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Identifying Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) constructs in early childhood is essential for understanding etiological pathways of psychopathology. Our central goal was to identify early emotion knowledge and self-regulation difficulties across different RDoC domains and examine how they relate to typical versus atypical symptom trajectories between ages 3 and 10. Particularly, we assessed potential contributions of children's gender, executive control, delay of gratification, and regulation of frustration, emotion recognition, and emotion understanding at age 3 to co-occurring patterns of internalizing and externalizing across development. A total of 238 3-year-old boys and girls were assessed using behavioral tasks and parent reports and reassessed at ages 5 and 10 years. Results indicated that very few children developed “pure” internalizing or externalizing symptoms relative to various levels of co-occurring symptoms across development. Four classes of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems were identified: low, low-moderate, rising, and severe-decreasing trajectories. Three-year-old children with poor executive control but high emotion understanding were far more likely to show severe-decreasing than low/low-moderate class co-occurring internalizing and externalizing symptom patterns. Child gender and poor executive control differentiated children in rising versus low trajectories. Implications for early intervention targeting self-regulation of executive control are discussed.
Obesity and hyperglycaemia contribute to the atherosclerotic process in part through oxidative modifications to lipoprotein particles. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on markers of oxidized lipoproteins in obese Latino adolescents with prediabetes.
Participants were enrolled into a 12-week lifestyle intervention. Measurements pre- and post-intervention included anthropometrics and body composition, lipid panel, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), oxidized HDL (oxHDL), intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, and cardiorespiratory fitness.
Thirty-five obese Latino adolescents (seventeen females, eighteen males; mean age 15·5 (sd 1·0) years; mean BMI percentile 98·5 (sd 1·2)) with prediabetes.
Intervention participation resulted in significant reductions in weight (−1·2 %, P = 0·042), BMI and BMI percentile (−2·0 and −0·4 %, respectively, P < 0·001), body fat (−7·0 %, P = 0·025), TAG (−11·8 %, P = 0·032), total cholesterol (−5·0 %, P = 0·002), VLDL-cholesterol (−12·5 %, P = 0·029), and non-HDL-cholesterol (−6·7 %, P = 0·007). Additionally, fitness (6·4 %, P < 0·001) and intake of fruits and vegetables (42·4 %, P = 0·025) increased significantly. OxLDL decreased significantly after the intervention (51·0 (sd 14·0) v. 48·7 (sd 12·8) U/l, P = 0·022), while oxHDL trended towards a significant increase (395·2 (sd 94·6) v. 416·1 (sd 98·4) ng/ml, P = 0·056).
These data support the utility of lifestyle intervention to improve the atherogenic phenotype of Latino adolescents who are at high risk for developing premature CVD and type 2 diabetes.
The goal of this study was to assess the utility of serial electrocardiograms in routine follow-up of paediatric Marfan patients.
Children ⩽18 years who met the revised Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome and received a 12-lead electrocardiogram and echocardiogram within a 3-month period were included. Controls were matched by age, body surface area, gender, race, and ethnicity, and consisted of patients assessed in clinic with a normal cardiac evaluation. Demographic, clinical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic data were collected.
A total of 45 Marfan patients (10.8 [2.4–17.1] years) and 37 controls (12.8 [1.3–17.1] years) were included. Left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy were more frequently present on 12-lead electrocardiogram of Marfan patients compared with controls (12 (27%) versus 0 (0%), p<0.001; and 8 (18%) versus 0 (0%), p=0.008, respectively); however, only two patients with left atrial enlargement on 12-lead electrocardiogram were confirmed to have left atrial enlargement by echocardiogram, and one patient had mild left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiogram, not appreciated on 12-lead electrocardiogram. QTc interval was longer in Marfan patients compared with controls (427±16 versus 417±22 ms, p=0.03), with four Marfan patients demonstrating borderline prolonged QTc intervals for gender.
While Marfan patients exhibited a higher frequency of left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy on 12-lead electrocardiograms compared with controls, these findings were not supported by echocardiography. Serial 12-lead electrocardiograms in routine follow-up of asymptomatic paediatric Marfan patients may be more appropriate for a subgroup of Marfan patients only, specifically those with prolonged QTc interval at their baseline visit.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Sudden death in the young (SDY) occurs in people between 1 and 40 years of age who do not have a known premortem risk factor for early death. Cardiovascular diseases account for the majority of causes of SDY. Sequencing of genes associated with congenital arrhythmia susceptibility and familial cardiomyopathy reveals pathogenic variants in 30% of postmortem cases (often called “molecular autopsy”). However, better data are needed to determine the prevalence of phenotype and genotype abnormalities in surviving relatives. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary pediatric center including all subjects with a family history of SDY. Cases were identified using ICD-9 codes (798.1 or .9, V17.41, V17.49, V19.8, V61.07), search of cardiology databases, and by recursive identification of all family members of a subject. Phenotype data was independently reviewed by a pediatric cardiologist. Genotype results were available when obtained by the original treating physician. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Cardiac evaluations were performed in 279 subjects from 175 families, of whom 117 subjects (42%) were first-degree relatives of the proband. Mean age of the subject at time of evaluation was 9 years (SD 5.9). Most probands were over 18 years at the time of SDY: 1–4 years of age (9%); 5–12 (5%); 13–17 (16%); 18–24 (18%); 25–40 (42%). A final diagnosis was determined in 55 families (20%), and a variant in a gene potentially causative of SDY was discovered in 20/55 (36%) of those families. Variants were classified as 50% pathogenic/likely pathogenic, 50% variants of unknown significance. Cardiac testing (ECG, echo, EST, signal averaged ECG, cardiac MRI, or EP study) was abnormal in 124/279 subjects (44%). Among those with abnormal studies, 57/124 (46%) were from a family where a final diagnosis could be determined (LQT 43%, HCM 21%, ARVC 4%, other cardiomyopathy 19%, WPW 5%, CPVT 2%). However, 67/279 of total subjects (24%) had at least 1 abnormal study and a final diagnosis was not determined in the family. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: An abnormal phenotype is common among relatives referred for cardiac evaluation after SDY. While testing identifies a family diagnosis in 20% of families, many patients have abnormal cardiac testing and no clear diagnosis can be made. An improved postmortem protocol for phenotype testing in relatives of a SDY victim and improved postmortem genetic testing may lead to a higher diagnosis rate and improved risk determination in surviving family members.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Knowing how to deliver culturally responsive care is of increasing importance as the nation’s patient population diversifies. However, unless cultural competence is taught with an emphasis on self-awareness (Wear, 2007) and critical consciousness (Kumagai and Lypson, 2009) learners find this education ineffective (Beagan, 2003). This study examines how physicians perceive their own social identities (eg, race, socio-economic status, gender, sexual orientation, religion, years of experience) and how these self-perceptions influence physician’s understandings of how to practice culturally responsive care. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This exploratory study took place at a university in the Intermountain West. We employed a qualitative case study method to investigate how academic physicians think about their identities and approaches to clinical care and research through interviews and observations. In total, 25 participants were enrolled in our study, with efforts to recruit a diverse sample with respect to gender and race as well as years of experience and specialty. Transcriptions of interviews and observations were coded using grounded theory. One major code that emerged was defining experiences: instances where physicians reflected on both personal and professional life encounters that have influenced how they think about themselves, how they understand an aspect of their identity, or why this identity matters. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Two main themes emerged from an analysis of the codes that show how physicians think about their identities and their approaches to practice. (1) Physicians with nondominant identities (women, non-White) could more easily explain what these identities mean to them than those with dominant identities (men, White). For example, women in medicine had much to say about being a woman in medicine, but men had barely anything to say about being a man in medicine. (2) There was a positive trend between the number of defining experiences a physician encountered in life and the number of connections they made between their identities and the manner in which they practiced, both clinically and academically. It appeared that physicians who have few defining experiences made few connections between identity and practice, those with a moderate number of experiences made a moderate number of connections, and those with many experiences made many connections. Physicians who mentioned having many defining experiences were more likely to be able to articulate how those experiences were incorporated into their approaches to patient care. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: (1) According to literature in multicultural education, those with dominant identities do not think about their identities because they do not have to (Johnson, 2001). One privilege of being part of the majority is not having to think about life from a minority perspective. This helps to explain why women and non-White physicians in this study had more anecdotes to share about these identities—because they have had defining experiences that prompt reflection on these identities. (2) We propose that struggles and conflict are what compel physicians to reflect on their practice (Eva et al., 2012). Our findings suggest that physicians are more prepared to apply what they have learned from their own identity struggles in delivering culturally responsive care when they have had more opportunities to reflect on these identities and situations. Findings from this study have implications for transforming approaches to medical education. We suggest that medical education should provide learners with the opportunity to reflect on their life experience, and that providers may need explicit instruction on how to make connections between their experiences and their practice.
Preventing problem behavior requires an understanding of earlier factors that are amenable to intervention. The main goals of our prospective longitudinal study were to trace trajectories of child externalizing behavior between ages 3 and 10 years, and to identify patterns of developmentally significant child and parenting risk factors that differentiated pathways of problem behavior. Participants were 218 3-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (age 5–6 years) and during the late school-age years (age 10). Mothers contributed ratings of children's externalizing behavior at all three time points. Children's self-regulation abilities and theory of mind were assessed during a laboratory visit, and parenting risk (frequent corporal punishment and low maternal warmth) was assessed using interview-based and questionnaire measures. Four developmental trajectories of externalizing behavior yielded the best balance of parsimony and fit with our longitudinal data and latent class growth analysis. Most young children followed a pathway marked by relatively low levels of symptoms that continued to decrease across the school-age years. Atypical trajectories marked chronically high, increasing, and decreasing levels of externalizing problems across early and middle childhood. Three-year-old children with low levels of effortful control were far more likely to show the chronic pattern of elevated externalizing problems than changing or low patterns. Early parental corporal punishment and maternal warmth, respectively, differentiated preschoolers who showed increasing and decreasing patterns of problem behavior compared to the majority of children. The fact that children's poor effortful regulation skills predicted chronic early onset problems reinforces the need for early childhood screening and intervention services.
As discussed in the focal article, numerous research studies have supported the existence of automatic or implicit racial bias (Ruggs et al., 2016). In this commentary, we argue that examining implicit bias through the perspective of the motivation and opportunity as determinants (MODE) model (see Fazio & Olson, 2014, for a review) offers a framework for industrial–organizational (I-O) psychologists to design and implement strategies that reduce the number of violent interactions between police and communities. The MODE model has been applied to areas such as interpersonal relationships (McNulty, Olson, Meltzer, & Shaffer, 2013), effective treatment of mental disorders (Vasey, Harbaugh, Buffington, Jones, & Fazio, 2012), and crafting of media messages (Ewoldsen, Rhodes, & Fazio, 2015), as well as racial prejudice (Olson & Fazio, 2004). Below, we elaborate on how the I-O-related strategies and interventions described in the focal article can be captured by the components of the MODE model and highlight which interventions may be most efficacious in reducing discriminatory police officer behavior.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
We document characteristics of tephra, including facies and geochemistry, from 27 subsurface sites in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, to obtain stratigraphic constraints in a complex setting. Analyzed tephra deposits correlate with: 1) an unnamed tephra from the Carlotta Formation near Ferndale, California, herein informally named the ash of Wildcat Grade (<~1.450 to >~ 0.780 Ma), 2) the Rockland ash bed (~ 0.575 Ma), 3) the Loleta ash bed (~ 0.390 Ma), and 4) middle Pleistocene volcanic ash deposits at Tulelake, California, and Pringle Falls, Bend, and Summer Lake, Oregon, herein informally named the dacitic ash of Hood (<~0.211 to >~ 0.180 Ma). All four tephra are derived from Cascades volcanic sources. The Rockland ash bed erupted from the southern Cascades and occurs in up to > 7-m-thick deposits in cores from ~ 40 m subsurface in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. Tephra facies and tephra age constraints suggest rapid tephra deposition within fluvial channel and overbank settings, likely related to flood events shortly following volcanic eruption. Such rapidly deposited tephra are important chronostratigraphic markers that suggest varying sediment accumulation rates in Quaternary deposits below the modern Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. This study provides the first steps in a subsurface Quaternary stratigraphic framework necessary for future hazard assessment.
Parasites that primarily infect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), such as liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) and meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), can cause morbidity and mortality when incidentally infecting moose (Alces alces). Ecological factors are expected to influence spatial variation in infection risk by affecting the survival of free-living life stages outside the host and the abundance of intermediate gastropod hosts. Here, we investigate how ecology influenced the fine-scale distribution of these parasites in deer in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Deer pellet groups (N = 295) were sampled for the presence of P. tenuis larvae and F. magna eggs. We found that deer were significantly more likely to be infected with P. tenuis in habitats with less upland deciduous forest and more upland mixed conifer forest and shrub, a pattern that mirrored microhabitat differences in gastropod abundances. Deer were also more likely to be infected with F. magna in areas with more marshland, specifically rooted-floating aquatic marshes (RFAMs). The environment played a larger role than deer density in determining spatial patterns of infection for both parasites, highlighting the importance of considering ecological factors on all stages of a parasite's life cycle in order to understand its occurrence within the definitive host.
Field experiments were conducted in grain sorghum at five locations in Kansas in 2009 and 2010, to evaluate the efficacy and crop safety of early- to mid-POST (EMPOST) and late-POST (LPOST) applications of premixed pyrasulfotole and bromoxynil (PYRA&BROM) in tank mix combinations with atrazine or atrazine plus 2,4-D ester or dicamba compared to bromoxynil plus atrazine. PYRA&BROM at 244 or 300 g ai ha−1 plus atrazine at 560 g ai ha−1 applied EMPOST controlled pigweed species (Palmer amaranth, tumble pigweed, and redroot pigweed), kochia, velvetleaf, common sunflower, ivyleaf morningglory, and common lambsquarters 93% or greater. Puncturevine control among three locations ranged from 85 to 99%. Control of most weed species was not improved by increasing PYRA&BROM rate from 244 to 300 g ha−1 or by tank mixing 2,4-D or dicamba with PYRA&BROM plus atrazine. However, ivyleaf morningglory control was improved at the LPOST timing by adding 2,4-D or dicamba at 140 g ae ha−1. In no instance did any PYRA&BROM treatment provide greater weed control than bromoxynil plus atrazine at 281 + 560 g ha−1 when applied EMPOST, but in most instances PYRA&BROM treatments were more effective than bromoxynil plus atrazine when applied LPOST. Generally, PYRA&BROM treatments were more effective when applied EMPOST than LPOST, especially when 2,4-D or dicamba was added. PYRA&BROM plus atrazine treatments caused foliar bleaching in sorghum within 7 ± 3 d after treatment, but recovery was complete within 3 to 4 wk and grain yields were not reduced. Tank mixing dicamba with PYRA&BROM and atrazine occasionally reduced visible crop response compared to PYRA&BROM plus atrazine. Our results indicate that PYRA&BROM plus atrazine with or without 2,4-D or dicamba selectively controls several troublesome broadleaf weeds in grain sorghum. Foliar bleaching of sorghum leaves can occur but the symptoms are transient, and grain yields are not likely to be reduced.
Brain tumors have been loosely divided between primary (occurring from the cells native to the CNS) and secondary or metastatic (from spread by direct contiguous contact or hematologic spread). The incidence of primary brain tumors in the USA is roughly 6.4 for every 100,000 people, with the majority comprising the glioblastoma subtype. Metastatic brain tumors occur in 15–20% of all cancer patients with the primary etiology being lung, breast, melanoma, and renal tumors. With the development of new imaging techniques, innovative surgical techniques, and progressive adjunctive therapies, the treatment of brain tumors now involves earlier diagnosis, improved accuracy for surgery, and more medical and radiation options for patients with brain tumors. Despite improved imaging techniques that can better describe the characteristics of brain tumors without tissue evaluation, the role of craniotomy surgery is an important component of both diagnosis and treatment of patients with brain tumors. As opposed to formal craniotomy, stereotactic needle biopsy can be used for those patients with tumor in a deep, functionally important region of the brain and in patients with poor systemic health. Histologic examination of these core needle biopsies is then used to direct therapy. Craniotomy and surgical debulking/excision are especially beneficial in those patients with large lesions that are symptomatic due to size and edema that cause compression of surrounding brain tissue.
Preoperative imaging for brain tumors is technically specific to each individual patient. With expert interpretation, surgical planning can be made with a general understanding of the goal of the procedure. Imaging techniques have progressed to include digital subtraction angiography, MRI, MR spectroscopy and functional MRI, to name a few. These techniques provide valuable information, but are frequently unable to exclude all other non-tumorous lesions like infarction, infection, and multiple sclerosis. Thus a craniotomy or needle biopsy is required to obtain definitive diagnosis.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether five subcomponents of children's externalizing behavior showed distinctive patterns of long-term growth and predictive correlates. We examined growth in teachers' ratings of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional defiance, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation across three developmental periods spanning kindergarten through Grade 8 (ages 5–13 years). We also determined whether three salient background characteristics, family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity, and child gender, differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 543 kindergarten-age children (52% male, 81% European American, 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers each successive year of development through Grade 8. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with overall externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing three developmental periods: kindergarten–Grade 2, Grades 3–5, and Grades 6–8. We found that most subconstructs of externalizing behavior increased significantly across the early school age period relative to middle childhood and early adolescence. However, overt aggression did not show early positive growth, and emotion dysregulation significantly increased across middle childhood. Advantages of using subscales were most clear in relation to illustrating different growth functions between the discrete developmental periods. Moreover, growth in some discrete subcomponents was differentially associated with variations in family socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Our findings strongly affirmed the necessity of adopting a developmental approach to the analysis of growth in children's externalizing behavior and provided unique data concerning similarities and differences in growth between subconstructs of child and adolescent externalizing behavior.
Kochia is a troublesome weed throughout the western United States. Although
glyphosate effectively controls kochia, poor control was observed in several
no-till fields in Kansas. The objectives of this research were to evaluate
kochia populations response to glyphosate and examine the mechanism that
causes differential response to glyphosate. Glyphosate was applied at 0, 54,
109, 218, 435, 870, 1305, 1740, 3480, and 5220 g ae ha−1 on 10
kochia populations. In general, kochia populations differed in their
response to glyphosate. At 21 d after treatment, injury from glyphosate
applied at 870 g ha−1 range from 4 to 91%. In addition,
glyphosate rate required to cause 50% visible injury (GR50)
ranged from 470 to 2149 g ha−1. Differences in glyphosate
absorption and translocation and kochia mineral content were not sufficient
to explain differential kochia response to glyphosate.
Emotional distress experienced by mothers increases young children's risk of externalizing problems through suboptimal parenting and child self-regulation. An integrative structural equation model tested hypotheses that mothers’ parenting (i.e., low levels of inductive discipline and maternal warmth) would mediate adverse effects of early maternal distress on child effortful control, which in turn would mediate effects of maternal parenting on child externalizing behavior. This longitudinal study spanning ages 3, 6, and 10 included 241 children, mothers, and a subset of teachers. The hypothesized model was partially supported. Elevated maternal distress was associated with less inductive discipline and maternal warmth, which in turn were associated with less effortful control at age 3 but not at age 6. Inductive discipline and maternal warmth mediated adverse effects of maternal distress on children's effortful control. Less effortful control at ages 3 and 6 predicted smaller relative decreases in externalizing behavior at 6 and 10, respectively. Effortful control mediated effects of inductive discipline, but not maternal warmth, on externalizing behavior. Findings suggest elevated maternal distress increases children's risk of externalizing problems by compromising early parenting and child self-regulation.
Multi-junction III-V solar cells are based on a triple-junction design that employs a 1eV bottom junction grown on the GaAs substrate with a GaAs middle junction and a lattice-matched InGaP top junction. There are two possible approaches implementing the triple-junction design. The first approach is to utilize lattice-matched dilute nitride materials such as InGaAsN(Sb) and the second approach is to utilize lattice-mismatched InGaAs employing a metamorphic buffer layer (MBL). Both approaches have a potential to achieve high performance triple-junction solar cells. A record efficiency of 43.5% was achieved from multi-junction solar cells using the first approach  and the solar cells using the second approach yielded an efficiency of 41.1% . We studied carrier dynamics and defects in bulk 1eV InGaAsNSb materials and InGaAs layers with MBL grown by MOVPE for multi-junction solar cells.
Solar spectral splitting technologies have been investigated over the years as alternatives to improve the efficiencies obtained from photovoltaic devices by splitting the incident solar light into its respective wavelengths, and aligning a series of photovoltaic cells arranged next to each other as opposed to being physically stacked on top of each other as is the case with multijunction cells. Limitations previously posed by multijunction cells like current matching and lattice matching are circumvented through this approach, allowing for a broader and potentially cheaper pool of candidate cells to be used for energy conversion. In this study, we design and gauge the performance of a single optical element capable of splitting the light and concentrating it simultaneously unto a bed of photovoltaics, each illuminated by the part of the spectrum that corresponds best to its relevant properties such as the bandgap and the external quantum efficiency. The prismatic structure constituting the device relies on the device’s transmission in the visible region and its dispersion. Presented in this study is the mathematical framework used in designing the structure for a specific merit function; in particular, the study focuses on minimizing optical losses at the interfaces of the structure with the ambient air. Variables like the index of refraction of the material used, the angle of incidence on the surface, the exit angle of the light out of the structure factor into the optical center’s design. Compared to alternative splitting technologies like dichroic mirrors, the model splits the incident polychromatic light into a continuous band of wavelengths as opposed to discrete wavelengths that can be adapted on to different sets of single junction cells. The device is an improvement to our published 1-axis linear concentrator reported earlier in the year for its point-focus output yielding in even higher concentration and potentially lowers costs.