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Introduction: Prompt defibrillation is critical during paediatric cardiac arrest. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine the initial defibrillation energy dose for ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT) that is associated with sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during paediatric cardiac arrest. Associations between initial defibrillation energy dose with any ROSC, survival and defibrillation-induced complications were also assessed. Methods: A systematic review was performed using four databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) (PROSPERO: CRD42016036734). Human studies (cohort studies or controlled trials) and animal model studies (controlled trials) of pediatric cardiac arrest involving assessment of external defibrillation energy dosing were considered. The primary outcome was sustained ROSC. Two researchers independently reviewed all the titles and abstracts of the retrieved citations, selected the studies and extracted the data using a standardized template. Risk of bias of human non-randomised studies were assessed using the ROBIN-I tool (formerly ACROBAT-NRSI) tool proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration group. Results: The search strategy identified 14,471 citations of which 232 manuscripts were reviewed. Ten human and 10 animal model studies met the inclusion criteria. Human studies were prospective (n = 6) or retrospective (n = 4) cohort studies and included between 11 and 266 patients (median = 46 patients). Sustained ROSC rates ranged from 0 to 61% (n = 7). No studies reported a statistically significant association between the initial defibrillation energy dose and the rate of sustained ROSC (n = 7) or survival (n = 6). No human studies reported defibrillation-induced complications. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to clinical heterogeneity. The overall risk of bias was moderate. All animal studies were randomized controlled trials with 8 and 52 (median = 27) piglets. ROSC was frequently achieved (more than 85%) with energy dose ranging from 2 to 7 joules/kg (n = 7). The defibrillation threshold varied according to the body weight and appears to be higher in infant models. Conclusion: Defibrillation energy doses and thresholds varied according to the body weight and trended higher for infants. No definitive association between initial defibrillation doses and the outcomes of sustained ROSC or survival could be demonstrated.
This study aimed to investigate associations of health promotion and prevention regulatory foci with sports practice, and examined the Selection, Optimization and Compensation (SOC) process behind the positive relationship between health promotion focus and sports practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 513 French volunteer sports participants aged from 18 to 82. Participants completed an online self-report survey measuring health regulatory foci, SOC strategy, Amount of Sports Practice (ASP), health condition, and educational level. Path analysis main results (χ2 = 16.64; df = 5; p < .01; RMSEA = 0.067; CFI = 0.98; R2 = .24) demonstrated that ASP was positively related with health promotion focus (β = .13, p < .01), SOC strategy (β = .28, p < .001) and negatively related with health prevention focus (β = –.20, p < .001). SOC strategy was positively related with health promotion focus (β = .39, p < .001) and bootstrapping analyses revealed that this strategy partially mediated the positive relationship between health promotion focus and ASP, 95% CI [.13, .29]. Finally, additional analyses showed that it was specifically the elective selection, optimization and compensation sub-components of SOC strategy which played mediating roles in this link, [.13, .29] < 95% CI < [.13, .29]. For the first time in the literature, these results evidenced direct links between health regulatory foci and sports practice, and a mechanistic pathway between health promotion focus and sports practice. The theoretical and applied implications of these results for sports promotion are discussed.
Australian mosquito species significantly impact human health through nuisance biting and the transmission of endemic and exotic pathogens. Surveillance programmes designed to provide an early warning of mosquito-borne disease risk require reliable identification of mosquitoes. This study aimed to investigate the viability of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization–Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a rapid and inexpensive approach to the identification of Australian mosquitoes and was validated using a three-step taxonomic approach. A total of 300 mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from south-eastern New South Wales and morphologically identified. The legs from the mosquitoes were removed and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Fifty-eight mosquitoes were sequenced at the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene region and genetic relationships were analysed. We create the first MALDI-TOF MS spectra database of Australian mosquito species including 19 species. We clearly demonstrate the accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of Australian mosquitoes. It is especially useful for assessing gaps in the effectiveness of DNA barcoding by differentiating closely related taxa. Indeed, cox1 DNA barcoding was not able to differentiate members of the Culex pipiens group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens molestus, but these specimens were correctly identified using MALDI-TOF MS.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been recently described as an innovative and effective tool for identifying arthropods and mosquito blood meal sources. To test this approach in the context of an entomological survey in the field, mosquitoes were collected from five ecologically distinct areas of Mali. We successfully analysed the blood meals from 651 mosquito abdomens crushed on Whatman filter paper (WFPs) in the field using MALDI-TOF MS. The legs of 826 mosquitoes were then submitted for MALDI-TOF MS analysis in order to identify the different mosquito species. Eight mosquito species were identified, including Anopheles gambiae Giles, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex neavei, Culex perexiguus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes fowleri in Mali. The field mosquitoes for which MALDI-TOF MS did not provide successful identification were not previously available in our database. These specimens were subsequently molecularly identified. The WFP blood meal sources found in this study were matched against human blood (n = 619), chicken blood (n = 9), cow blood (n = 9), donkey blood (n = 6), dog blood (n = 5) and sheep blood (n = 3). This study reinforces the fact that MALDI-TOF MS is a promising tool for entomological surveys.
There has been a marked decline in the summer extent of Arctic sea ice over the past few decades. Data from autonomous ice mass-balance buoys can enhance our understanding of this decline. These buoys monitor changes in snow deposition and ablation, ice growth, and ice surface and bottom melt. Results from the summer of 2008 showed considerable large-scale spatial variability in the amount of surface and bottom melt. Small amounts of melting were observed north of Greenland, while melting in the southern Beaufort Sea was quite large. Comparison of net solar heat input to the ice and heat required for surface ablation showed only modest correlation. However, there was a strong correlation between solar heat input to the ocean and bottom melting. As the ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea region decreased, there was an increase in solar heat to the ocean and an increase in bottom melting.
Triatomines are haematophagous insects involved in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. The vector competence of these arthropods can be highly variable, depending on the species. A precise identification is therefore crucial for the epidemiological surveillance of T. cruzi and the determination of at-risk human populations. To circumvent the difficulties of morphological identification and the lack of comprehensiveness of the GenBank database, we hereby propose an alternative method for triatomine identification. The femurs of the median legs of triatomines from eight different species from French Guiana were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. Method evaluation was performed on fresh specimens and was applied to dry specimens collected between 1991 and 2003. Femur-derived protein extracts provided reproducible spectra within the same species along with significant interspecies heterogeneity. Validation of the study by blind test analysis provided 100% correct identification of the specimens in terms of the species, sex and developmental stage. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry appears to be a powerful tool for triatomine identification, which is a major step forward in the fight against Chagas disease.
IR scholars have made increasingly sophisticated use of historical analysis in the last two decades. To do so, they have appealed to theories or philosophies of history, tacitly or explicitly. However, the plurality of approaches to these theories has gone largely unsystematized. Nor have their implications been compared. Such historical–theoretic orientations concern the ‘problem of history’: the theoretical question of how to make the facts of the past coherently intelligible. We aim to make these assumptions explicit, and to contrast them systematically. In so doing, we show theories of history are necessary: IR-theoretic research unavoidably has tacit or overt historical–theoretic commitments. We locate the field’s current historical commitments in a typology, along two axes. Theories of history may be either familiar to the observer or unfamiliar. They may also be linear, having a long-term trajectory, nonlinear, lacking such directionality, or multilinear, proceeding along multiple trajectories. This comparative exercise both excavates the field’s sometimes-obscured commitments and shows some IR theorists unexpectedly share commitments, while others unexpectedly do not. We argue that better awareness of historical–theoretic reasoning, embedded in all IR uses and invocations of history, may encourage the discipline become more genuinely plural.
Limited data exist comparing the performance of computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs) for assessing sport-related concussion. We evaluated the reliability and validity of three CNTs—ANAM, Axon Sports/Cogstate Sport, and ImPACT—in a common sample. High school and collegiate athletes completed two CNTs each at baseline. Concussed (n=165) and matched non-injured control (n=166) subjects repeated testing within 24 hr and at 8, 15, and 45 days post-injury. Roughly a quarter of each CNT’s indices had stability coefficients (M=198 day interval) over .70. Group differences in performance were mostly moderate to large at 24 hr and small by day 8. The sensitivity of reliable change indices (RCIs) was best at 24 hr (67.8%, 60.3%, and 47.6% with one or more significant RCIs for ImPACT, Axon, and ANAM, respectively) but diminished to near the false positive rates thereafter. Across time, the CNTs’ sensitivities were highest in those athletes who became asymptomatic within 1 day before neurocognitive testing but was similar to the tests’ false positive rates when including athletes who became asymptomatic several days earlier. Test–retest reliability was similar among these three CNTs and below optimal standards for clinical use on many subtests. Analyses of group effect sizes, discrimination, and sensitivity and specificity suggested that the CNTs may add incrementally (beyond symptom scores) to the identification of clinical impairment within 24 hr of injury or within a short time period after symptom resolution but do not add significant value over symptom assessment later. The rapid clinical recovery course from concussion and modest stability probably jointly contribute to limited signal detection capabilities of neurocognitive tests outside a brief post-injury window. (JINS, 2016, 22, 24–37)
The enterohormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is required to amplify glucose-induced insulin secretion that facilitates peripheral glucose utilisation. Alteration in GLP-1 secretion during obesity has been reported but is still controversial. Due to the high adaptability of intestinal cells to environmental changes, we hypothesised that the density of GLP-1-producing cells could be modified by nutritional factors to prevent the deterioration of metabolic condition in obesity. We quantified L-cell density in jejunum samples collected during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in forty-nine severely obese subjects analysed according to their fat consumption. In mice, we deciphered the mechanisms by which a high-fat diet (HFD) makes an impact on enteroendocrine cell density and function. L-cell density in the jejunum was higher in obese subjects consuming >30 % fat compared with low fat eaters. Mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks displayed an increase in GLP-1-positive cells in the jejunum and colon accordingly to GLP-1 secretion. The regulation by the HFD appears specific to GLP-1-producing cells, as the number of PYY (peptide YY)-positive cells remained unchanged. Moreover, genetically obese ob/ob mice did not show alteration of GLP-1-positive cell density in the jejunum or colon, suggesting that obesity per se is not sufficient to trigger the mechanism. The higher L-cell density in HFD-fed mice involved a rise in L-cell terminal differentiation as witnessed by the increased expression of transcription factors downstream of neurogenin3 (Ngn3). We suggest that the observed increase in GLP-1-positive cell density triggered by high fat consumption in humans and mice might favour insulin secretion and therefore constitute an adaptive response of the intestine to balance diet-induced insulin resistance.
Asymmetries are found in every living being. A non-symmetrical structure is not necessarily pathological. Why then, is the diagnosis of asymmetry relevant for us as practitioners? In orthodontics, we can anticipate difficulties with treatment if we are well informed about the principles of symmetry and thoroughly familiar with craniofacial growth.
Severe mandibular asymmetry is relatively rare, appears early and becomes apparent at first sight to the practitioner. We find it associated with syndromes in patients for whom early multidisciplinary treatment is indicated.
Dyssymetry is a defect rather than an absence of symmetry. It is a mild form of asymmetry where the line between pathological and nonpathological is still unclear. The face can present different types of dyssymmetries including the whole gamut ranging from dental imbalance to imbalances of the jaws to cranial imbalances, each with its own signature that leaves its characteristic mark on the face. When dealing with mandibular laterodymorphias, the diagnosis must be made early in order to initiate an individualized treatment plan. We are providing some summary fact sheets that make it possible for the practitioner to clearly distinguish between the principal mandibular anomalies.
We report the isolation, development and multiplex optimisation of 12 new microsatellite
loci for the great scallop, Pecten maximus. Diversity was moderate to
high, with number of alleles ranging from 4 to 20 and observed heterozygosity between 0.28
and 0.88. Progeny produced in a commercial hatchery was used to test locus power for
parentage assignment. The percentage of offspring that was unambiguously assigned to a
unique pair of parents was 97% (software package CERVUS-COLONY). Parentage assignment
revealed that 22% of the studied progeny resulted from unplanned crosses. Effective
population size of the study progeny was also estimated. Our study illustrates the power
of microsatellites for the genetic monitoring of hatchery-produced great scallops.
Le Service de protection radiologique des Armées (SPRA) a mené une étude afin d’évaluer
l’exposition des personnels en charge de la maintenance d'un radar de type Palmier sur une
base aérienne. Le but de cette étude est d’estimer les doses reçues, de mesurer les
différents débits d’équivalents de dose ambiant et de définir un zonage radiologique. Au
terme de deux campagnes de mesures, les doses efficaces enregistrées par des dosimètres
passifs OSL Inlight® corps entier ont permis de conforter les résultats obtenus
par les mesures radiamétriques. Par ailleurs, les débits d’équivalents de dose varient de
façon importante en fonction de la position de l’opérateur dans la zone des émetteurs. À
partir de ces résultats, les auteurs préconisent des recommandations concernant le zonage
radiologique, la catégorisation et les modalités de surveillance dosimétrique des
Le Service de protection radiologique des armées (SPRA) et l’Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS) ont mené conjointement une étude afin d’évaluer l’exposition radiologique de l’équipe opératoire au cours de curiethérapies de prostate par implants permanents d’iode-125 à l’Hôpital d’instruction des armées du Val-de-Grâce. Le but de cette étude est d’estimer les doses reçues par une équipe nouvellement formée à cette technique, de mesurer les différents débits d’équivalent de dose ambiant et de définir le zonage radiologique. Au cours des six séances de curiethérapie étudiées, les doses efficaces enregistrées par des dosimètres passifs OSL InLight® corps entier et les doses équivalentes aux extrémités et au cristallin mesurées par des dosimètres nanoDot® sont restées inférieures au seuil de détection pour l’ensemble des personnels. Le débit d’équivalent de dose ambiant mesuré en fin d’implantation par un radiamètre AT1123® est en moyenne de 170 μSv/h au niveau du périnée du patient. La limite théorique de la zone contrôlée est estimée à environ 20 cm du périnée du patient. À partir de ces résultats, les auteurs proposent des recommandations concernant la catégorisation, le zonage radiologique et les modalités de surveillance dosimétrique des personnels. La curiethérapie de prostate par voie transpérinéale échoguidée en temps réel est une technique peu irradiante pour le personnel du fait des caractéristiques de la source radioactive et des moyens techniques utilisés qui assurent une radioprotection efficace de l’équipe opératoire
Triticale possesses favourable agronomic attributes originating from both its wheat and rye progenitors, including high grain and biomass yields. Triticale, primarily used as animal feed in North America, is an excellent candidate for production of industrial bio-products. Little is known about the coordination of gene expression of rye and wheat genomes in this intergeneric hybrid, but significant DNA losses from the parental genomes have been reported. To clarify the regulation of gene expression in triticale, we carried out 454 sequencing of cDNAs obtained from root, leaf, stem and floral tissues in different lines of triticale and rye exhibiting different phenotypes and assembled reads into contigs. Related to the data assembly were the absence of reference genomes and the paucity of rye sequences in GenBank or other public databases. Consequently, we have sequenced cDNA libraries from roots, seedlings, leaves, floral tissues and immature seeds to facilitate the identification of triticale sequences originating from rye. To further characterize the wheat-derived cDNAs, we also developed a database close to 25,000 non-redundant full-length wheat coding sequence genes, based on existing databases and contigs that were verified against protein sequences from the grass genomes of Brachypodium distachyon, rice, sorghum and maize.
Hydrogen (deuterium used as tracer) diffusion experiments were performed on undoped and boron doped diamond films ([B] = 1019and 1020 cm−3) grown by plasma CVD or hot-filament assisted CVD. The samples were exposed either to a radiofrequency plasma or a microwave plasma at different temperatures between 400°C and 900°C. The deuterium profiles were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The deuterium diffusion was explained mainly in term of trapping on intergranular defects. The passivation of boron acceptors, by B-D complex formation in the deuterium diffused superficial layers of the diamond films, was followed by electrochemical and mercury probe capacitance measurements. The results suggest a strong decrease of the free carrier density, which is in accordance with passivation of free carriers by deuterium trapping on dopant.
Recent advances in developing process modules for GaN power devices are reviewed. These processes include damage removal in dry etched n- and p-GaN, implant doping and isolation, novel gate dielectrics, improved Schottky and ohmic contacts and deep via etching of SiC for hybrid GaN/SiC structures.