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This paper investigates the impact of developments in Turkish migration management policy and changes in management of the Greek-Turkish border on border deaths prior to the 2015 mass inflow of refugees. As the locus of multiple and sustained Frontex operations, as well as several autonomous major changes in relevant policies and practices over the 2000–2014 period, the Greek-Turkish border can serve as a post hoc laboratory for analyzing the implications of EU-influenced migration and border management for deaths on the border. We conclude that a chaotic mix of national politics, policy development and law enforcement practices, flexible smuggling networks, and Frontex operations contributed to the mass inflows of 2015–2016 and ensured mass casualties.
We study negative association for mixed sampled point processes and show that negative association holds for such processes if a random number of their points fulfils the ultra log-concave (ULC) property. We connect the negative association property of point processes with directionally convex dependence ordering, and show some consequences of this property for mixed sampled and determinantal point processes. Some applications illustrate the general theory.
Çatalhöyük is one of the most well-known and important Neolithic/Chalcolithic sites in the Middle East. Settlement at the site encompasses two separate tell mounds known as Çatalhöyük East and West, with the focus of attention having traditionally been upon what is often regarded as the main site, the earlier East Mound. Limitations of dating evidence have, however, rendered the nature of the relationship between the settlements on these mounds unclear. Traditional models favoured a hiatus between their occupation, or, alternatively, a rapid shift from one site to the other, often invoking changes in natural conditions by way of an explanation. New dates challenge these theories, and indicate a potentially significant overlap between the occupation of the mounds, starting in the late seventh millennium BC.
In the first part of this paper we consider a general stationary subcritical cluster model in ℝd. The associated pair-connectedness function can be defined in terms of two-point Palm probabilities of the underlying point process. Using Palm calculus and Fourier theory we solve the Ornstein–Zernike equation (OZE) under quite general distributional assumptions. In the second part of the paper we discuss the analytic and combinatorial properties of the OZE solution in the special case of a Poisson-driven random connection model.
The Poisson process, a core object in modern probability, enjoys a richer theory than is sometimes appreciated. This volume develops the theory in the setting of a general abstract measure space, establishing basic results and properties as well as certain advanced topics in the stochastic analysis of the Poisson process. Also discussed are applications and related topics in stochastic geometry, including stationary point processes, the Boolean model, the Gilbert graph, stable allocations, and hyperplane processes. Comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained, this text is ideal for graduate courses or for self-study, with a substantial number of exercises for each chapter. Mathematical prerequisites, mainly a sound knowledge of measure-theoretic probability, are kept in the background, but are reviewed comprehensively in the appendix. The authors are well-known researchers in probability theory; especially stochastic geometry. Their approach is informed both by their research and by their extensive experience in teaching at undergraduate and graduate levels.