To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In 2017, Italy experienced a large measles epidemic with 5408 cases and four deaths. As Subnational Reference Laboratory of the Measles and Rubella surveillance NETwork (MoRoNET), the EpiSoMI (Epidemiology and Molecular Surveillance of Infections) Laboratory (University of Milan) set up rapid and active surveillance for the complete characterisation of the Measles virus (Mv) responsible for the large measles outbreak in Milan and surrounding areas (Lombardy, Northern Italy). The aims of this study were to describe the genetic profile of circulating viruses and to track the pathway of measles transmission. Molecular analysis was performed by sequencing the highly variable 450 nucleotides region of the N gene (N-450) of Mv genome. Two-hundred and ninety-nine strains of Mv were analysed. The phylogenetic analysis showed five different variants, two not previously described in the studied area, belonging to D8 and B3 genotypes. Three events of continuous transmission of autochthonous variants (D8-Osaka, D8-London and B3-Milan variants) and two events of continuous transmission of imported variants (B3-Dublin and D8-Hulu Langat) tracked five different transmission pathways. These pathways outlined two epidemic peaks: the first in April and the second in July 2017. The correlation between Mv variant and the epidemiological data may enable us to identify the sources of virus importation and recognise long-lasting virus transmission pathways.
An innovative minority of elementary schoolteachers in the big cities of Imperial Germany embraced the principles of progressive education early in the twentieth century, many years before those reforms were widely introduced in urban public schools under the Weimar Republic in the 1920s. From the 1890s on, proposals for the reform of the socially stratified educational system and the traditional pedagogy were widely discussed in the meetings and newspapers of the German Teachers’ Association. Progressive educational reform became an organized movement from 1908 on, with the founding of the League for School Reform and the creation of an office within the German Teachers’ Association for the promotion of modern pedagogy. The avant-garde of this movement—teachers in the big cities who were predominantly left-wing liberals and Protestants—were a small part of the elementary school teaching profession, but they exercised an influence in their professional society out of proportion to their numbers. In 1912, representatives at the national congress of the German Teachers’ Association adopted a resolution supporting the neue Pädagogik, as progressive education was called at that time. Why did some public elementary schoolteachers take up the political fight for democratic school reforms and become exponents of the “new pedagogy”? Where did the educational theories for the Arbeitsschule, as Germany's child-centered and active-learning school was called, come from? An investigation of these questions can deepen our knowledge of the origins of the progressive education movement in Germany and enhance our appreciation of John Dewey's contemporaries in the movement on the European continent. This research also adds a new dimension to recent historical interpretations of Imperial Germany in the years before the First World War as “a society of reform movements,” a society in which bourgeois professionals and civil servants who were politically critical of the traditional norms and institutions of the established order took the initiative to create organizations devoted to reform.
Even before the Reichstag defeated the renewal of the law banning the Social Democratic party in January 1890, Emperor William II was ready to discard Bismarck's policy of repression and to use pedagogy as a weapon against socialism. In an order sent to the Prussian State Ministry on 1 May 1889, the king of Prussia and German emperor demanded that the schools make a greater effort to refute socialist theories and to impart to the pupils a “healthy” view of society and the state. He proposed that the instruction of history cover more closely the modern era and especially the social policies of the Hohenzollern dynasty, from the abolition of serfdom to the sickness and old age insurance legislation of the 1880s, “in order to show that the rulers of Prussia have always considered it their duty to improve the living conditions of the laboring classes” and that “in the future workers can expect justice and security only under the protection and care of the king at the head of the state.” The emperor wanted the teachers to describe the menace of revolutionary socialism in such dark colors that the pupils would be “filled with revulsion and fear.”
We consider the Steklov eigenvalues of the Laplace operator as limiting Neumann eigenvalues in a problem of mass concentration at the boundary of a ball. We discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the Neumann eigenvalues and find explicit formulae for their derivatives in the limiting problem. We deduce that the Neumann eigenvalues have a monotone behaviour in the limit and that Steklov eigenvalues locally minimize the Neumann eigenvalues.
The first offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Italy and the first gravity based structure (GBS) in the world for unloading, storing and re-gasifying liquefied natural gas, was authorized and realized. The Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA, formerly ICRAM) formulated and implemented a multidisciplinary monitoring plan at verifying possible impacts of the project on marine environment. Data from June 2006 to July 2012 on the soft-bottom macrozoobenthic assemblages around the LNG terminal are presented, with the aim of verifying possible disturbances on these assemblages associated with the LNG terminal, by comparing the structure of the benthic communities before and after installation of the terminal, and during its operation. Well-structured assemblages were observed for the entire period investigated, with all taxa normally represented both quantitatively and qualitatively. A temporary disturbance due to the construction of the LNG terminal was detected in the surrounding sediments, while the presence of the concrete structure did not show significant effects at the investigated distances.
The occurrence of the lumbrinerid polychaete Gallardoneris iberica along the North Adriatic coast is here reported for the first time. The specimens of G. iberica have been recently discovered and described from the Portuguese continental shelf. Specimens of G. iberica collected in the Adriatic Sea were compared with paratypes and some relevant morphological characters were revised, illustrated and discussed. The record of G. iberica here reported represents a new addition to the fauna of Italian marine waters extending hence the geographical distribution of the genus Gallardoneris to the Mediterranean Sea.
During his visit to the Federal Republic of Germany in the summer of 1954, Fritz Stern, a young history professor at Columbia University, witnessed in Berlin the memorial service for the victims of the July 20, 1944, revolt against Hitler. His feelings were stirred at the sight of the sorrowful faces of the widows and children of the conspirators who were executed in the aftermath of the failed assassination attempt, and by President Theodor Heuss's speech, recalling the anguish and courage of the Germans who made the decision to rebel in an act of atonement. Born in Germany in 1926 to Protestant parents of Jewish ancestry, Stern experienced racist antisemitism in the Third Reich firsthand before his family emigrated in 1938. He returned to Germany with conflicted emotions. During World War II, when the magnitude of the annihilation of European Jewry was uncovered, he felt intense hatred toward National Socialism. The distinction between German and Nazi became blurred. And yet, he could not bring himself to hold the German people collectively guilty for such crimes and to reject his native land. At the ceremony he struggled with his own feelings, saying to himself at first that “their purposes had not been ours.” Then a sense of shame for his indiscriminate hatred overwhelmed him. He left Germany in August “purged of hatred—though not disloyal to the feelings of the past, and full of forebodings about the future.”
To simplify body weight measurement and, particularly, to encourage children and their parents to participate in the Italian nutritional surveillance system OKkio alla SALUTE, children were measured with clothes and then the weight was corrected for the estimated weight of the clothes. In the present study we compared the children's weight measured in underwear, as recommended by the WHO (WWHO), with that obtained using the OKkio alla SALUTE protocol (WOK) and investigated how the latter affects the calculation of BMI and the assessment of overweight and obesity prevalence.
Weight (twice in close sequence, with and without clothing) and height were measured. A checklist was used to describe the type of clothing worn. The estimated weight of clothing was subtracted from the WOK. BMI was calculated considering both values of weight and height; ponderal status was defined using both the International Obesity Task Force and WHO BMI cut-offs.
Thirty-seven third grade classes of thirteen primary schools in Rome and in two towns in the Lazio Region were recruited.
The anthropometric measurements were taken on 524 children aged 8–9 years.
The error in the calculation of BMI from WOK was very low, 0·005 kg/m2 (95 % CI −0·185, 0·195 kg/m2); the agreement between the percentages of overweight (not including obesity) and obese children calculated with the two methods was very close to 1 (κ = 0·98).
The error in BMI and in nutritional classification can be considered minor in a surveillance system for monitoring overweight/obesity, but eases the procedure for measuring children.
We consider a class of eigenvalue problems for polyharmonic operators, including
Dirichlet and buckling-type eigenvalue problems. We prove an analyticity result for the
dependence of the symmetric functions of the eigenvalues upon domain perturbations and
compute Hadamard-type formulas for the Frechét differentials. We also consider
isovolumetric domain perturbations and characterize the corresponding critical domains for
the symmetric functions of the eigenvalues. Finally, we prove that balls are critical
This study explored whether remote blast-related MTBI and/or current Axis I psychopathology contribute to neuropsychological outcomes among OEF/OIF veterans with varied combat histories. OEF/OIF veterans underwent structured interviews to evaluate history of blast-related MTBI and psychopathology and were assigned to MTBI (n = 18), Axis I (n = 24), Co-morbid MTBI/Axis I (n = 34), or post-deployment control (n = 28) groups. A main effect for Axis I diagnosis on overall neuropsychological performance was identified (F(3,100) = 4.81; p = .004), with large effect sizes noted for the Axis I only (d = .98) and Co-morbid MTBI/Axis I (d = .95) groups relative to the control group. The latter groups demonstrated primary limitations on measures of learning/memory and processing speed. The MTBI only group demonstrated performances that were not significantly different from the remaining three groups. These findings suggest that a remote history of blast-related MTBI does not contribute to objective cognitive impairment in the late stage of injury. Impairments, when present, are subtle and most likely attributable to PTSD and other psychological conditions. Implications for clinical neuropsychologists and future research are discussed. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1–11)
We consider uniformly elliptic operators with Dirichlet or Neumann homogeneous boundary conditions on a domain Ω in ℝN. We consider deformations ϕ(Ω) of Ω obtained by means of a locally Lipschitz homeomorphism ϕ and we estimate the variation of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues upon variation of ϕ. We prove general stability estimates without assuming uniform upper bounds for the gradients of the maps ϕ. As an application, we obtain estimates on the rate of convergence for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions when a domain with an outward cusp is approximated by a sequence of Lipschitz domains.
QTc prolongation has been reported in adults following cardiopulmonary bypass; however, this phenomenon has not been studied in children with congenital cardiac disease. This study's aim was to formally assess QTc in children undergoing cardiac surgery.
Pre-operative and post-operative electrocardiograms during hospital stays were prospectively analysed on 107 consecutive patients under 18 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery. QTc was measured manually in leads II, V4, and V5. Measurements of 440 and 480 milliseconds were used to categorise patients. Peri-procedural data included bypass and cross-clamp time, medications, and electrolyte measurements. Outcome data included arrhythmias, length of mechanical ventilation, and hospital stay. Patients with post-operative new bundle branch block or ventricularly paced rhythm were excluded.
In all, 59 children were included, out of which 26 had new QTc over 440 milliseconds and 6 of 59 had new QTc over 480 milliseconds post-operatively. The mean increase in post-operative QTc was 25 milliseconds, p=0.0001. QTc over 480 was associated with longer cross-clamp time, p=0.003. Other risk factors were not associated with post-operative QTc prolongation. This phenomenon was transient with normalisation occurring in 67% of patients over 60 hours on average. One patient with post-operative QTc over 440 milliseconds developed ventricular tachycardia. There was no correlation between prolonged QTc and duration of mechanical ventilation, or hospital stay.
A significant number of children undergoing cardiac surgery showed transient QTc prolongation. The precise aetiology of QT prolongation was not discerned, though new QTc over 480 milliseconds was associated with longer cross-clamp time. In this cohort, transient QTc prolongation was not associated with adverse sequela.
In order to develop nanoengineering methods to control electronic spectrum of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy, we have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL) and TEM methods to investigate the effects of capping layer growth on the physical/chemical properties as well as the optical/electronic performance of QD device structures. Capping layer material choice (or its absence all together) has been found to directly influence QD dimensions (size, height), and subsequently, to affect QD emission wavelength. We report results of QD lateral size and height as well as densities of InAs QDs capped with 2ML (monolayers) of AlAs or GaAs grown at various rates. Our AFM results are complemented by PL measurements, where the optical properties of capped versus non-capped QDs have been explored and direct correspondence between structural differences induced by capping and the electronic/optical properties of QDs is demonstrated. Analysis of the data shows that the results can be explained by two competing surface processes. The first of which is the redistribution of indium between QDs on top of the 2D wetting layer, resulting in the increase of QD size with time. The second effect is the diffusion of indium out of the QDs and onto the top of the capping layer. TEM with multislice image simulation has supported our AFM and PL observations with the demonstration of “indium driven” alloy intermixing in the overlayer as well as significant alloying in the InAs wetting layer.
We have studied the influence of overgrowth procedure and a few monolayer-thick AlAs overlayer on the properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL). PL spectroscopy was used to optimize optical properties of the QDs by shape engineering (QD truncation) through adjustment of the thickness of overlayers and temperature of the subsequent heating. QDs with 6 nm - thick overlayer with subsequent heating up to 560°C was found to have the highest PL intensity at room temperature and the lowest FWHM, 29 meV. Ground state energy of the truncated QDs is very stable against variations of growth parameters. 1.23 μm edge-emitting laser of triple-layer QD structure demonstrated room temperature threshold current density, 74 A/cm2.