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Previous work has shown that amygdala responsiveness to fearful expressions is inversely related to level of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e. reduced guilt and empathy) in youth with conduct problems. However, some research has suggested that the relationship between pathophysiology and CU traits may be different in those youth with significant prior trauma exposure.
In experiment 1, 72 youth with varying levels of disruptive behavior and trauma exposure performed a gender discrimination task while viewing morphed fear expressions (0, 50, 100, 150 fear) and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent responses were recorded. In experiment 2, 66 of these youth performed the Social Goals Task, which measures self-reports of the importance of specific social goals to the participant in provoking social situations.
In experiment 1, a significant CU traits-by-trauma exposure interaction was observed within right amygdala; fear intensity-modulated amygdala responses negatively predicted CU traits for those youth with low levels of trauma but positively predicted CU traits for those with high levels of trauma. In experiment 2, a bootstrapped model revealed that the indirect effect of fear intensity amygdala response on social goal importance through CU traits is moderated by prior trauma exposure.
This study, while exploratory, indicates that the pathophysiology associated with CU traits differs in youth as a function of prior trauma exposure. These data suggest that prior trauma exposure should be considered when evaluating potential interventions for youth with high CU traits.
Objective Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Venoplasty has been proposed as a treatment for CCSVI. The aim of our study was to gain a better understanding of the “real-world” safety and longitudinal effectiveness of venoplasty Methods: British Columbia residents who self-reported having had venoplasty and consented to participate in the study were interviewed and followed for up to 24 months post-therapy using standardized structured questionnaires Results: Participants reported procedure-related complications (11.5%) and complications within the first month after the procedure (17.3%). Initially, more than 40% of participants perceived that the venoplasty had had positive effects on their health conditions, such as fatigue, numbness, balance, concentration/memory and mobility. However, this improvement was not maintained over time Conclusions: Follow-up patient-reported outcomes indicated that the initial perception of the positive impact of venoplasty on the health conditions of MS patients was not sustained over time. In addition, venoplasty was not without associated morbidity.
This review represents the Southern Ocean community’s satellite data needs for the coming decade. Developed through widespread engagement and incorporating perspectives from a range of stakeholders (both research and operational), it is designed as an important community-driven strategy paper that provides the rationale and information required for future planning and investment. The Southern Ocean is vast but globally connected, and the communities that require satellite-derived data in the region are diverse. This review includes many observable variables, including sea ice properties, sea surface temperature, sea surface height, atmospheric parameters, marine biology (both micro and macro) and related activities, terrestrial cryospheric connections, sea surface salinity, and a discussion of coincident and in situ data collection. Recommendations include commitment to data continuity, increases in particular capabilities (sensor types, spatial, temporal), improvements in dissemination of data/products/uncertainties, and innovation in calibration/validation capabilities. Full recommendations are detailed by variable as well as summarized. This review provides a starting point for scientists to understand more about Southern Ocean processes and their global roles, for funders to understand the desires of the community, for commercial operators to safely conduct their activities in the Southern Ocean, and for space agencies to gain greater impact from Southern Ocean-related acquisitions and missions.
Antarctica Bedmap2 datasets are used to calculate subglacial hydraulic potential and the area, depth and volume of hydraulic potential sinks. There are over 32 000 contiguous sinks, which can be thought of as predicted lakes. Patterns of subglacial melt are modelled with a balanced ice flux flow model, and water fluxes are cumulated along predicted flow pathways to quantify steady-state fluxes from the main basin outlets and from known subglacial lakes. The total flux from the continent is ~21 km3 a−1. Byrd Glacier has the greatest basin flux of ~2.7 km3 a−1. Fluxes from subglacial lakes range from ~1 × 10−4 to ~1.5 km3 a−1. Lake turnover times are calculated from their volumes and fluxes, and have median values of ~100 a for known ‘active’ lakes and ~500 a for other lakes. Recurrence intervals of a 0.25 km3 flood range from ~2 months to ~2000 a (median ≈130 a) for known ‘active’ lakes and from ~2 to ~2400 a (median ≈ 360 a) for other lakes. Thus, several lakes that have recently been observed to fill and drain may not do so again for many centuries; and several lakes that have not, so far, been observed to fill and drain have the potential to do so, even at annual to decadal timescales.
Endocrine disruption has rarely been reported in field populations of the edible
cockle and the context with the general health of the shellfish is unclear. This
study examined the reproductive state of two Cerastoderma edule
populations over a 6-month period to assess their reproductive condition, the
incidence of intersex and presence of parasitic infection. A further seven native
sites from south-west England were examined during the peak reproductive season to
identify the presence of intersex within the region. Laboratory exposures of
organisms collected from field populations showed a significantly female-biased sex
ratio compared with controls when exposed to the endocrine disrupting chemicals,
bisphenol-A (nominal concentration: 0.1 µg L−1) and 17β-oestradiol
(nominal concentration: 0.1 µg L−1), but none of the chemical exposures
induced intersex. Intersex was revealed in seven out of the nine native populations
of C. edule sampled at peak reproductive season. The highest
incidence and most severe case of intersex were reported at Lower Anderton on the
River Tamer which also had a significantly female-biased sex ratio. Additionally, the
dominant trematode family was the Bucephalaidae. Parasitic infection influences the
maturity of C. edule by lowering both mean gonad index and condition
index. These results suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals could be
contributing factors towards the development of intersex in C.
Litigation is a rising financial burden on the National Health Service. This study aims to show if litigation is increasing in rhinology and which procedures lead to the most claims.
Ten years of data were obtained from the National Health Service Litigation Authority. Rhinology claims were examined for cost, injury, diagnosis and operation type.
Of the 123 rhinology claims identified, 52 per cent were successful. There was a 56 per cent increase in the average annual number of claims between the first half of the study period and the second (p = 0.0451). The commonest reasons for a claim were poor cosmesis (15.6 per cent) and lack of informed consent (14 per cent).
The number of claims in rhinology increased over the study period. Most claims resulted from poor cosmetic outcome, lack of consent or recognised complications. It is suggested that enhanced communication and management of patient expectations could reduce litigation and improve patient satisfaction.
Impulsivity is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and is most frequently measured using self-rating scales. There is a need to find objective, valid and reliable measures of impulsivity. This study aimed to examine performance of participants with BPD compared with healthy controls on delay and probabilistic discounting tasks and the stop-signal task (SST), which are objective measures of choice and motor impulsivity, respectively.
A total of 20 participants with BPD and 21 healthy control participants completed delay and probabilistic discounting tasks and the SST. They also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), a self-rating measure of impulsivity.
Participants with BPD showed significantly greater delay discounting than controls, manifest as a greater tendency to accept the immediately available lesser reward rather than waiting longer for a greater reward. Similarly they showed significantly greater discounting of rewards by the probability of payout, which correlated with past childhood trauma. Participants with BPD were found to choose the more certain and/or immediate rewards, irrespective of the value. On the SST the BPD and control groups did not differ significantly, demonstrating no difference in motor impulsivity. There was no significant difference between groups on self-reported impulsivity as measured by the BIS.
Measures of impulsivity show that while motor impulsivity was not significantly different in participants with BPD compared with controls, choice or reward-related impulsivity was significantly affected in those with BPD. This suggests that choice impulsivity but not motor impulsivity is a core feature of BPD.
Considerable efforts have been made to provide cow-calf producers with information to help them make informed decisions about adding value to calves. Despite demonstrated market incentives to retain calves, many producers still sell right after weaning. We postulate this observed behavior is related to producer risk aversion. Our study concludes risk aversion is an important factor affecting calf retention as the most risk-averse producers have more than a 60% probability of selling calves at weaning and the most risk tolerant have less than a 20% probability of selling at weaning.
Ectoparasitic copepods have been reported in a wide range of aquatic animals, including crustacean shellfish. However, with the exception of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, our knowledge of such parasites in commercial species is rudimentary. The current study examines the morphology and pathology of the parasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the ‘lobster louse’) in its host, the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Lobsters were sampled from waters surrounding Lundy Island (Bristol Channel, UK) and all individuals collected were found to harbour female adult N. astaci in their gills, with a mean of 47·3 parasites/lobster. The majority of N. astaci were found in the basal region of pleurobranch gills. The parasite was found to attach to gill filaments via its oral sucker, maxillae and maxillipeds, and to feed on host haemolymph (blood) through a funnel-like feeding channel. It caused varying degrees of damage to the host gill, including occlusion of gill filaments and disruption to the vascular system in the central axis. Although there was evidence of extensive host response (haemocytic infiltration) to the parasite, it was displaced from the parasite attachment site and thus was observed in the central gill axis below. The region of gill filament immediately underlying the parasite feeding channel was devoid of such activity suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cellular defence and haemostatic mechanisms of the lobster in order to maintain invasion of the host.
In the search for new thermoelectric materials, quasicrystals have been investigated due to their inherently low thermal conductivity. Crystalline phases called approximants which are closely related to the quasicrystals, however, have largely been ignored. These approximants have similar structure, yet the periodicity of a crystal. In this paper, we have investigated an icosahedral i-AlCuFe quasicrystalline phase as well as two of its corresponding approximant phases (ω and β). Electrical and thermal transport properties of these materials are presented. The viability of the i-AlCuFe quasicrystalline system and the ω and β approximant phases as thermoelectric materials is discussed.
We report room temperature thermopower values and the temperature dependence for several AlPdMn based quasicrystals. In an effort to further understand the complexities of electrical transport in quasicrystalline systems, thermopower data for icosahedral Al71Pd21Mn8-XReX will be presented and discussed. A relation of room temperature thermopower to the curvature of the thermopower is demonstrated. We propose an empirical fit to the thermopower data, utilizing three free variables. The physical significance of the fit parameters is discussed. These results are discussed in brief concerning the relation to the application of quasicrystals for use as thermoelectric materials.
The effect of surface finish on the unlubricated sliding wear behavior of a 94% A12O3 ceramic material has been investigated using a reciprocatingright cylinder-on-flat tribometer. The surface finishes evaluated were produced using a combinationof SiC and diamond abrasive particles.
Profilometry was employed to characterize surface topography and x-ray diffraction was used to determine the residual stress associated with each finishing process.
The coefficients of friction and controlling wear mechanisms varied dramatically as the maximum asperity height was altered by different finishing techniques. Below a peak profile of 0.25 μm, the coefficient of friction varied between 0.60 and 0.75 due to preferential shearing of the siliceous binder phase which segregated at surfacial pores and grain boundaries. Binder adhesion in the sliding contact produced stick-slip frictional behavior. Surfaces with asperity heights in excess of 10 μin exhibited intergranularfracture or grain “pluck-out”. These surfaces contained minimal real areas of contact and yielded friction coefficients of 0.30 - 0.35. Removed alumina grains actedas hard abrasives in the contact zone and enhanced transgranular fracture by a lateral cracking mechanism. Evidence of crack propagation as a result of Mode II and Mode III shearloading was discovered at subsurface pore sites. The influences of microindentation hardness and fracture toughness are discussed in terms of their relative importances on the observed wear behavior.
One of the advantages of the ion beam assisted deposition process is its controllability of the processing parameters such as: ion-to-atom arrival ratio and the ion energy. In this study, the effects of the nitrogen ion energy (from 1 KV to 30KV) on the TiN film morphology and microstructures were systematically investigated as a function of ion-to-atom arrival ratios, using TEM, XTEM, SEM, ESCA and other analytical techniques.
Studies of the tribological properties of molybdenum disulphide deposited at the high rates afforded by magnetron sputtering have shown such films to exhibit low friction and high endurance under vacuum. However such studies have mostly been confined to bearing steels. This paper reports on the extension of such studies by presenting measurements of friction coefficient and endurance obtained for thin films of “high-rate” molybdenum disulphide applied to substrates of 440C steel, 52100 steel, titanium alloy 318 andsilicon nitride. The results are interpreted in terms of substrate-related parameters such as film adhesion and elastic modulus of substrate materials. Preliminary evidence relating the degree of film adhesion to the existence of interfacial chemical compounds, identified using surface analytical techniques (XPS, SIMS), is presented.
The last two decades have seen substantial progress in the development of physical vapor deposition processes and in ion implantation technologies to modify the surface properties of engineering materials. Surface modification to engineer surfaces for tribological applications has become possible. Hard coatings are now in wide commercial use in tooling applications both to reduce wear and to extend the product life. However, the use of wear resistant coatings in engineered parts and components is yet to become significant. Some of the problems inhibiting wider use of surface modification in tribological applications are discussed in this paper. Recent developments in arc coating to overcome the discrete interface problem associated with low temperature PVD are described. It is shown that the creation of graded interfaces is now feasible. Results from a study involving the multi-layer deposition of titanium and nickel from a single, composite cathode are presented and discussed. It is shown that the prospects for increased use of surface modification to improve the characteristics of tribological components have been enhanced.
The concept of lubrication by a tribochemically generated oxide layer on the surface of silicon nitride is further investigated. Previous work has shown that low friction coefficients (μ≈0.1) are obtained in a range of sliding velocities and loads when otherwise unlubricated silicon nitride slides in humid air at temperatures between 150 and 650ºC. In order to verify the hypothesis that this behavior results from a competition between the growth of an oxide layer (with growth kinetics accelerated by friction) and its removal by wear, we have performed model experiments at room temperature, wherethe oxide layer is grown statically (i.e. without friction) and the friction coefficient and its evolution in time are subsequently measured. In order to avoid high friction by plowing, ultraflat surfaces were first prepared by sliding in water. The experiments showed that the oxide layer growing in humid air on silicon nitride produces a friction coefficient as low as μ≈0.05 that survives about 30 Newton meter of sliding, which corresponds to several hundred passes of the counterface. When sliding in water, the surface acquires a high friction coefficient (μ≈0.7) very rapidly. The difference in the lubricating properties of tribochemical surface layers on aluminum oxide and silicon nitride can be understood on the basis of the differing surface chemistries of these materials. We offer a tentative lubrication mechanism based on low adhesion between the oxide surface and the silicon nitride counterface and the structure of oxides grown inhumid ambients.
New experimental techniques are described for measuring both the static and dynamic interactions of very thin liquid films between two molecularly smooth surfaces as they are moved normally or laterally relative to each other. Film thickness can be measured and controlled to IA. Results are presented of how the properties of liquid films only one, two, or three molecular layers thick differ from those of bulk liquids. When close together, two molecularly smooth surfaces slide (shear) past each other while separated by a discrete number of liquid layers. The critical shear stress required to initiate motion for simple spherical molecules is “quantized” with the number of layers. Another important characteristic of molecular thin liquid films undergoing shear is the phenomenon of “stick-slip” or “intermit-tent” motion. Both of these phenomena have been studied as a function of driving velocity, area of contact, and number of molecular layers.
In this paper we are concerned with the morphology of the polymers adsorbedon surfaces, in particular di-block copolymers. Our work is motivated by the experimental findings of Fladziioannou et al.  on the steric forces between two adsorbed layers of di-block poly(vinyl-2-pyridine)\ polystyrene (PV2P\ PS) copolymer on mica surfaces. The PV2P block binds strongly on the mica surfaces and the PS block extends into thesolvent toluene (good solvent for PS). Hadziiouannou et al. found that the repulsive forces between the two surfaces start at a distance 1) larger than 10 times the radius of gyration RG of a free P' in toluene. Furthermore, the starting distance D increases with increasing degree of polymerization N of PS in a fashion I) ~ Na with a close to I. We,tudy the adsorption of di-block copolymer with Monte Carlo simulations. The Monte Carlo simulations are especially powerful in dealing with kinetics which is important in systems where hysteresis is observed II1 and cannot be appropriately taken into account by analytical (or numerical) calculations based onequilibrium assumptions.
Composite ceramic coatings of alumina (A1203) containing some molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) were electro-codeposited on to Al metal substrates by a combination of anodic sparks deposition of A1203 and electrophoresis of MoS2. The microstructures were characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, EDS, SNMS,TEM, SAD and relative wear resistance measurements. The coatings consisted mostly ofa-A1203 with some γ and βpresent as well. The coatings were porous and microcracked. SEM showed them to consist of circular “splats” which had rapidly crystallized from the molten state in areas ofdielectric breakdown in the coating. In the TEM the microstructure was seento contain “sets” of parallel, elongated grains having a single crystallographic orientation. The grains were separated by dislocated, low angle grain boundaries or microcracks. The sets intersected at irregularly curved interfaces and were mechanically interlocked. Quantitative SNMS indicated that up to 26 wt% MoS2 was incorporated in coatings fabricated from 5g\1 solutions. SEM\EDS as well as TEM\SAD\EDS identified 1-3μm particles of MoS2 incorporated into the 5g\1 solution derived coatings. These coatings exhibited a 50% lower wear rate than pure alumina coatings deposited under the same conditions.