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From the French Revolution onwards, constituent power has been a key concept for thinking about the principle of popular power, and how it should be realised through the state and its institutions. Tracing the history of constituent power across five key moments - the French Revolution, nineteenth-century French politics, the Weimar Republic, post-WWII constitutionalism, and political philosophy in the 1960s - Lucia Rubinelli reconstructs and examines the history of the principle. She argues that, at any given time, constituent power offered an alternative understanding of the power of the people to those offered by ideas of sovereignty. Constituent Power: A History also examines how, in turn, these competing understandings of popular power resulted in different institutional structures and reflects on why contemporary political thought is so prone to conflating constituent power with sovereignty.
This manual is a concise, straightforward guide for learning how to perform high-quality urodynamic investigations. Experienced editors and contributors provide easy-to-follow practical information on pre-test assessment of urodynamic function, how to set up urodynamic equipment, and how to perform individual urodynamic techniques, including cystometry, videocystourethrography and ambulatory monitoring. The book covers modern equipment and its use, and outlines the new national standards in urodynamics, allowing readers to check their knowledge and standard operating procedures are adequate. It also gives valuable information on how to set up and run a urodynamics service. With clear illustrations and clinical case studies woven into the text, this is a must-have resource to facilitate training in urodynamics. It is also a refresher of the standards and protocols required for good urodynamic practice for gynaecologists and continence nurses.
We investigated production of lexical stress in children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD), all monolingual Italian speakers. The mean age of the 16 autistic children was 5.73 years and the mean age of the 16 typically developing children was 4.65 years. Picture-naming targets were five trisyllabic words that began with a weak–strong pattern of lexical stress across the initial two syllables (WS: matita) and five trisyllabic words beginning with a strong–weak pattern (SW: gomito). Acoustic measures of the duration, fundamental frequency, and intensity of the first two vowels for correct word productions were used to calculate a normalised Pairwise Variability Index (PVI) for WS and SW words. Results of acoustic analyses indicated no statistically significant group differences in PVIs. Results should be interpreted in line with the exploratory nature of this study. We hope this study will encourage additional cross-linguistic studies of prosody in children's speech production.
Disturbed sleep and activity are prominent features of bipolar disorder type I (BP-I). However, the relationship of sleep and activity characteristics to brain structure and behavior in euthymic BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives is unknown. Additionally, underlying genetic relationships between these traits have not been investigated.
Relationships between sleep and activity phenotypes, assessed using actigraphy, with structural neuroimaging (brain) and cognitive and temperament (behavior) phenotypes were investigated in 558 euthymic individuals from multi-generational pedigrees including at least one member with BP-I. Genetic correlations between actigraphy-brain and actigraphy-behavior associations were assessed, and bivariate linkage analysis was conducted for trait pairs with evidence of shared genetic influences.
More physical activity and longer awake time were significantly associated with increased brain volumes and cortical thickness, better performance on neurocognitive measures of long-term memory and executive function, and less extreme scores on measures of temperament (impulsivity, cyclothymia). These associations did not differ between BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. For nine activity-brain or activity-behavior pairs there was evidence for shared genetic influence (genetic correlations); of these pairs, a suggestive bivariate quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 for wake duration and verbal working memory was identified.
Our findings indicate that increased physical activity and more adequate sleep are associated with increased brain size, better cognitive function and more stable temperament in BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. Additionally, we found evidence for pleiotropy of several actigraphy-behavior and actigraphy-brain phenotypes, suggesting a shared genetic basis for these traits.
New dietary-based concepts are needed for treatment and effective prevention of overweight and obesity. The primary objective was to investigate if reduction in appetite is associated with improved weight loss maintenance. This cohort study was nested within the European Commission project Satiety Innovation (SATIN). Participants achieving ≥8% weight loss during an initial 8-week low-energy formula diet were included in a 12-week randomised double-blind parallel weight loss maintenance intervention. The intervention included food products designed to reduce appetite or matching controls along with instructions to follow national dietary guidelines. Appetite was assessed by ad libitum energy intake and self-reported appetite evaluations using visual analogue scales during standardised appetite probe days. These were evaluated at the first day of the maintenance period compared with baseline (acute effects after a single exposure of intervention products) and post-maintenance compared with baseline (sustained effects after repeated exposures of intervention products) regardless of randomisation. A total of 181 participants (forty-seven men and 134 women) completed the study. Sustained reduction in 24-h energy intake was associated with improved weight loss maintenance (R 0·37; P = 0·001), whereas the association was not found acutely (P = 0·91). Suppression in self-reported appetite was associated with improved weight loss maintenance both acutely (R −0·32; P = 0·033) and sustained (R −0·33; P = 0·042). Reduction in appetite seems to be associated with improved body weight management, making appetite-reducing food products an interesting strategy for dietary-based concepts.
Both preterm birth and early institutional deprivation are associated with neurodevelopmental impairment—with both shared and distinctive features. To explore shared underlying mechanisms, this study directly compared the effects of these putative risk factors on temperament profiles in six-year-olds: Children born very preterm (<32 weeks gestation) or at very low birthweight (<1500 g) from the Bavarian Longitudinal Study (n = 299); and children who experienced >6 months of deprivation in Romanian institutions from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study (n = 101). The former were compared with 311 healthy term born controls and the latter with 52 nondeprived adoptees. At 6 years, temperament was assessed via parent reports across 5 dimensions: effortful control, activity, shyness, emotionality, and sociability. Very preterm/very low birthweight and postinstitutionalized children showed similarly aberrant profiles in terms of lower effortful control, preterm = −0.50, 95% CI [−0.67, −0.33]; postinstitutionalized = −0.48, 95% CI [−0.82, −0.14], compared with their respective controls. Additionally, postinstitutionalized children showed higher activity, whereas very preterm/very low birthweight children showed lower shyness. Preterm birth and early institutionalization are similarly associated with poorer effortful control, which might contribute to long-term vulnerability. More research is needed to examine temperamental processes as common mediators of negative long-term outcomes following early adversity.
The Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) are those of psychosomatic syndromes that did not find room in the classical taxonomy. More recently, the DCPR were updated, called DCPR-revised (DCPR-R). The present study was conducted to test the criterion-related validity of the DCPR-R.
Two hundred consecutive subjects were enrolled at the Headache Center of Careggi University Hospital (Italy): 100 subjects had a diagnosis of chronic migraine (CM) and 100 had a diagnosis of episodic migraine (EM). Participants received a clinical assessment, which included the DCPR-revised Semi-Structured Interview (DCPR-R SSI), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 (SCID-5), and the psychosocial index (PSI).
Forty-seven subjects (23.5%) had at least one DSM-5 diagnosis: major depressive disorder (8.5%; n = 17) and agoraphobia (7.5%; n = 15) were the most frequent. One hundred and ten subjects (55%) reported a DCPR-R diagnosis: allostatic overload (29%; n = 58) and type A behavior (10.5%; n = 21) were the most frequent. When the incremental validity of the DCPR system over the DSM system was tested using PSI subscales as the criterion variable, the DCPR-R increased up to 0.11–0.24 the amount of explained variance. Subjects with at least one DCPR-R diagnosis showed lower PSI well-being scores (p = .001), higher PSI stress scores (p < .001), and higher PSI psychological distress scores (p = .008) than subjects without a DCPR-R diagnosis.
The DCPR-R showed a good criterion-related validity in migraine outpatients. Thus, they might be implemented, together with the DSM-5, in the assessment of migraine subjects.
Our group has reported the imprint formation of biological material on polycarbonate nuclear track detectors by UV-C exposure, which is used as an approach to simultaneously visualize cell imprints and nuclear tracks coming from the boron neutron capture reaction. Considering that the cell nucleus has a higher UV-C absorption than the cytoplasm and that hematoxylin preferentially stains the nucleus, we proposed to enhance the contrast between these two main cell structures by hematoxylin staining before UV-C sensitization. In this study, several experiments were performed in order to optimize UV-C exposure parameters and chemical etching conditions for cell imprint formation using the SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell line. The proposed method improves significantly the resolution of the cell imprints. It allows clear differentiation of the nucleus from the rest of the cell, together with nuclear tracks pits. Moreover, it reduces considerably the UV-C exposure time, an important experimental issue. The proposed methodology can be applied to study the boron distribution independently from the chosen cell line and/or boron compounds.
The burrower bug Scaptocoris castanea Perty, 1830 (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) is an agricultural pest feeding on roots of several crops. The histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands of S. castanea were described. The salivary system has a pair of principal salivary glands and a pair of accessory salivary glands. The principal salivary gland is bilobed with anterior and posterior lobes joined by a hilus where an excretory duct occurs. The accessory salivary gland is tubular with a narrow lumen that opens into the hilus near the excretory duct, suggesting that its secretion is stored in the lumen of the principal gland. The cytoplasm of the secretory cells is rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles with different electron densities and mitochondria. At the base of the accessory gland epithelium, there were scattered cells that do not reach the gland lumen, with the cytoplasm rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a role in protein production. Data show that principal and accessory salivary glands of S. castanea produce proteinaceous saliva. This is the first morphological description of the S. castanea salivary system that is similar to other Hemiptera Pentatomomorpha, but with occurrence of basal cells in the accessory salivary gland.
This study aimed to compare three methods of cell death assessment [trypan blue exclusion (TBE), propidium iodide viability assay (PIVA), and transmission electron microscopy] to evaluate fresh and frozen–thawed chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs). For this study, chicken PGCs were collected from ROSS 908 and Oravka breed hens, cryopreserved-thawed according to the protocol, and submitted for different cell death assessments. We observed significant differences between TBE and PIVA techniques in the detectable proportion of dead cells in fresh (14.14 ± 1.27 versus 7.16 ± 1.02%, respectively) and frozen–thawed (44.00 ± 2.11 versus 33.33 ± 1.67%, respectively) samples of the Oravka breed. Moreover, significant differences (p < 0.05) between TBE and PIVA techniques in the detectable proportion of dead cells in fresh (9.20 ± 0.60 versus 5.37 ± 0.51%) samples of ROSS 908 breed were recorded. Differences may be due to methodological, sensitivity, and toxicity features of each technique tested, where TB stains cell cytoplasm of dead cells and PI penetrates and intercalates into DNA of dead cells. Therefore, we suggest using a more precise and sensitive PIVA for viability evaluation of PGCs. Further research is needed to apply various fluorochromes for more detailed cell viability evaluation.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
The modern antiquities market uses radiocarbon (14C) dating to screen for forged objects. Although this fact shows the potential and power of the method, the circumstances where it is applied can be questionable and call for our attention. Here we present an outline of a call to radiocarbon laboratories for due diligence and best practice approaches to the analysis of antique objects requested by non-research clients.
Populist politicians have to deal with a foundational paradox, i.e. ruling without being contaminated by the corrupting influence of power - Strategies to shield populists’ political actions from the accusations that populist parties have flung against pre-existing elites – The Italian Five Star Movement as a populist political discourse resorting to legalist strategies – Legalism as a way of introducing political reforms as mandatory actions, required by some sort of exclusionary, pre-existing legal rule rather than the product of ideological confrontation and political compromise – Populism as an anti-political response to factionalism – Lottery system, absolute neutrality and the end of politics
We combined tools of phylogeography, population genetics and biogeographical interpretation to analyse a group of phylogenetically independent lineages (animals and plants) that coexist within the same geographical region, yet under markedly different environments, in order to identify generalized barriers for gene flow. We tested the hypothesis that major geographic features have produced a concordant genetic structure in phylogenetically independent lineages. A rigorous bibliographic search was performed, selecting available molecular information from six taxa occupying distinct southern biomes of South America: Yungas, Prepuna, Puna and northern Monte. We estimated within-population genetic diversity, the genetic structure and haplotype phylogenies to assemble distribution maps of genetic barriers for each species. We found a strong association between genetic variation and latitudinal distribution of populations. We detected a major barrier for six taxa at 27°S latitude and a second one for a group of three species at 25–26°S. Two alternative non-exclusive hypotheses – geology and/or climate – explain concordant genetic barriers in divergent lineages. We suggest that the term ‘biogeographically significant units’ portrays a group of populations of phylogenetically unrelated taxa that inhabit the same geographic region that have been similarly impacted by major physical events, which can be used to identify priority areas in landscape conservation.
Este artículo discute las evidencias de violencia perimortem y las relaciones espaciales de partes esqueletales recuperadas en la Estructura Funeraria 4 del sector I del sitio de Punta de la Peña 9 (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca, Argentina). Esta estructura, que contiene varios individuos correspondientes a la segunda mitad del primer milenio dC, presenta evidencias de haber sido reabierta en al menos dos eventos de inhumación, lo que produjo alteraciones de los patrones mortuorios y desarticulación de partes anatómicas. Estas reaperturas se relacionan con una dinámica particular de las prácticas de entierro en Antofagasta de la Sierra. Se trata del primer entierro secundario múltiple identificado para el área, el cual incluye a su vez los primeros casos de trauma intencional y muerte en condiciones violentas. Se inhumaron al menos siete individuos de ambos sexos y de distintos rangos de edad, cuatro de los cuales presentan lesiones perimortem en los cráneos, evidencia directa de situaciones de violencia interpersonal para los grupos agropastoriles de este período.
This study evaluated the efficacy of a family-centered preventive intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), delivered as an online, eHealth model to middle school families. To increase accessibility of family-centered prevention in schools, we adapted the evidence-based FCU to an online format, with the goal of providing a model of service delivery that is feasible, given limited staffing and resources in many schools. Building on prior research, we randomly assigned participants to waitlist control (n = 105), FCU Online as a web-based intervention (n = 109), and FCU Online with coaching support (n = 108). We tested the effects of the intervention on multiple outcomes, including parental self-efficacy, child self-regulation, and child behavior, in this registered clinical trial (NCT03060291). Families engaged in the intervention at a high rate (72% completed the FCU assessment) and completed 3-month posttest assessments with good retention (94% retained). Random assignment to the FCU Online with coaching support was associated with reduced emotional problems for children (p = .003, d = −0.32) and improved parental confidence and self-efficacy (p = .018, d = 0.25) when compared with waitlist controls. Risk moderated effects: at-risk youth showed stronger effects than did those with minimal risk. The results have implications for online delivery of family-centered interventions in schools.
Evidence from randomised controlled trials supports beneficial effects of total dairy products on body weight, fat and lean mass, but evidence on associations of dairy types with distributions of body fat and lean mass is limited. We aimed to investigate associations of total and different types of dairy products with markers of adiposity, and body fat and lean mass distribution. We evaluated cross-sectional data from 12 065 adults aged 30–65 years recruited to the Fenland Study between 2005 and 2015 in Cambridgeshire, UK. Diet was assessed with an FFQ. We estimated regression coefficients (or percentage differences) and their 95 % CI using multiple linear regression models. The medians of milk, yogurt and cheese consumption were 293 (interquartile range (IQR) 146–439), 35·3 (IQR 8·8–71·8) and 14·6 (IQR 4·8–26·9) g/d, respectively. Low-fat dairy consumption was inversely associated with visceral:subcutaneous fat ratio estimated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (–2·58 % (95 % CI –3·91, –1·23 %) per serving/d). Habitual consumption per serving/d (200 g) of milk was associated with 0·33 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·46) kg higher lean mass. Other associations were not significant after false discovery correction. Our findings suggest that the influence of milk consumption on lean mass and of low-fat dairy consumption on fat mass distribution may be potential pathways for the link between dairy consumption and metabolic risk. Our cross-sectional findings warrant further research in prospective and experimental studies in diverse populations.