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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Innovation in healthcare is increasingly dependent on technology and teamwork, requiring effective collaboration between disciplines. Through an intensive team-based competition event, Mount Sinai Health Hackathon 2017, aimed to harness the power of multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary collaboration to foster innovation in the field of cancer. Participants were immersed in an intensive weekend working in teams to develop technology solutions to important problems affecting patients and care providers in the field of cancer. The learning objectives were to enable participants to: Identify cancer-related healthcare problems which lend themselves to technology-based solutions. Delineate key behaviors critical to multidisciplinary team success Identify optimal strategies for communicating in multidisciplinary teams. Engage and inspire participants to apply knowledge of technology to meaningfully impact clinical care and well-being. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Mount Sinai Health Hackathon is an annual 48-hour team-based competition, using a format adapted from guidelines provided by MIT Hacking Medicine. The 2017 event gathered a total of 87 participants (120 registered), representing 17 organizations from as far away as California, with a diverse range of backgrounds in bioinformatics, software and hardware, product design, business, digital health and clinical practice. The overall participation model included: Phase 0: Health Hackathon 101 summer workshops; Phase 1: pre-Hackathon priming activities using online forums Trello and Slack; Phase 2: a 48-hour onsite hackathon to catalyze innovation through problem sharing, solution pitches, team formation and development of prototype solutions; Phase 3: competitive presentations to judges and prize awards; Phase 4: a suite of post-hackathon support to stimulate continued development of innovations. The event sponsored by ConduITS, was also co-sponsored by Persistent Systems, IBM Watson, Tisch Cancer Institute, Sinai AppLab, Sinai Biodesign and other ISMMS Institutes. Mentors circulated throughout the event to support the teams in the technical, clinical, and business development aspects of their solutions. In total, the 14 teams formed during the Hackathon, created innovations ranging from diagnostic devices, networking apps, artificial intelligence tools, and others. The top 3 teams were each awarded $2500 to support their projects’ future development. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative post-event survey data revealed the Hackathon experience fostered collaborative attitudes and a positive experience for participants, providing insight into the potential benefits of team science. In the post-event survey (n=24) 92% of participants reported that the experience increased their ability to solve problems and 96% made new professional or personal connections. In addition, 96% of respondents would attend future Hackathon events and 75% reported they were likely to continue working on their project after the Hackathon. Qualitative feedback from 1 participant reported it was: “a wonderful event that really highlighted how much interdisciplinary team science can achieve.” Along with intermediate support interactions, including the winning teams participating in a Shark Tank style event with pitches to external entrepreneurs and investors, all teams will be followed up in 6 months time to determine if participants continue to work on projects, file new patents, create new companies, or leverage the new connections made through the Health Hackathon experience. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our experience indicates that a Health Hackathon is a compelling and productive forum to bring together students, trainees, faculty, and other stakeholders to explore tech-based solutions to problems in cancer and other areas of biomedicine. It is a valuable tool to foster collaboration and transdisciplinary team science and education. Follow-up analysis will determine to what extent the Mount Sinai Health Hackathon is contributing to an ecosystem that encourages professionals and trainees in healthcare and in technology development to work together to address unmet needs in healthcare with innovative technology solutions.
This study aimed to describe the diurnal shedding dynamics of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle managed on pasture. The purpose was to identify the value of a single measurement for predicting the shedding status on subsequent days. Over a 14-day period, 24 beef cows with known E. coli O157 shedding status were sampled twice daily or daily (21 sampling points) and E. coli O157 was enumerated from faeces. No association between shedding status of individual animals within a 7-h period was identified (odds ratio 1·5, P = 0·08). Short-interval sampling demonstrated substantial diurnal volatility in shedding of E. coli O157 that is not evident in studies based on long-interval (>7 days) sampling. The findings contribute to and support previous findings on the question why it has been difficult to achieve progress in understanding the epidemiology of E. coli O157 infection in cattle.
SAX, an acronym for “Satellite Italiano per Astronomia a raggi X”, now renamed “BeppoSAX” in honor of Giuseppe Occhialini, is the first X-ray mission sensitive in the very broad energy range between 0.1 and 300 keV (Boella et al. 1997a). The Narrow Field Instruments (NFI) have approximately 1° fields of view and consist of the imaging low- and medium-energy concentrator spectrometers (LECS, 0.1-10 keV, Parmar et al. 1997; and MECS, 1-10 keV, Boella et al. 1997b), and the non-imaging high pressure gas scintillation proportional counter (HPGSPC, 3-120 keV, Manzo et al. 1997) and Phoswich detector system (PDS, 15-300 keV, Frontera et al. 1997). All the NFI are coaligned and are normally operated simultaneously. In addition, the payload includes two wide field cameras (WFC, 2-30 keV; Jager et al. 1997) which observe in directions perpendicular to the NFI. These allow the detection of X-ray transient phenomena, as well as long-term variability studies.
Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are hardly investigated. This experiment aimed to determine whether moment of first feed and water access after hatch and pre-starter composition (0 to 7 days) affect growth rate and humoral immune function in broiler chickens. Direct fed chickens received feed and water directly after placement in the grow-out facility, whilst delayed fed chickens only after 48 h. Direct and delayed fed chickens received a control pre-starter diet, or a diet containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or fish oil. At 21 days, chickens were immunized by injection of sheep red blood cells. The mortality rate depended on an interaction between feed access and pre-starter composition (P=0.014). Chickens with direct feed access fed the control pre-starter diet had a higher risk for mortality than chickens with delayed feed access fed the control pre-starter diet (16.4% v. 4.2%) whereas the other treatment groups were in-between. BW gain and feed intake till 25 days in direct fed chickens were higher compared with delayed fed chickens, whilst gain to feed ratio was lower. Within the direct fed chickens, the control pre-starter diet resulted in the highest BW at 28 days and the MCFA pre-starter diet the lowest (Δ=2.4%), whereas this was opposite for delayed fed chickens (Δ=3.0%; P=0.033). Provision of MCFA resulted in a 4.6% higher BW gain and a higher gain to feed ratio compared with other pre-starter diets, but only during the period it was provided (2 to 7 days). Minor treatment effects were found for humoral immune response by measuring immunoglobulins, agglutination titers, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and complement activity. Concluding, current inclusion levels of fish oil (5 g/kg) and MCFA (30 g/kg) in the pre-starter diet appear to have limited (carryover) effects on growth and development, as well as on humoral immune function.
We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance.
This study aims to describe in detail the temporal dynamics of E. coli O157 shedding and risk factors for shedding in a grass-fed beef herd. During a 9-month period, 23 beef cows were sampled twice a week (58 sampling points) and E. coli O157 was enumerated from faecal samples. Isolates were screened by PCR for presence of rfbE, stx1 and stx2. The prevalence per sampling day ranged from 0% to 57%. This study demonstrates that many members of the herd were concurrently shedding E. coli O157. Occurrence of rainfall (P < 0·01), feeding silage (P < 0·01) and lactating (P < 0·01) were found to be predictors of shedding. Moving cattle to a new paddock had a negative effect on shedding. This approach, based on short-interval sampling, confirms the known variability of shedding within a herd and highlights that high shedding events are rare.
The present study examines the relative impact of segments and intonation on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility, specifically investigating the separate contribution of segmental and intonational information to perceived foreign accent in Korean-accented English. Two English speakers and two Korean speakers recorded 40 English sentences. The sentences were manipulated by combining segments from one speaker with intonation (fundamental frequency contour and duration) from another speaker. Four versions of each sentence were created: one English control (English segments and English intonation), one Korean control (Korean segments and Korean intonation), and two Korean–English combinations (one with English segments and Korean intonation; the other with Korean segments and English intonation). Forty native English speakers transcribed the sentences for intelligibility and rated their comprehensibility and accentedness. The data show that segments had a significant effect on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility, but intonation only had an effect on intelligibility. Contrary to previous studies, the present study, separating segments from intonation, suggests that segmental information contributes substantially more to the perception of foreign accentedness than intonation. Native speakers seem to rely mainly on segments when determining foreign accentedness.
The selective-laser-melting (SLM) technique is an outstanding new production technology that allows for time-efficient fabrication of highly complex components from various metals. SLM processing leads to the evolution of numerous microstructural features strongly affecting the mechanical properties. For enabling application in envisaged fields the development of a robust production process for components subjected to different loadings is crucially needed. With regard to the behavior of SLM components subjected to cyclic loadings, the damage evolution can be significantly different depending on the raw material that is used, which is, in this case, highly ductile austenitic stainless steel 316L and high-strength titanium alloy TiAl6V4. By means of a thorough set of experiments, including postprocessing, mechanical testing focusing on high-cycle fatigue and microstructure analyses, it could be shown that the behavior of TiAl6V4 under cyclic loading is dominated by the process-induced pores. The fatigue behavior of 316L, in contrast, is strongly affected by its monotonic strength.
Here is a concise, recent and thoroughly orthodox historical judgment on the Nyon Arrangements of 1937:
There was one minor but significant exception to the inaction of of the British and the French. In 1937, pirates in the form of unidentified Italian warships, began sinking British and French merchantmen entering Republican ports. To this, a direct attack and affront, France and Britain responded with firmness. A Conference was called in September at Nyon, in Switzerland, and the law was laid down. The sinkings stopped abruptly. It was a most instructive incident, but no lessons were drawn. Indeed, the governments wished, apparently, to draw no lessons.
Here is another judgment, this one by a Soviet historian, which offers a somewhat different view of this episode:
Bourgeois political persons ignore the positive, determined role of the Soviet Union in the outcome of the conference and assign the achievement of its successful results only to the unity of England and France. [Thus] Eden, in a letter to Churchill written after the conference, explained that its results showed the wholesomeness and effectiveness of cooperation between England and France. “The two Western Powers proved that they could play a decisive role in European affairs.” Eden completely ignores the fact that at the conference in Nyon there took part not two, but three Great Powers. The third Great Power, which played a first-class role in the resolution of the problem of piracy, was the Soviet Union. Eden's statement does not answer the question, why earlier, before the Nyon conference, England did not succeed in attaining such results.