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What do Americans want from immigration policy and why? In the rise of a polarized and acrimonious immigration debate, leading accounts see racial anxieties and disputes over the meaning of American nationhood coming to a head. The resurgence of parochial identities has breathed new life into old worries about the vulnerability of the American Creed. This book tells a different story, one in which creedal values remain hard at work in shaping ordinary Americans' judgements about immigration. Levy and Wright show that perceptions of civic fairness - based on multiple, often competing values deeply rooted in the country's political culture - are the dominant guideposts by which most Americans navigate immigration controversies most of the time and explain why so many Americans simultaneously hold a mix of pro-immigrant and anti-immigrant positions. The authors test the relevance and force of the theory over time and across issue domains.
The Virginia School's economics of natural equals makes consent critical for policy. Democracy is understood as government by discussion, not majority rule. The claim of efficiency unsupported by consent, as common in orthodox economics, appeals to social hierarchy. Politics becomes an act of exchange among equals where the economist is only entitled to offer advice to citizens, not to dictators. The foundation of natural equality and consent explains the common themes of James Buchanan and John Rawls as well as Ronald Coase and the Fabian socialists. What orthodox economics treats as efficient racial discrimination violates the fair chance entitlement to which people consent in a market economy. The importance of replication stressed by Gordon Tullock, developing themes from Karl Popper, is another expression of natural equality since the foresight of replication induces care into research. The publication of previously unpublished correspondence and documentation allows the reader to judge recent controversy.
The sharing economy challenges contemporary property law. Does the rise of access render our conception of property obsolete? What are the normative and theoretical implications of choosing casual short-term use of property over stable use? What are the relational and social complications of blurring the line between personal and commercial use of property? The book develops a novel conceptualization of property in the age of the sharing economy. It argues that the sharing economy pushes for a mobile and flexible vision of engaging with possessions and, as a result, with other people. Property's role as a source of permanence and a facilitator of stable, long-term relationships is gradually decreasing in importance. The book offers a broad theoretical and normative framework for understanding the changing landscape of property, provides an institutional analysis of the phenomenon, discusses the social, communal, and relational implications of these changes, and offers guidelines for law reform.
To evaluate the association of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption with gains in weight and waist circumference, and incident overweight/obesity, in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort.
We applied FFQ at baseline and categorized energy intake by degree of processing using the NOVA classification. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after a mean 3·8-year follow-up. We assessed associations, through Poisson regression with robust variance, of UPF consumption with large weight gain (1·68 kg/year) and large waist gain (2·42 cm/year), both being defined as ≥90th percentile in the cohort, and with incident overweight/obesity.
Civil servants of Brazilian public academic institutions in six cities (n 11 827), aged 35–74 years at baseline (2008–2010).
UPF provided a mean 24·6 (sd 9·6) % of ingested energy. After adjustment for smoking, physical activity, adiposity and other factors, fourth (>30·8 %) v. first (<17·8 %) quartile of UPF consumption was associated (relative risk (95 % CI)) with 27 and 33 % greater risk of large weight and waist gains (1·27 (1·07, 1·50) and 1·33 (1·12, 1·58)), respectively. Similarly, those in the fourth consumption quartile presented 20 % greater risk (1·20 (1·03, 1·40)) of incident overweight/obesity and 2 % greater risk (1·02; (0·85, 1·21)) of incident obesity. Approximately 15 % of cases of large weight and waist gains and of incident overweight/obesity could be attributed to consumption of >17·8 % of energy as UPF.
Greater UPF consumption predicts large gains in overall and central adiposity and may contribute to the inexorable rise in obesity seen worldwide.
The ice-cored Galena Creek Rock Glacier, Wyoming, USA, has been the subject of a number of studies that sought to determine the origin of its ice. We present new observations of the rock glacier's internal structure from ground-penetrating radar to constrain ice and debris distribution and accumulation. We imaged dipping reflectors in the center of the glacier that are weak and discontinuous, in contrast to strong reflectors toward the edge of the cirque beneath large debris-avalanche chutes. These reflectors form a network of concave-up, up-glacier dipping layers. We interpret these as englacial debris bands formed by large debris falls buried by subsequent ice and snow accumulation. They are discontinuous where ice outpaces debris accumulation, but with sufficient debris accumulation an interleaved pattern of ice and debris layers can form. We propose a model in which the ice in these interleaved layers is snowfall preserved by debris-facilitated accumulation. Large debris falls that occur in early spring bury sections of the snowpack, which are then preserved through summer and incorporated into the rock glacier body over time. This study highlights the importance of sequential accumulation of ice and debris for understanding the dynamics of rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers.
This descriptive study investigated the implementation of student-selected, entertainment-purposed digital games for foreign language teaching and learning. During a 15-week semester, 16 Korean EFL students enrolled in an introductory educational technology course played online games, visited gaming sites, and completed instructional tasks. Conceptualizing games as social practices and drawing from the bridging activities framework (Thorne & Reinhardt, 2008), instructional tasks were designed to enhance language awareness and to present possibilities for socialization into gaming discourses. The study investigated the ways that the designed pedagogy supported or impeded language awareness and gaming discourse participation. The study found that the students exhibited language awareness in many ways, but that there were missed opportunities in developing student understandings of language as a social medium. Additionally, six students (38%) directly participated in gaming spaces, and some of them took on more central roles in gaming practices over time. Other students, however, did not attempt to directly participate in gaming sites or were not successful in their attempts. These findings are discussed in regard to pedagogical design, including game selection and supporting learner analyses of gaming discourses, as well as avenues for future research examining socialization in classrooms and gaming spaces.
In order to conserve species exploited by trafficking, governmental actions should be directed to source areas, aiming to reduce or eliminate illegal and indiscriminate trapping. However, few studies have diagnosed and prioritized the most relevant drivers of the illegal capture of wild animals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the main drivers of the illegal capture of wild birds in Brazil. A literature review and a multivariate modelling approach indicated the economic, social and environmental factors that display the greatest influence in boosting this illicit activity worldwide. Our search revealed seven drivers of illegal wildlife capture addressed by researchers in studies carried out in source countries. This is the first broad-scale study in Brazil showing that higher native vegetation coverage and greater proximity to protected areas were the main drivers of illegal wild bird capture for trafficking. Thus, actions that aim to protect species threatened by trafficking require a multidisciplinary approach encompassing social, economic and environmental factors.
To describe out-of-home consumption according to the purpose and extent of industrial processing and also evaluate the association between eating out and ultra-processed food consumption, taking account of variance within and between individuals.
The study was based on the Individual Food Intake of the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, carried out with 34 003 individuals aged 10 years or more, between May 2008 and May 2009. All food items were classified according to food processing level. The habit of eating out was evaluated through the frequency of days each individual reported eating out, described according to sociodemographic characteristics. The contribution of food energy per group and subgroup was estimated according to the frequency of eating out. In addition, multilevel modelling was employed to evaluate the association between eating out and ultra-processed food consumption.
In Brazil, culinary preparations accounted for most of the energy eaten out. However, it was possible to observe a higher contribution of ultra-processed foods, especially sugary beverages and ready-to-eat meals, as the frequency of out-of-home consumption increased. Compared with food consumption exclusively at home, eating out increased the consumption of ultra-processed foods by 0·41 percentage points within and between individuals.
In Brazil, the same individual and different individuals had greater consumption of ultra-processed foods when they ate out of home compared with when they ate at home. So, it is necessary to implement public policies which discourage the out-of-home consumption of ultra-processed foods and that provide affordable and accessible less-processed food options.
Despite extensive research, symptom structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly debated. The network approach to psychopathology offers a novel method for understanding and conceptualizing PTSD. However, extant studies have mainly used small samples and self-report measures among sub-clinical populations, while also overlooking co-morbid depressive symptoms.
PTSD symptom network topology was estimated in a sample of 1489 treatment-seeking veteran patients based on a clinician-rated PTSD measure. Next, clinician-rated depressive symptoms were incorporated into the network to assess their influence on PTSD network structure. The PTSD-symptom network was then contrasted with the network of 306 trauma-exposed (TE) treatment-seeking patients not meeting full criteria for PTSD to assess corresponding network differences. Finally, a directed acyclic graph (DAG) was computed to estimate potential directionality among symptoms, including depressive symptoms and daily functioning.
The PTSD symptom network evidenced robust reliability. Flashbacks and getting emotionally upset by trauma reminders emerged as the most central nodes in the PTSD network, regardless of the inclusion of depressive symptoms. Distinct clustering emerged for PTSD and depressive symptoms within the comorbidity network. DAG analysis suggested a key triggering role for re-experiencing symptoms. Network topology in the PTSD sample was significantly distinct from that of the TE sample.
Flashbacks and psychological reactions to trauma reminders, along with their strong connections to other re-experiencing symptoms, have a pivotal role in the clinical presentation of combat-related PTSD among veterans. Depressive and posttraumatic symptoms constitute two separate diagnostic entities, but with meaningful between-disorder connections, suggesting two mutually-influential systems.
This article traces the history of General Motors’ first black director, Leon Sullivan, and his involvement with the Sullivan Principles, a corporate code of conduct for U.S. companies doing business in Apartheid South Africa. Building on and furthering the postwar civil rights and anti-colonial struggles, the international anti-apartheid movement brought together students, union workers, and religious leaders in an effort to draw attention to the horrors of Apartheid in South Africa. Whereas many left-leaning activists advocated sanctions and divestment, others, Sullivan among them, helped lead the way in drafting an alternative strategy for American business, one focused on corporate-sponsored black empowerment. Moving beyond both narrow criticisms of Sullivan as a “sellout” and corporate propaganda touting the benefits of the Sullivan Principles, this work draws on corporate and “movement” records to reveal the complex negotiations between white and black executives as they worked to situate themselves in relation to anti-racist movements in the Unites States and South Africa. In doing so, it furthermore reveals the links between modern corporate social responsibility and the fight for Black Power within the corporation.
Enthalpies of formation and heat capacities are key parameters for thermodynamic assessments using the CALPHAD method and were determined in this work in the ZrO2–Y0.5Ta0.5O2 quasibinary system. ZrxY0.5−x/2Ta0.5−x/2O2 samples with compositions in the monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO2-based solid solutions (0.65 ≤ x ≤ 1) as well as the two monoclinic (M′ and M) polymorphs of the Y0.5Ta0.5O2-based solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) were investigated. The enthalpies of the two monoclinic polymorphs M′ and M are essentially the same within experimental uncertainty and have significant energetic stability (enthalpies of formation near −45 kJ/mol) relative to their component oxides. The monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia-rich solid solutions have little energetic stability with respect to ZrO2, Ta2O5, and Y2O3 and presumably owe their existence to the configurational entropy. The heat capacities of M′ and M phase are similar and can be estimated from their constituent oxides using the Neumann–Kopp rule.
Jaswal & Akhtar (J&A) offer evidence against lack of social motivation in “autistic people,” providing no further phenotypic details as to the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subgroups that they refer to. I will argue that given the extensive behavioral and neurobiological heterogeneity among people who receive the diagnosis, reference to “autistic people” is misleading. As a consequence, J&A's claims are difficult to interpret.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased risk of developing non-transmittable diseases in adults subjected to adverse early developmental conditions. Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases have been the focus of most studies. Nevertheless, data from animal models also suggest early programming of fertility. In humans, it is difficult to assess the impact of the in utero environment retrospectively. Birthweight is commonly used as an indirect indicator of intrauterine development. This research is part of the ALIFERT study. We investigated a potential link between ponderal index at birth and female fertility in adulthood. Data from 51 infertile and 74 fertile women were analysed. BW was on average higher in infertile women, whereas birth length did not differ between the two groups; thus, resulting in a significantly higher ponderal index at birth in infertile women. Ponderal index at birth has been identified as a risk factor for infertility. These results suggest the importance of the intra-uterine environment, not only for long-term metabolic health but also for fertility.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Prematurity impacts myocardial development and may determine long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that preterm neonates develop right ventricle dysfunction and adaptive remodelling by 32 weeks post-menstrual age that persists through 1 year corrected age.
Materials and Methods:
A subset of 80 preterm infants (born <29 weeks) was selected retrospectively from a prospectively enrolled cohort and measures of right ventricle systolic function and morphology by two-dimensional echocardiography were assessed at 32 weeks post-menstrual age and at 1 year of corrected age. Comparisons were made to 50 term infants at 1 month and 1 year of age. Sub-analyses were performed in preterm-born infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension.
In both term and preterm infants, right ventricle function and morphology increased over the first year (p < 0.01). The magnitudes of right ventricle function measures were lower in preterm-born infants at each time period (p < 0.01 for all) and right ventricle morphology indices were wider in all preterm infants by 1 year corrected age, irrespective of lung disease. Measures of a) right ventricle function were further decreased and b) morphology increased through 1 year in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension (p < 0.01).
Preterm infants exhibit abnormal right ventricle performance with remodelling at 32 weeks post-menstrual age that persists through 1 year corrected age, suggesting a less developed intrinsic myocardial function response following preterm birth. The development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension leave a further negative impact on right ventricle mechanics over the first year of age.