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Epistocratic arrangements are widely rejected because there will be reasonable disagreement about which citizens count as epistemically superior and an epistemically superior subset of citizens may be biased in ways that undermine their ability to generate superior political outcomes. The upshot is supposed to be that systems of democratic government are preferable because they refuse to allow some citizens to rule over others. We show that this approach is doubly unsatisfactory: although representative democracy cannot be defended as a form of government that prevents some citizens from ruling over others, it can be defended as a special form of epistocracy. We demonstrate that well-designed representative democracies can, through treatment and selection mechanisms, bring forth an especially competent set of individuals to make public policy, even while circumventing the standard objections to epistocratic rule. This has implications for the justification of representative democracy and questions of institutional design.
To determine the prevalence of low scores for two neuropsychological tests with five total scores that evaluate learning and memory functions.
N = 5402 healthy adults from 11 countries in Latin America and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico were administered the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT-R). Two-thirds of the participants were women, and the average age was 53.5 ± 20.0 years. Z-scores were calculated for ROCF Copy and Memory scores and HVLT-R Total Recall, Delayed Recall, and Recognition scores, adjusting for age, age2, sex, education, and interaction variables if significant for the given country. Each Z-score was converted to a percentile for each of the five subtest scores. Each participant was categorized based on his/her number of low scoring tests in specific percentile cutoff groups (25th, 16th, 10th, 5th, and 2nd).
Between 57.3% (El Salvador) and 64.6% (Bolivia) of the sample scored below the 25th percentile on at least one of the five scores. Between 27.1% (El Salvador) and 33.9% (Puerto Rico) scored below the 10th percentile on at least one of the five subtests. Between 5.9% (Chile, El Salvador, Peru) and 10.3% (Argentina) scored below the 2nd percentile on at least one of the five scores.
Results are consistent with other studies that found that low scores are common when multiple neuropsychological outcomes are evaluated in healthy individuals. Clinicians should consider the higher probability of low scores when evaluating learning and memory using various sets of scores to reduce false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits.
The paper discusses the questions of the alleged conversion of Arghun Aqa, the powerful Mongol governor of great parts of Western Asia in the mid-13th century, to Islam, claimed by the famous Armenian historian Kirakos. While in the end dismissing the historicity of this claim, the paper uses a variety of archaeological, numismatic, epigraphic and literary sources in order to highlight the great role the Islamic beliefs and identity of the surrounding Persianised society played in the continuous Islamic acculturation of Arghun Aqa and his family since the earliest phases of their presence in Iran.
This study analyzes the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on sources of job stress and mental health in 250 elementary school teachers from Jaén (Spain). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), sources of occupational stress and mental health; and (2) to determine whether PEI moderates the relationship between sources of occupational stress and mental health. An initial sample of 250 teachers was assessed Three questionnaires, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Sources of Stress Scale in Teachers and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, were used to evaluate PEI, sources of occupational stress and mental health, respectively. Teachers with higher levels of emotional attention reported lower levels of mental health (r = –.30; p < .001), while teachers showing high emotional clarity reported better emotional role (r = .14; p < .05) and social functioning (r = .15; p < .05). Moreover, PEI components moderate the relationship between sources of occupational stress and emotional role. Specifically, each significant interaction (i.e., deficiencies x attention, adaptation x attention, and adaptation x clarity) made a small and unique contribution in the explanation of emotional role (all p < .05, all sr2 ∼ .02). Finally, our results imply that PEI is an important moderator of teachers´ occupational stressors on mental health.
The objectives of this research are: (a) analyze the incremental validity of physical activity’s (PA) influence on perceived quality of life (PQL); (b) determine if PA’s predictive power is mediated by self-concept; and (c) study if results vary according to a unidimensional or multidimensional approach to self-concept measurement. The sample comprised 160 women from Burgos, Spain aged 18 to 45 years old. Non-probability sampling was used. Two three-step hierarchical regression analyses were applied to forecast PQL. The hedonic quality-of-life indicators, self-concept, self-esteem, and PA were included as independent variables. The first regression analysis included global self-concept as predictor variable, while the second included its five dimensions. Two mediation analyses were conducted to see if PA’s ability to predict PQL was mediated by global and physical self-concept. Results from the first regression shows that self-concept, satisfaction with life, and PA were significant predictors. PA slightly but significantly increased explained variance in PQL (2.1%). In the second regression, substituting global self-concept with its five constituent factors, only the physical dimension and satisfaction with life predicted PQL, while PA ceased to be a significant predictor. Mediation analysis revealed that only physical self-concept mediates the relationship between PA and PQL (z = 1.97, p < .050), and not global self-concept. Physical self-concept was the strongest predictor and approximately 32.45 % of PA’s effect on PQL was mediated by it. This study’s findings support a multidimensional view of self-concept, and represent a more accurate image of the relationship between PQL, PA, and self-concept.
Neurobiologically informed integration of research on memory, emotion, and behavior change in psychotherapy is needed, which Lane at al. advance. Memory reconsolidation that incorporates new emotional experience plays an important role in therapeutic change, converging with evidence for Fuzzy Trace Theory. Applications of Fuzzy Trace Theory to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for youth at risk for psychosis, and to other aspects of behavior change, are discussed.
The agrarian body of law created by government legislators and jurists in the aftermath of the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920), sought to restore pueblos’ juridical standing by allowing communities to hold land collectively in the form of ejidos. Yet, state efforts to restructure property relations in the countryside often articulated with local alternative territorial projects that challenged the implementation of these redistributive legal measures. During the course of 50 years, cattle ranchers from the community of El Huanal in Nautla, Veracruz, defended private property, resisted land expropriation, and prevented the establishment of an ejido in the community. How did rancheros achieve this? How did they respond to the pressures of ‘peasant’ mobilisation? How did post-revolutionary legal discourse come to frame this struggle over land? What changes did this failed attempt to implement land reform trigger in the region? Looking closely at the conflicts, interactions, negotiations, and everyday practices that unfolded among a variety of actors around the interpretation and the applicability of ‘the law’, this article demonstrates how the agrarian reform, despite never having been implemented, altered both the material landscape and the social configuration of this community of coastal Veracruz.
We present a model and a laboratory experiment on the informativeness of
debate, varying both informational and institutional variables. The
informational variable we focus on is a novel factor affecting the extent to
which audience members can learn from exposure to unpersuasive arguments.
The more easily a listener can learn from an argument she finds
unpersuasive, the greater the risk that the speaker will alienate this
listener when she fails to persuade her. We find a strong interaction
between speakers’ responsiveness to that risk and the institutions of
debate. When listeners can learn from unpersuasive arguments, many speakers
are discouraged from attempting persuasion, irrespective of the debate rules
we consider. In contrast, when listeners cannot learn from unpersuasive
arguments, debate rules affect speakers’ willingness to engage in
Morphological and molecular analyses of a stem nematode causing a severe disease on infected sowthistle (Sonchus bulbosus) plants, involving the formation of gall-like structures on infected leaves and stems, have led to the description of a new species named Ditylenchus oncogenus n. sp. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by a medium to large body size (all adults more than 1 mm in length); a delicate stylet (9.0–11.0 μm long) with minute, rounded knobs; a long post-vulval uterine sac (c. 65% of the vulva–anus distance); six incisures at the lateral fields and characteristic D. destructor-pattern of spicules (with pronounced ventral tumulus and anteriorly pointed, less sclerotized, cuticle parts present within the lamina). The results of molecular analysis of rRNA gene sequences, including the D2–D3 expansion regions of 28S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA, partial 18S rRNA gene, the protein-coding mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and the heat-shock protein 90 (hsp90) gene, support the new species status. The results of a host-suitability test indicated that the new species does not parasitize potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and broad bean (Vicia faba) seedlings. Histopathological observations on naturally infected sowthistle tissues revealed that D. oncogenus n. sp. causes floral stem neoplasia and midrib leaf gall formation on the type, and to date only known, host. The galls were characterized by extensive hyperplasia, where several necrotic cells in the neoplasic area were directly damaged by feeding of the nematode, whereas a number of adjacent cells showed typical cytological changes, such as granulated cytoplasm with hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli.
This article presents EHME, the frequency dictionary of Basque structure, an online program that enables researchers in psycholinguistics to extract word and nonword stimuli, based on a broad range of statistics concerning the properties of Basque words. The database consists of 22.7 million tokens, and properties available include morphological structure frequency and word-similarity measures, apart from classical indexes: word frequency, orthographic structure, orthographic similarity, bigram and biphone frequency, and syllable-based measures. Measures are indexed at the lemma, morpheme and word level. We include reliability and validation analysis. The application is freely available, and enables the user to extract words based on concrete statistical criteria1, as well as to obtain statistical characteristics from a list of words2.
Matrix diffusion is a key process for radionuclide retention in crystalline rocks. Within the LTD project (Long-Term Diffusion), an in-situ diffusion experiment in unaltered non-fractured granite was performed at the Grimsel Test Site (www.grimsel.com, Switzerland). The tracers included 3H as HTO, 22Na+, 134Cs+ and 131I- with stable I- as carrier.
The dataset (except for 131I- because of complete decay) was analyzed with different diffusion-sorption models by different teams (NAGRA / IDAEA-CSIC, UJV-Rez, JAEA, Univ. Poitiers) using different codes, with the goal of obtaining effective diffusion coefficients (De) and porosity (ϕ) or rock capacity (α) values. A Borehole Disturbed Zone (BDZ), which was observed in the rock profile data for 22Na+ and 134Cs+, had to be taken into account to fit the experimental observations. The extension of the BDZ (1-2 mm) was about the same magnitude as the mean grain size of the quartz and feldspar grains.
De and α values for the different tracers in the BDZ are larger than the respective values in the bulk rock. Capacity factors in the bulk rock are largest for Cs+ (strong sorption) and smallest for 3H (no sorption). However, 3H seems to display large α values in the BDZ. This phenomenon will be investigated in more detail in a second test starting in 2013.
The density-functional-theory model for plutonium metal is shown to be consistent with recent magnetic measurements that suggest anti-ferromagnetism in Pu-Ga alloys at low temperatures. The theoretical model predicts a stabilization of the face-centered-cubic (fcc, δ) form of plutonium in an anti-ferromagnetic configuration when alloyed with gallium. The ordered magnetic phase occurs because Ga removes the mechanical instability that exists for unalloyed δ-Pu. The cause of the Ga-induced stabilization is a combination of a lowering of the band (kinetic) and electrostatic (Coulomb) energies for the cubic relative to the tetragonal phase.
In the present work nanostructures of manganese dioxide have been synthesized and characterized as potential catalysts for Li-air batteries. The R-MnO2 nanourchin-shaped catalyst was synthesized by mild hydrothermal conditions under autogeneous pressure. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to confirm the formation of single R-MnO2. The microstructure of the obtained nanostructures was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) showing the presence of acicular manganese oxide aggregates (5-10 nm wide) which tend to form spherical clusters, taking on an urchin-shaped form of roughly 6 microns diameter. The cyclability analyses reveal an enhanced performance and efficiency for the batteries with higher amounts of catalyst. This catalyst is thought to promote alternative reaction pathways in the Li2CO3 decomposition which attenuate the instability of the electrolyte and/or carbon electrode during the discharge resulting in an improved cyclability.
Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers are used in the manufacture of activated carbon fibers, which are activated with phosphate groups for the removal of lead ions in aqueous solutions. Removal of lead ions is performed in a water bath at 30°C. Trough isotherm models of Langmuir and Freundlich analyzed the aqueous solution. Kinetic analysis is performed using the model pseudo-first and pseudo-second order. The result show that adsorption equilibrium is adjusted to the Freundlich model and the kinetic model of pseudo-second order led to the best fit correlation.