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Organismal metabolic rates reflect the interaction of environmental and physiological factors. Thus, calcifying organisms that record growth history can provide insight into both the ancient environments in which they lived and their own physiology and life history. However, interpreting them requires understanding which environmental factors have the greatest influence on growth rate and the extent to which evolutionary history constrains growth rates across lineages. We integrated satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration with a database of growth coefficients, body sizes, and life spans for 692 populations of living marine bivalves in 195 species, set within the context of a new maximum-likelihood phylogeny of bivalves. We find that environmental predictors overall explain only a small proportion of variation in growth coefficient across all species; temperature is a better predictor of growth coefficient than food supply, and growth coefficient is somewhat more variable at higher summer temperatures. Growth coefficients exhibit moderate phylogenetic signal, and taxonomic membership is a stronger predictor of growth coefficient than any environmental predictor, but phylogenetic inertia cannot fully explain the disjunction between our findings and the extensive body of work demonstrating strong environmental control on growth rates within taxa. Accounting for evolutionary history is critical when considering shells as historical archives. The weak relationship between variation in food supply and variation in growth coefficient in our data set is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the increase in mean body size through the Phanerozoic was driven by increasing productivity enabling faster growth rates.
Several proposals have been introduced in the United States to create new “public domain” or “vendor-neutral” approaches for citing judicial opinions.’ Differing systems for public domain citations have been adopted in the states of Colorado and Louisiana. At this writing, the judiciary in the state of Wisconsin is considering a third approach, one that would radically change the way lawyers and judges cite state cases in that jurisdiction.
We attempt to integrate the literatures on authoritarian regime types and democratic forms of government. We propose a theoretical framework of five dimensions of executive appointment and dismissal that can be applied in both more democratic and more authoritarian regimes: the hereditary, military, ruling party, direct election, and confidence dimensions, respectively. Relying on the Varieties of Democracy data, we provide measures of these five dimensions for 3,937 individual heads of state and 2,874 heads of government from 192 countries across the globe from 1789 to the present. After presenting descriptive evidence of their prevalence, variation, and relationship to extant regime typologies, a set of exploratory probes gauge the extent to which the five dimensions can predict levels of repression, corruption, and executive survival, controlling for aspects of democracy. This leads to generation of a set of original hypotheses that we hope can serve as building blocks for explanatory theory. We conclude by discussing some limitations of these novel data.
Let A1and A2be commutative Banach algebras and A1 ⊙ A2 their algebraic tensor product over the complex numbers C.There is always a t least one norm, namely the greatest cross-norm γ (2), on A1 ⊙ A2 that renders it a normed algebra. We shall write A1 ⊗αA2 for the α-completion of A1⊙ A2when αis an algebra norm on A1⊙ A2.Gelbaum (2; 3), Tomiyama (9), and Gil de Lamadrid (4) have shown that for certain algebra norms α on A1⊙ A2 every complex homomorphism on A1 ⊙ A2 is α-continuous. In § 3 of this paper, we present a condition on an algebra norm α which is equivalent to the α-continuity of every complex homomorphism on A1⊙ A2.
Partnered research may help bridge the gap between research and practice. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) supports collaboration between scientific researchers and community members that is designed to improve capacity, enhance trust, and address health disparities. Systems science aims to understand the complex ways human-ecological coupled systems interact and apply knowledge to management practices. Although CBPR and systems science display complementary principles, only a few articles describe synergies between these 2 approaches. In this article, we explore opportunities to utilize concepts from systems science to understand the development, evolution, and sustainability of 1 CBPR partnership: The Community Health Advocacy and Research Alliance (CHARA). Systems science tools may help CHARA and other CBPR partnerships sustain their core identities while co-evolving in conjunction with individual members, community priorities, and a changing healthcare landscape. Our goal is to highlight CHARA as a case for applying the complementary approaches of CBPR and systems science to (1) improve academic/community partnership functioning and sustainability, (2) ensure that research addresses the priorities and needs of end users, and (3) support more timely application of scientific discoveries into routine practice.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs are effective in optimizing antimicrobial prescribing patterns and decreasing the negative outcomes of antimicrobial exposure, including the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms. In dialysis facilities, 30%–35% of antimicrobials are either not indicated or the type of antimicrobial is not optimal. Although antimicrobial stewardship programs are now implemented nationwide in hospital settings, programs specific to the maintenance dialysis facilities have not been developed.
To quantify the effect of an antimicrobial stewardship program in reducing antimicrobial prescribing.
Study design and setting
An interrupted time-series study in 6 outpatient hemodialysis facilities was conducted in which mean monthly antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months during the 12 months prior to the program were compared to those in the 12-month intervention period.
Implementation of the antimicrobial stewardship program was associated with a 6% monthly reduction in antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months during the intervention period (P=.02). The initial mean of 22.6 antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months decreased to a mean of 10.5 antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months at the end of the intervention. There were no significant changes in antimicrobial use by type, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial adjustments were recommended for 30 of 145 antimicrobial courses (20.6%) for which there were sufficient clinical data. The most frequent reasons for adjustment included de-escalation from vancomycin to cefazolin for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections and discontinuation of antimicrobials when criteria for presumed infection were not met.
Within 6 hemodialysis facilities, implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship was associated with a decline in antimicrobial prescribing with no negative effects.
Although equality figures prominently in many foundational theories of democracy, liberal and electoral conceptions of democracy have dominated empirical political science research on topics like political regimes, democratization and democratic survival. This paper develops the concept of egalitarian democracy as a regime that provides de facto protection of rights and freedoms equally across the population, distributes resources in a way that enables meaningful political participation for all citizens and fosters an environment in which all individuals and social groups can influence political and governing processes. Using new indicators from the Varieties of Democracy project, the paper develops and presents measures of these important concepts, demonstrates their relationship to existing measures, and illustrates their utility for advancing the study of democracy in ways that more fully embrace the richness of democratic theory.
Beginning as a planning tool within Sweden’s national road administration some 50 years ago, benefit-cost analysis (BCA) has come to be a pillar of the national transport policy because of subsequent strategic choices made by the national parliament. These choices made it necessary to widen the analysis of costs to include also externalities and a foregone conclusion was that efficient investment priorities should be made based on BCA. But no one asked whether the political decision makers or the BCA models were up to that task. This paper reviews the institutional framework and practice of BCA in Sweden for transport infrastructure investment, and considers design issues that have been and still are debated, such as whether the discount rate should include a risk term and how to account for the marginal cost of public funds. A main concern with BCA results is the underestimation of construction costs, making transport sector projects look better than they are. Several ex post analyses have established that a higher NPV ratio increases the probability of being included in the investment program proposal prepared by the agency. The requirement to let projects undergo BCA seems to make planners “trim” project proposals by trying to reduce investment costs without significantly reducing benefits. This relationship is weaker among profitable projects. Moreover, there is no correlation between rate of return and the probability of being included in the final program, which is established on political grounds.
We previously demonstrated an abnormally high right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise in 50% of adolescents operated on for isolated ventricular septal defect. The present study investigated the prevalence of abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response in 20 adult (age 30–45 years) patients who underwent surgery for early ventricular septal defect closure and its association with impaired ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. The patients underwent cardiopulmonary tests, including exercise stress echocardiography. Five of 19 patients (26%) presented an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise ⩾ 52 mmHg. Right ventricular systolic function was mixed, with normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and fractional area change, but abnormal tricuspid annular systolic motion velocity (median 6.7 cm/second) and isovolumetric acceleration (median 0.8 m/second2). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was normal at rest as measured by the peak systolic velocity of the lateral wall and isovolumic acceleration, early diastolic velocity, and ratio of early diastolic flow to tissue velocity, except for ejection fraction (median 53%). The myocardial performance index was abnormal for both the left and right ventricle. Peak oxygen uptake was normal (mean z score −0.4, 95% CI −2.8–0.3). There was no association between an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response during exercise and right or left ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. Abnormal right ventricular pressure response is not more frequent in adult patients compared with adolescents. This does not support the theory of progressive pulmonary vascular disease following closure of left-to-right shunts.
While a large literature suggests an important role for political parties in development, this article is the first attempt to layout and test a comprehensive theory connecting parties to economic growth. The authors argue that strong parties broaden the constituencies to which policymakers respond and help politicians solve coordination problems. These features help to ensure better economic management, public services, and political stability. And this, in turn, enhances economic growth. Drawing on a novel measure of party strength from the Varieties of Democracy data set, the authors test this theory on data drawn from more than 150 countries observed annually from 1901–2010. They identify a sizeable effect that is robust to various specifications, estimators, and samples. The effect operates in both democracies and autocracies, and is fairly stable across regions and time periods.
This paper presents a new approach for studying temporal sequences across ordinal variables. It involves three complementary approaches (frequency tables, transitional graphs, and dependency tables), as well as an established adaptation based on Bayesian dynamical systems, inferring a general system of change. The frequency tables count pairs of values in two variables and transitional graphs depict changes, showing which variable tends to attain high values first. The dependency tables investigate which values of one variable are prerequisites for values in another, as a more direct test of causal hypotheses. We illustrate the proposed approaches by analyzing the V-Dem dataset, and show that changes in electoral democracy are preceded by changes in freedom of expression and access to alternative information.
Multiparty elections are not only the sine qua non of modern representative democracy, they also constitute perhaps the most notable set of formal institutions on the continent today. At the same time, electoral institutions in Africa are often accompanied by the kind of competitive informal institutions described in Chapter 15. This has led to a fierce debate about the quality and impact of elections in Africa.
Elections in sub-Saharan Africa (hereafter referred to as Africa) are more common than ever in the continent's history: multiparty elections have spread to almost every country. This is all the more remarkable given Africa's relatively brief experience with elections. While multiparty elections were held on the continent before 1989, the real upsurge came only after the end of the Cold War.
Under colonialism, colonial subjects in the French territories voted in elections both to assemblies in France and to local government councils, and elections were also held for councils with limited legislative power in some of the English colonies. In conjunction with decolonisation, many countries also held multiparty elections, bringing leaders such as Kwame Nkrumah, Kenneth Kaunda, Leopold Senghor and Jomo Kenyatta to power.
Yet, after independence, about half of all African countries reverted to military regimes, starting with the 1960 coup in the then Zaire, today Democratic Republic of Congo. More than twenty other countries fashioned one-party regimes (often with a nominal socialist ideology) holding non-competitive elections. The justification for doing so was that legal processes had been followed – such as constitutional review commissions and referenda – and that these changes were necessary to forge national unity in the interest of rapid economic development. Consequently, by the mid-1980s, forty-two out of forty-seven countries in Africa could be categorised as either military or single-party regimes. Only Botswana, Gambia and Mauritius continued with multiparty elections from independence.
The end of the Cold War marked the start of a rapid transformation. In just a few years, almost all the previously autocratic regimes started holding multiparty elections (Bratton and van de Walle 1997; Lindberg 2006). The proportion of countries holding multiparty polls jumped from just 25 per cent in 1988 to 84 per cent in 1994 (van Ham and Lindberg 2015). At present, forty-six of forty-nine countries on the continent (94 per cent) hold multiparty elections for national offices.
The goals of the present study were to: (i) describe the implementation of a programme to improve the restaurant food environment in a rural community; and (ii) describe how practices changed in community restaurants.
The intervention included a baseline assessment of all community restaurants (n 32) and a report on how they could increase the availability and promotion of healthful options. The assessment focused on sixteen healthy practices (HP) derived from the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants. Restaurants were invited to participate at gold, silver or bronze levels based on the number of HP attained. Participating restaurants received dietitian consultation, staff training and promotion of the restaurant. All community restaurants were reassessed 1·5 years after baseline.
The restaurant programme was part of the Heart of New Ulm Project, a community-based CVD prevention programme in a rural community.
All community restaurants (n 32) were included in the study.
Over one-third (38 %) of community restaurants participated in the programme. At baseline, 22 % achieved at least a bronze level. This increased to 38 % at follow-up with most of the improvement among participating restaurants that were independently owned. Across all restaurants in the community, the HP showing the most improvement included availability of non-fried vegetables (63–84 %), fruits (41–53 %), smaller portions and whole grains.
Findings demonstrate successes and challenges of improving healthful food availability and promotion in a community-wide restaurant programme.
It is important for the dairy industry to be aware of the consequences of past selection policies. This can provide guidance on how to improve or change current breeding schemes. In addition it is important to know how much of current progress is due to breeding and how much to management. The objective of the study was to analyse genetic and phenotypic trends for the production traits (milk, fat and protein) using the results from the latest UK Individual Animal Model evaluations.