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The goal of this chapter is to address how urban dynamics at the neighborhood level are linked to children’s development. We first review trends in the spatial concentration of poverty and inequality in the United States in recent decades. Then, we turn to theoretical models describing how local communities, with a focus on urban settings, influence children’s development. We then cover methodological issues and focus on one critical issue, selection bias, and then briefly review study designs as related to this challenge. Finally, we provide an overview of empirical studies linking neighborhood, socioeconomic conditions, and children’s development, notably their educational, behavioral, and socioemotional outcomes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study correlating postoperative opioid use, prescription availability at discharge and patient use at home using survey methodology and longitudinal cohort data. The primary objectives of this project are twofold. First, we will determine whether the number of opioid pills prescribed after surgery increases the risk of abuse, diversion and conversion to chronic use. Next, we will determine whether patient and parent characteristics, behavioral factors and medical comorbidities increase the risk of opioid abuse, diversion and conversion to chronic use after surgery. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A mixed-methods approach will be employed utilizing retrospective and prospective medical record review, survey methodology, and longitudinal cohort matching with California’s Controlled Substance Utilization Review and Evaluation System (CURES) reports of opioid usage. Surveys will be administered before and after surgery and will capture both parent and patient level factors that may influence longitudinal opioid use. Adolescents and young adults 13-20 years old discharged from Children’s Hospital Los Angeles undergoing one of seven procedures most commonly associated with an opioid prescription at time of discharge (spinal fusion, arthroscopy, bowel resection for inflammatory bowel disease, pectus excavatum repair, tonsillectomy, pilonidal excision and hip reconstruction) will be enrolled. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Inpatient and outpatient opioid usage will predict incidence of diversion, abuse and conversion to chronic usage. Furthermore, socioeconomic factors and behavioral comorbidities such as anxiety and depression will be identified as predictors of diversion, abuse and conversion to chronic opioid use. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study will be one of the first to identify opioid prescribing variation in children who require surgery and will identify multiple provider, patient and family level factors influencing use. Furthermore, it will identify factors predictive of possible diversion, abuse and conversion to chronic use. The results of this exploratory analysis will lay the foundation for future studies utilizing physician decision support tools, aid in crafting “best practice” patterns and clinical benchmarks for opioid prescribing, and serve to inform policy makers on the most impactful ways to optimize opioid prescribing practices for adolescents who require surgery.
Research indicates that children are at higher risk for obesity if their parents have been exposed to a larger number of stressors, yet little is known about effects of parents’ subjective, perceived experience of stress on children’s eating behaviours and adiposity and whether weight-related parenting practices (i.e. parent rules and positive family meal practices) mediate this relationship. The present study evaluated the direct and mediated relationship between parent perceived stress and child waist circumference and parent stress and child consumption of added sugars one year later.
Longitudinal panel data.
Eleven communities in Southern California, USA.
Data were collected over two waves from parent–child dyads (n 599). Most parents were female (81 %) and Hispanic (51 %); children were 11 years old on average (sd 1·53; range 7–15 years) and 31 % received free school lunch.
Perceived parent stress was not significantly associated with child waist circumference or consumption of added sugars one year later, and mediating pathways through parenting practices were not significant. However, parent rules were significantly associated with lower child consumption of added sugars (β=−0·14, P<0·001).
Results suggest that parent rules about the types of foods children can eat, clearly explained to children, may decrease child consumption of added sugars but not necessarily lead to changes in obesity risk. Parent- and family-based interventions that support development of healthy rules about child eating have the potential to improve child dietary nutrient intake.
For several years I have been exploring the projection of Britain in America during the late 1930s and the early 1940s. My focus has been on aspects of cultural propaganda initiated for the most part unofficially, although often with government complicity. Simply put, I have been concerned to discover what ordinary Americans were seeing and hearing and reading about England in the crucial years before the onset of the Second World War and, even more significantly, in the period from the summer of 1939 to American entry in December 1941.