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The electron beam of the electron microscope is an excellent source of energy for producing localized observable reactions in thin films.
The normal operating beam of a double condenser lens System focussed for studying a metal film in good thermal contact with its mount gives a calculated temperature rise of about 20° to 50°C. However, by changing these specified conditions, the sample may be heated to temperatures well over 1000°C. Copper and gadolinium--melting points 1083°C and 1312°C respectively--have been melted in the electron microscope beam, as have BeO whiskers--melting point 2530° + 30° C--by the authors and their colleagues.
During the course of catalytic experiments on bulk copper single crystals, several crystals were intentionally oxidized to form thick (6000 Å) Cu2O films on the copper substrates. These oxidized crystals were investigated by means of a high temperature chamber installed on a General Electric XRD-5 X-ray diffractometer. It was discovered subsequently that the lattice spacings of the Cu2O decreased upon heating and increased upon cooling. Bulk single crystals and polycrystals of copper were oxidized at 3 Torr of air for several hours. All of the oxidized crystals were examined with copper and chromium radiation and both showed similar results. Typical of the results was an oxidized (110) copper disc which showed a net contraction upon heating of 1% for the (110) Cu2O planes. This slightly oriented Cu2O film was distinguished because -it contracted on heating to 440°C from room temperature, then expanded from 440°-540°C, and then expanded again when cooled from 540°C to room temperature. CuO also was detected in the diffraction pattern and the CuO and copper spacings were behaving normally with the temperature changes. A polycrystal of Cu2O was'examined and that, of course, also acted normally as its temperature was varied. Borie and co-workers have reported and explained very nicely similar anomalous behavior for thinner (500 Å) (110) oriented Cu2O films grown on (110) copper substrates. They showed that the epitaxial forces would cause an oxide film grown at high temperatures to contract parallel to the metal interface and expand normal to the interface as the copper cools and contracts. The oxide would expand normal to the surface in. order to keep its unit cell volume constant.
It is felt that epitaxial forces are not causing the anomalous behavior in the present work mainly because the 6000 Å of Cu2O is too thick for epitaxy to exert a meaningful force. The oxide film on the (110) copper was slightly (110) oriented but all of the Cu2O reflections behaved similarly. An additional reason to discount epitaxy is that this Cu2O film expanded upon heating from 440°-540°C. For these thick oxide films epitaxial forces do not seem to be the controlling factor; therefore, a point defect mechanism must be the cause. Changing oxidation and diffusion rates with temperature would produce various vacancy concentrations in the oxide layer and cause the spacings to vary.
Conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11-C18:2; CLA) in milk arises as a result of microbial biohydrogenation of dietary linoleic and linolenic acids in the rumen (Kepler and Tove, 1967). Milk fat CLA concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher when cows were fed silage supplemented with pulp’n brew (a mixture of brewers grains, a by-product of the brewing industry, and sugar beet pulp in dry matter proportions of 0.65:0.35), compared with silage alone (Trial 1). Intake of spring grass resulted in a 2.1–fold increase in milk fat CLA concentrations over cows receiving autumn grass. Throughout lactation in Trial 2, spring calving cows produced higher milk fat CLA concentrations (from 0.5-2.7 g/100 g fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)) than autumn calving cows (0.3-1.7 g/100 g FAME); the former having spent 80% and the latter 50% of lactation on pasture. The CLA content was higher in late lactation milk compared with early lactation milk in both herds. There were no significant differences in milk yields or milk constituent yields between the herds. Manufacturing milk obtained between March and September was analyzed for milk fatty acid composition and the data correlated with grass growth throughout the season. Significant positive correlations were obtained between grass growth rates and concentrations of CLA and linolenic acid in milk fat. The data indicate that seasonal variation in milk fat CLA concentrations may be attributed to variation in pasture growth rates.
The key figure in early allegory is the corpse. In late allegory, it is the ‘souvenir’ [Andenken]. The ‘souvenir’ is the schema of the commodity's transformation into an object for the collector. The correspondences are, objectively, the endlessly varied resonances between one souvenir and the others
(Benjamin, Selected Writings 4: 190).
In Trust, the American philosopher Alphonso Lingis explains how he never liked to travel with a camera. He had the usual objections of a conscientious tourist: ‘It objectifies people with whom I wanted to interact … there is something false and delusive in trying to fix and stock up images and situations from the past … it was the changes in my heart I brought back home that were alone real’ (49). However, when he was given a camera as a gift, he decided to try it out. At first he only shot images of buildings and landscapes, but one day, while focusing on some willows fringing a lake in Kashmir, he accidentally snapped some men bathing. To his surprise, the men smiled and called out, ‘Thank you!’ Lingis writes that he then realised that taking photographs of people, especially those ‘who have no, and never will have, possessions, is the most innocent gift I could give them’.
There is much to feel uneasy about here: the implication that those without possessions are to be pitied; that they are the passive recipients of a gift, even though the gift in question is a photograph that will not in fact be given, but kept by the one who has transformed these people into an image for his own use and pleasure; and, perhaps above all, the claim that this exchange between perceiver and perceived, tourist and native, rich and poor, is ‘innocent’. This kind of discomfort accompanies the reader through many of Lingis's recent books, which are part travel memoirs and part philosophical meditations about encounters with strangers and the strange. It is evident that Lingis wants to cut through socioeconomic and political determinisms and subjectivations in order to get at what it is for one thinking, feeling, breathing body to encounter another thinking, feeling, breathing body – not a subject-to-subject encounter, still less a human-to-human one, but rather a creaturely one, epidermis to epidermis.
Remains of the Social is an interdisciplinary volume of essays that engages with what ‘the social’ might mean after apartheid; a condition referred to as ‘the post-apartheid social’. The volume grapples with apartheid as a global phenomenon that extends beyond the borders of South Africa between 1948 and 1994 and foregrounds the tension between the weight of lived experience that was and is apartheid, the structures that condition that experience and a desire for a ‘post-apartheid social’ (think unity through difference). Collectively, the contributors argue for a recognition of the ‘the post-apartheid’ as a condition that names the labour of coming to terms with the ordering principles that apartheid both set in place and foreclosed. The volume seeks to provide a sense of the terrain on which ‘the post-apartheid’ – as a desire for a difference that is not apartheid’s difference – unfolds, falters and is worked through.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study describes the design, operation, and evaluation of a community-based research (CBR) consult service within the setting of a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institution. To our knowledge, there are no published evaluations of a CBR consult service at a CTSA hub. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A CBR consult service was created to support faculty, healthcare providers/research coordinators, trainees, community-based organizations, and community members. A framework was developed to assess the stages of client engagement and to foster clear articulation of client needs and challenges. A developmental evaluation system was integrated with the framework to track progress, store documents, continuously improve the consult service, and assess research outcomes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This framework provides information on client numbers, types, services used, and successful outreach methods. Tracking progress reveals reasons that prevent clients from completing projects and facilitates learning outcomes relevant to clients and funding agencies. Clients benefit from the expert knowledge, community connections, and project guidance provided by the consult service team, increasing the likelihood of study completion and achieving research outcomes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our evaluation suggests that clients benefit by (1) gaining the collective knowledge of the experts comprising the team, (2) learning the process of doing CBR, including the required steps to reach completion, and (3) gaining a project management mentality promoting translational research outcomes. This study offers a framework by which CTSA institutions can expand their capacity to conduct and evaluate CBR while addressing challenges that inhibit community engagement.
This study describes the design, operation, and evaluation of a community-based research (CBR) consult service within the setting of a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institution. To our knowledge, there are no published evaluations of a CBR consult service at a CTSA hub.
A CBR consult service was created to support faculty, health-care providers/research coordinators, trainees, community-based organizations, and community members. A framework was developed to assess the stages of client engagement and to foster clear articulation of client needs and challenges. A developmental evaluation system was integrated with the framework to track progress, store documents, continuously improve the consult service, and assess research outcomes.
This framework provides information on client numbers, types, services used, and successful outreach methods. Tracking progress reveals reasons that prevent clients from completing projects and facilitates learning outcomes relevant to clients and funding agencies. Clients benefit from the expert knowledge, community connections, and project guidance provided by the consult service team, increasing the likelihood of study completion and achieving research outcomes.
This study offers a framework by which CTSA institutions can expand their capacity to conduct and evaluate CBR while addressing challenges that inhibit community engagement.
Research shows that cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) improves cognitive function, quality of life, and well-being of people with mild–moderate dementia. Despite consistent evidence and recommendations, CST is not routinely available in Ireland post-diagnosis. The aim of the current research was to develop and evaluate community-based CST for people with mild–moderate dementia, run by the Alzheimer Society of Ireland across four pilot sites in Ireland.
Participants with mild–moderate dementia attended once weekly CST sessions for 14 weeks. Baseline and post-intervention assessments were completed by CST participants, carers, and CST facilitators. Primary outcomes of interest for CST participants included quality of life (Quality of Life in Alzheimer Disease Scale), cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), and subjective cognitive function (Memory Awareness Rating Scale-Functioning Subscale). Secondary outcomes included well-being, cognitive ability, satisfaction with cognitive performance, and engagement and confidence of CST participants; well-being of carers; and job satisfaction of facilitators. Post-intervention interviews supplemented quantitative analyses.
In total, 20 CST participants, 17 carers, and six CST facilitators completed evaluation assessments. Results showed that CST improved participants’ satisfaction with cognitive performance (p=0.002), level of engagement (p=0.046), level of confidence (p=0.026). Improvements on subjective cognitive function just fell short of significance (p=0.055). Qualitative analysis of interview data identified consistent themes of cognitive and overall benefits of CST; and provided support for quantitative data.
Community-based CST positively impacted the lives of people with dementia and their families. This study supports prior recommendations that CST should be made routinely available to people with mild–moderate dementia, particularly in light of the lack of post-diagnostic interventions currently offered in Ireland.