IV-TR) and a checklist of ADRB.
Among the patients, 78.26% were taking opioids, aberrant opioid related behaviors were detected in 20% and 8.9% met criteria for abuse or dependence; 11.3% had high risk and 20% moderate risk of opioid abuse (ORT). The most prevalent substance use disorders were sedative (11.3%) and alcohol (5.2%). There was a significant difference in means (t = -3.20 P < 0.005) in ORT scores between patients with current opiod dependence (x = 7.70 [s.d. = 3.07]) and without it (x = 2.88 [s.d = 3.58]); 30.4% had anxiety, 20% depression and 3.5% adjustment disorders; 57.5% and 48.3% had a score > 10 on anxiety and depression respectively on the HAD.
A systematic screening of risk of opioid abuse and of dependence as well as psychotherapy to treat comorbid psychopathology should be part of the treatment protocol.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This paper describes an innovative institution, Capacitación y Desarrollo Integral AC (CADI – Comprehensive Training and Development), created in Mexico to develop evidence-based interventions grounded in the principles of inclusion, independence, social and health equity that promote the well-being of persons with intellectual developmental disorder older than 14 years.
Serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1–95 years (January–October 2010) and analysed to assess the seroprevalence of Bordetella pertussis (BP) in Mexico. Subjects' gender, age, geographical region and socioeconomic status were extracted from the survey and compiled into a subset database. A total of 3344 subjects (median age 29 years, range 1–95 years) were included in the analysis. Overall, BP seroprevalence was 47·4%. BP seroprevalence was significantly higher in males (53·4%, P = 0·0007) and highest in children (59·3%) decreasing with advancing age (P = 0·0008). BP seroprevalence was not significantly different between regions (P = 0·1918) and between subjects of socioeconomic status (P = 0·0808). Women, adolescents and young adults were identified as potential sources of infection to infants. Booster vaccination for adolescents and primary contacts (including mothers) for newborns and infants may provide an important public health intervention to reduce the disease burden.
To investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and self-perceived body shape silhouette and BMI in a sample of Mexican women.
A cross-sectional analysis of dietary habits from baseline data of a large cohort study (EsMaestra) conducted in 2006–2008.
The state of Veracruz, Mexico.
Mexican teachers (n 20 330) provided information on body shape silhouette at baseline, changes in body shape silhouette and BMI, as well as information on sociodemographic variables and lifestyle.
The median BMI was 26·8 kg/m2; 43 % of women were overweight and 24 % were obese. The carbohydrates, sweet drinks and refined foods pattern was associated with a greater risk of having a large silhouette and a large BMI (BMI ≥ 30·0 kg/m2v. BMI < 25·0 kg/m2; ORT1−3 = 1·86, 95 % CI 1·56, 2·22 and 1·47, 95 % CI 1·28, 1·69, respectively) with a significant trend when comparing the first and third tertiles of intake. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with a lower risk of having a large silhouette and a large BMI (ORT1−3 = 0·68, 95 % CI 0·57, 0·82 and ORT1−3 = 0·77, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·88, respectively) with a significant decreasing trend. Similar results were observed when change in silhouette (from 18 years of age to current silhouette) was considered.
High intakes of carbohydrates, sweet drinks and refined foods are related to larger silhouettes. Public health intervention improving access to healthy dietary guidelines, healthy food choice in the work place, promotion of physical activity and regulation of beverages with a high sugar content and of refined foods should be considered.
We have conducted a qualitative study to collect information about services for adults and older adolescents with intellectual disability in Mexico, as part of ongoing research on intellectual disability from a public health and rights-oriented perspective. Our focus is on existing services and outstanding needs. One of our main goals is to provide an opportunity for people with intellectual disability to convey their experiences and express their opinions about the additional services they require. Three types of service are included: those supporting autonomy or independence (personal and economic); those enhancing community inclusion; and those providing vocational opportunities.
The awareness that genes and genomes are extraordinarily rich historical documents from which a wealth of evolutionary information can be retrieved has widened the range of phylogenetic studies to previously unsuspected heights. The development of efficient sequencing techniques, which now allows the rapid sequencing of complete cellular genomes, combined with the simultaneous and independent blossoming of computer science, has led not only to an explosive growth of databases and new sophisticated tools for their exploitation, but also to the recognition that, in spite of many lateral gene-transfer (LGT) events, different macromolecules are uniquely suited as molecular chronometers in the construction of nearly universal phylogenies.
Cladistic analysis of rRNA sequences is acknowledged as a prime force in systematics and from its very inception had a major impact on our understanding of early cellular evolution. The comparison of small-subunit ribosomal-RNA (16/18S rRNA) sequences led to the construction of a trifurcated unrooted tree in which all known organisms can be grouped in one of three major monophyletic cell lineages, i.e. the domains Bacteria (Eubacteria), Archaea (Archaeabacteria) and Eukarya (Eukaryotes) (Woese et al., 1990), which are all derived from an ancestral form, known as the last common ancestor (LCA).
To assess the association of time spent viewing television, videos and video games with measures of fat mass (BMI) and distribution (triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses (TSF, SSF)).
Cross-sectional validated survey, self-administered to students to assess screen time (television, videos and video games) and lifestyle variables. Trained personnel obtained anthropometry. The association of screen time with fat mass and distribution, stratified by sex, was modelled with multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders and correlation of observations within schools.
State of Morelos, Mexico.
Males (n 3519) and females (n 5613) aged 11 to 18 years attending urban and rural schools in Morelos.
In males, screen time of >5 h/d compared with <2 h/d was significantly associated with a 0·13 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·23) higher BMI Z-score, 0·73 mm (95 % CI 0·24, 1·22) higher SSF and 1·08 mm (95 % CI 0·36, 1·81) higher TSF. The positive association of screen time with SSF was strongest in males aged 11–12 years. Sexual maturity appeared to modify the association in females; a positive association between screen time and SSF was observed in those who had not undergone menarche (P for trend = 0·04) but not among sexually mature females (P for trend = 0·75).
Screen time is associated with fat mass and distribution among adolescent males in Mexico. Maturational tempo appears to affect the relationship of screen time with adiposity in boys and girls. Findings suggest that obesity preventive interventions in the Mexican context should explore strategies to reduce screen time among youths in early adolescence.
Antimony sulfide thin films (300 nm) have been deposited on glass substrates at 1–10°C from chemical bath. When heated these become crystalline and photoconductive with optical band gap (direct) of 1.7 eV. Thin films formed from chemical baths containing SbCl3 and sodium selenosulfate are of mixed phase Sb2O3/Sb2Se3, which when heated in the presence of Se-vapor converts to single phase Sb2Se3 film with optical band gap of 1.1 eV. Such films possess dark conductivity of 10-8 ohm-1cm-1 and show photosensitivity of two orders. Reaction of Sb2S3-CuS in nitrogen at 400°C produces crystalline, photoconductive p-type CuSbS2 with optical band gap (direct) of 1.5 eV. By controlling the deposition and heating condition, (i)Sb2S3-(p)CuSbS2 layer is formed, which is utilized in a photovoltaic structure, (n)CdS:In-(i)Sb2S3-(p)CuSbS2, with a Voc of 345 mV and Jsc 0.18 mA/cm2 under 1 kW m-2 tungsten halogen illumination. In the case of a structure, CdS:Cl-Sb2S3-Cu2-xSe, Voc of 350 mV and Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2 are observed.
Long before the idea of spontaneous generation was incorporated by JeanBaptiste de Lamarck into evolutionary biology to explain the first emergence of life, the possibility that other planets were inhabited had been discussed, sometimes in considerable detail, by scientists and philosophers alike (Lazcano 2001). More often than not, these were speculations that rested on the idea of a uniform universe but with little or no empirical basis. Today our approaches to the issue of life in the Universe have changed dramatically; neither the formation of planets nor the origin of life are seen as the result of inscrutable random events, but rather as natural outcomes of evolutionary events. The interconnection between these two processes is evident: understanding the formation of planets has major implications for our understanding of the early terrestrial environment, and therefore for the origin of living systems.
In the early 1930s, Alfonso L. Herrera proposed his so-called sulfocyanic theory on the origin of life, an autotrophic proposal on the first living beings according to which NH4SCN and H2CO acted as raw materials for the synthesis of bio-organic compounds inside primordial photosynthetic protoplasmic structures. Although the work of Herrera is frequently cited in historical analysis of the development of the origin of life studies, very little attention has been given to the chemical significance of the reactions he published. In this paper we report the results of our search for amino acids obtained from a reactive mixture used by Herrera from 1933 onwards. Chromatograms using the high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique suggest the presence of several amino acids, the total yield being 2% of the initial thiocyanate used. Preliminary identification based on HPLC retention times suggests the presence of glycine, alanine, cysteine and methionine. Alanine was the most abundant amino acid in all samples of fractionated material analysed. Although the starting materials used by Herrera were determined by his autotrophic hypothesis on the origin of cells, our results show that his experiments may provide insights into the abiotic synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids within the framework of a heterotrophic emergence of life.
Chemical bath deposition of thin films of antimony selenide from aqueous solutions containing complexes of antimony with citrate, tartrate and thiosulfate as ligands and sodium selenosulfate as source of selenide is reported. The films obtained appear amorphous in the as-prepared form and become crystalline upon annealing at 300°C. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of the annealed films show peaks attributable to Sb2Se3 and Sb2O3. Electron microprobe analyses have shown that the atomic ratio of Se/Sb is less than 1.5 in these films. The films are photoconductive and exhibit a high resistivity in the dark. Both direct (1.4 eV) and indirect (1.3-1.5 eV) band gaps are observed for the films.
A method to produce large area indium antimonide thin films through a reaction, Sb2S3 + 2 In → 2 InSb + 3 S↑ is presented. A thin film of Sb2S3 with typically 0.2 μm thickness is produced on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at 10°C using thiosulfatoantimonate(III) complex. Subsequently, a thin film of indium is deposited on the Sb2S3 film by thermal evaporation. Annealing the thin film stack of Sb2S3-In at 300°C in a nitrogen atmosphere produces the InSb thin film. The formation of this film is confirmed by x-ray diffraction studies. We would discuss the optimization of the individual film thickness in the Sb2S3-In stack to produce a thin film of single phase InSb or a heterostructure, Sb2S3-InSb. The electrical and optical properties of the films are presented.
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