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Objective: To provide a comprehensive systematic review of the literature by examining studies published on all cognitive aspects of children with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria (ECT-PKU) included in the databases Medline, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLE. Method: In addition to a classical approach, we summarized methodology and results of each study in order to discuss current theoretical and methodological issues. We also examined recent advances in biochemical markers and treatments of PKU, with implications for future research on metabolic control and its role as a determinant of neuropsychological outcome. Results: Consistent with previous reviews, the hypothesis of a specific and central executive impairment in children with ECT-PKU was suggested. However, findings are inconclusive regarding the nature of executive impairments as well as their specificity, impact on everyday life, persistence over time, and etiology. Conclusion: Given the current state of the science, we suggest future directions for research that utilizes a developmental and integrative approach to examine the effects of recent advances in biochemical markers and treatment of PKU. (JINS, 2019, 25, 624–643)
Variations in feeding behaviour between animals result from individual variations in their metabolism as affected by diet composition. The study aimed to link the within-day dynamics of voluntary feed intake and those of blood metabolites and insulin in growing pigs having ad libitum access to feed and receiving diets differing in dietary fibre levels and aleurone supplementation. A total of forty pigs (body weight: 35 kg) had access to diets provided ad libitum, which differed by fibre content (13 or 18 % neutral-detergent fibre) and aleurone supplementation (0, 2 or 4 g/kg). Feeding behaviour was individually recorded for 1 week. The kinetic of plasma metabolites and insulin was followed for 1 h after a voluntary test meal. Dietary fibre level did not affect the daily feed intake but increased meal size and meal duration. Aleurone supplementation (4 g/kg) decreased the daily feed intake and number of meals. Dietary fibre level only decreased insulin concentration measured 15 min after meal beginning. Aleurone supplementation (4 g/kg) decreased glycaemia in the first hour after the meal and insulinaemia 15 min after the meal. Free access to feed led to high variability in pre-prandial metabolites and insulin concentrations, resulting in different test meal size irrespective of diet composition. Animals were then spread over different profiles combining feeding behaviour and fasted status to explain different profiles of regulation of feed intake. Plasma metabolites and insulin kinetics were affected by diet composition but also by animal characteristics. Individual variability should be considered when diet composition is used to modulate feeding behaviour.
Objectives: Pantomiming the use of familiar tools is a central test in the assessment of apraxia. However, surprisingly, the nature of the underlying cognitive mechanisms remains an unresolved issue. The aim of this study is to shed a new light on this issue by exploring the role of functional, mechanical, and manipulation knowledge in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and semantic dementia and apraxia of tool use. Methods: We performed multiple regression analyses with the global performance and the nature of errors (i.e., production and conception) made during a pantomime of tool use task in patients and control participants as dependent variables and tasks investigating functional, mechanical, and manipulation knowledge as predictors. Results: We found that mechanical problem solving, assessing mechanical knowledge, was a good predictor of the global performance of pantomime of tool use. We also found that occurrence of conception errors was robustly predicted by the task assessing functional knowledge whereas that of production errors was not explained by only one predictor. Conclusions: Our results suggest that both functional and mechanical knowledge are important to pantomime the use of tools. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that mechanical knowledge plays a role in pantomime of tool use. Although impairment in pantomime of tool use tasks (i.e., apraxia) is widely explained by the disruption of manipulation knowledge, we propose that pantomime of tool use is a complex problem-solving task. (JINS, 2017, 23, 128–138)
The aims of the present study were to provide nationally representative data on fruit and vegetable consumption in Vietnam, and to assess the accuracy of the reported numbers of ‘standard servings’ consumed. Data analysed were from a multi-stage stratified cluster survey of 14 706 participants (46·5 % males, response proportion 64·1 %) aged 25−64 years in Vietnam. Measurements were made in accordance with the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases (STEPS) protocols. Approximately 80 % of Vietnamese people reported having less than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily in a typical week. Fruit and vegetable intake reported in ‘standard serving’ sizes was positively correlated with levels of education completed and household income (P<0·001 for trend). The correlations between summary values for each province reflect some known demographic, geographical and climatic characteristics of the country. For example, provinces at higher latitude had higher mean servings of vegetables (r 0·90), and provinces with higher proportions of urban population had higher mean servings of fruit (r 0·40). In conclusion, about eight in ten Vietnamese people aged 25–64 years did not meet WHO recommendations for daily consumption of at least five servings of fruit and vegetables. On the basis of the consistency of the data collected with other estimates and with physical and demographic characteristics of the country, the WHO STEPS instrument has construct validity for measuring fruit and vegetable intake, but with two issues identified. The issues were seasonal variation in reporting and a limitation on the usefulness of the information for associative analyses.
One presents hereafter the HIPPARCOS satellite payload which is mainly constituted by a Schmidt telescope; a possible way to approximate the Schmidt mirror elliptic deformation profile is explained. Then, the signal expected from the optical chain is briefly described and one displays a residual chromatic effect which may introduce errors in the measure. To conclude, numerical values of this effect are given and one shows the necessity to take it into account in the data reduction process.
The enterohormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is required to amplify glucose-induced insulin secretion that facilitates peripheral glucose utilisation. Alteration in GLP-1 secretion during obesity has been reported but is still controversial. Due to the high adaptability of intestinal cells to environmental changes, we hypothesised that the density of GLP-1-producing cells could be modified by nutritional factors to prevent the deterioration of metabolic condition in obesity. We quantified L-cell density in jejunum samples collected during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in forty-nine severely obese subjects analysed according to their fat consumption. In mice, we deciphered the mechanisms by which a high-fat diet (HFD) makes an impact on enteroendocrine cell density and function. L-cell density in the jejunum was higher in obese subjects consuming >30 % fat compared with low fat eaters. Mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks displayed an increase in GLP-1-positive cells in the jejunum and colon accordingly to GLP-1 secretion. The regulation by the HFD appears specific to GLP-1-producing cells, as the number of PYY (peptide YY)-positive cells remained unchanged. Moreover, genetically obese ob/ob mice did not show alteration of GLP-1-positive cell density in the jejunum or colon, suggesting that obesity per se is not sufficient to trigger the mechanism. The higher L-cell density in HFD-fed mice involved a rise in L-cell terminal differentiation as witnessed by the increased expression of transcription factors downstream of neurogenin3 (Ngn3). We suggest that the observed increase in GLP-1-positive cell density triggered by high fat consumption in humans and mice might favour insulin secretion and therefore constitute an adaptive response of the intestine to balance diet-induced insulin resistance.
We each are highly experienced instructors of undergraduate- and graduate-level psychology courses. We have held faculty positions at universities located in different regions in the United States, including the Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest. Collectively we have held faculty positions in psychology departments at large and midsize universities, where conducting research and training psychology doctoral students is a major aspect of one’s professional activities, and at a small liberal arts university where teaching is the primary focus of one’s duties as a faculty member.
Our parallel and shared experience regards the ethical challenge of responding to and managing requests, made by our students, which would favor and advantage them relative to their classmates enrolled in the same course. Increasingly, we each note challenges to instructing our psychology courses, which arise when students request additional coursework or an assignment to replace incomplete coursework to improve their grade. Typically these requests occur in the absence of an extenuating circumstance or documented excuse. Our concern is that faculty members encounter this sort of challenge often enough. Moreover, the manner in which faculty resolve such matters has important implications for training students who in the future will enter professions within the behavioral sciences. For example, on several occasions and across different courses, undergraduate students have asked us during the semester to assign to them additional coursework so that they may improve their grade. In such instances the other enrolled students in the course would not have received the same opportunity to improve their grade.
We provide asymptotics for the range
of a random walk on the
-dimensional lattice indexed by a random tree with
vertices. Using Kingman’s subadditive ergodic theorem, we prove under general assumptions that
converges to a constant, and we give conditions ensuring that the limiting constant is strictly positive. On the other hand, in dimension
, and in the case of a symmetric random walk with exponential moments, we prove that
. We apply our results to asymptotics for the range of a branching random walk when the initial size of the population tends to infinity.
Substantial improvements of agricultural systems are necessary to meet the future requirements of humanity. However, current agricultural knowledge and information systems are generally not well suited to meet the necessary improvements in productivity and sustainability. For more effective application of research output, research producers and research consumers should not be considered as separate individuals in the knowledge chain but as collaborating partners creating synergy. The current paper investigates the relationships between scientists and stakeholders and identifies approaches to increase the effectiveness of their communication. On-farm research has proven to be an effective means of improving exploitation of research output at farm level because it connects all relevant partners in the process. Furthermore, pilot farms can act as an effective platform for communication and dissemination. Regional networks of pilot farms should be established and connected across regions.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes impairments affecting instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Transdisciplinary research in neuropsychology and virtual reality has fostered the development of ecologically valid virtual tools for the assessment of IADL, using simulations of real life activities. Few studies have examined the benefits of this approach in AD patients. Our aim was to examine the utility of a non-immersive virtual coffee task (NI-VCT) for assessment of IADL in these patients. We focus on the assessment results obtained from a group of 24 AD patients on a task designed to assess their ability to prepare a virtual cup of coffee, using a virtual coffee machine. We compared performance on the virtual task to an identical daily living task involving the actual preparation of a cup of coffee, as well as to global cognitive, executive, and caregiver-reported IADL functioning. Relative to 32 comparable, healthy elderly (HE) controls, AD patients performed worse than HE controls on all tasks. Correlation analyses revealed that NI-VCT measures were related to all other neuropsychological measures. Moreover, regression analyses demonstrated that performance on the NI-VCT predicted actual task performance and caregiver-reported IADL functioning. Our results provide initial support for the utility of our virtual kitchen for assessment of IADL in AD patients. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–10)
Ce texte est tiré d’un exposé présenté au cours de la journée Paul Lévy organisée au Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires de l’Université Pierre et Marie Curie le 15 décembre 2011. L’objectif de cet exposé était de donner un aperçu des contributions de Paul Lévy à la théorie du mouvement brownien.
In general, the smile that orthodontists try to create at the end of treatment satisfies objective functional criteria as well as subjective esthetic criteria.
It’s obvious that in today’s society, a smile plays an important role in nonverbal communication: restoring or enhancing this smile is, in fact, the main reason patients consult their orthodontists.
After reviewing the literature, we were able to identify various factors involved in the perception of a smile and to underscore the esthetic connection between the smile and the face.
Is there a relationship between the smile and facial harmony?
What are the objective criteria that allow us to discern whether a smile is pleasant or not?
Our study confirmed that the esthetics of the face correlates with the perception of the smile and that the factors discussed in the literature pertaining to this correlation are valid.
However, the study has also made it possible to clarify the respective influence of various factors as they relate to a pleasant smile, an unattractive smile or an unsightly smile. Therefore, our study has shown that objective functional criteria are involved in the entirely subjective esthetic realm of a smile.
This article presents solutions to problems posed by missing teeth in the anterior sector of the arch by synthesizing three groups of parameters, those related to patients, those related to dentists, and those related to the orthodontist.
But the patient, or the parents of patients who are young children, in consultation with the treatment professionals, must make the final decision.
Quantum dot nano-laboratory: magnetic ions and nuclear spins in a dot
L. Besombes, CNRS & Université Joseph Fourier, France,
C. Le Gall, CNRS & Université Joseph Fourier, France,
H. Boukari, CNRS & Université Joseph Fourier, France,
H. Mariette, CNRS & Université Joseph Fourier, France
We show in this review that the spin state of a single magnetic atom embedded in an individual semiconductor quantum dot can be optically probed. A high degree of spin polarization can be achieved for an individual Mn atom using quasi-resonant or fully resonant optical excitation of the quantum dot at zero magnetic field. Under quasi-resonant excitation, optically created spin-polarized carriers generate an energy splitting of the Mn spin and enable magnetic moment orientation controlled by the photon helicity and energy. Monitoring the time dependence of the intensity of the fluorescence during a resonant optical pumping process allows us to directly probe the dynamics of the initialization of the Mn spin. The dynamics and the magnetic field dependence of the optical-pumping mechanism shows that the spin lifetime of an isolated Mn atom at zero magnetic field is controlled by a magnetic anisotropy induced by the built-in strain in the quantum dots. The Mn spin state prepared by optical pumping is fully conserved for a few microseconds. These experiments open the way to full optical control of the spin state of an individual magnetic atom in a solid state environment.
The ability to control spins in semiconductor nanostructures is an important issue for spintronics and quantum information processing. Single-spin detection and control is a key but very challenging step for any spin-based solid-state quantum computing device. In the past few years, efficient optical techniques have been developed to control the spin of individual carriers  or ensemble of nuclei  in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs).
Investigations describing the utilization pattern and comparing the outcome from emergency and mass casualty situations are limited by the lack of a reliable and valid patient classification system. In this study we briefly describe the use of APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation), a physiologically based classification system for measuring severity of illness in groups of critically ill patients, as a tool in comparing outcomes of 1437 ICU admissions from eight European and five American hospitals. Because of the successful results from this pilot effort, we believe that APACHE could be used to compare the performance of hospitals in an emergency or mass casualty situation.
In regions of intensive pig and dairy farming, nutrient losses to the environment at farm level are a source of concern for water and air quality. Dynamic models are useful tools to evaluate the effects of production strategies on nutrient flows and losses to the environment. This paper presents the development of a new whole-farm model upscaling dynamic models developed at the field or animal scale. The model, called MELODIE, is based on an original structure with interacting biotechnical and decisional modules. Indeed, it is supported by an ontology of production systems and the associated programming platform DIESE. The biotechnical module simulates the nutrient flows in the different animal, soil and crops and manure sub-models. The decision module relies on an annual optimization of cropping and spreading allocation plans, and on the flexible execution of activity plans for each simulated year. These plans are examined every day by an operational management sub-model and their application is context dependent. As a result, MELODIE dynamically simulates the flows of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, copper, zinc and water within the whole farm over the short and long-term considering both the farming system and its adaptation to climatic conditions. Therefore, it is possible to study both the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the environmental risks, and to test changes of practices and innovative scenarios. This is illustrated with one example of simulation plan on dairy farms to interpret the Nitrogen farm-gate budget indicator. It shows that this indicator is able to reflect small differences in Nitrogen losses between different systems, but it can only be interpreted using a mobile average, not on a yearly basis. This example illustrates how MELODIE could be used to study the dynamic behaviour of the system and the dynamic of nutrient flows. Finally, MELODIE can also be used for comprehensive multi-criterion assessments, and it also constitutes a generic and evolving framework for virtual experimentation on animal farming systems.