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To compare the impact on child diet and growth of a multisectoral community intervention v. nutrition education and livestock management training alone.
Longitudinal community-based randomized trial involving three groups of villages assigned to receive: (i) Full Package community development activities, delivered via women’s groups; (ii) livestock training and nutrition education alone (Partial Package); or (iii) no intervention (Control). Household surveys, child growth monitoring, child and household diet quality measures (diet diversity (DD), animal-source food (ASF) consumption) were collected at five visits over 36 months. Mixed-effect linear regression and Poisson models used survey round, treatment group and group-by-round interaction to predict outcomes of interest, adjusted for household- and child-specific characteristics.
Households (n 974) with children aged 1–60 months (n 1333).
Children in Full Package households had better endline anthropometry (weight-for-age, weight-for-height, mid-upper-arm-circumference Z-scores), DD, and more consumption of ASF, after adjusting for household- and child-specific characteristics. By endline, compared with Partial Package or Control groups, Full Package households demonstrated preferential child feeding practices and had significantly more improvement in household wealth and hygiene habits.
In this longitudinal study, a comprehensive multisectoral intervention was more successful in improving key growth indicators as well as diet quality in young children. Provision of training in livestock management and nutrition education alone had limited effect on these outcomes. Although more time-consuming and costly to administer, incorporating nutrition training with community social capital development was associated with better child growth and nutrition outcomes than isolated training programmes alone.
Lead poisoning is a stealthy threat to human physiological systems as chronic exposure can remain asymptomatic for long periods of time before symptoms manifest. We presently review the biophysical mechanisms of lead poisoning that contribute to male infertility. Environmental and occupational exposure of lead may adversely affect the hypothalamic−pituitary−testicular axis, impairing the induction of spermatogenesis. Dysfunction at the reproductive axis, namely testosterone suppression, is most susceptible and irreversible during pubertal development. Lead poisoning also appears to directly impair the process of spermatogenesis itself as well as sperm function. Spermatogenesis issues may manifest as low sperm count and stem from reproductive axis dysfunction or testicular degeneration. Generation of excessive reactive oxygen species due to lead-associated oxidative stress can potentially affect sperm viability, motility, DNA fragmentation, membrane lipid peroxidation, capacitation, hyperactivation, acrosome reaction, and chemotaxis for sperm-oocyte fusion, all of which can contribute to deter fertilization. Reproductive toxicity has been tested through cross-sectional analysis studies in humans as well as in vivo and in vitro studies in animals.
Changes in seroprevalence of cysticercosis diagnosed in Chandigarh, India between 1998 and 2014 were investigated by extraction and analysis of data from records held at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh. Among the total number of samples for which cysticercosis had been suspected during this period (N = 9650), 1716 (17·8%) were seropositive. Adults were more likely to be seropositive than children, and women were more likely to be seropositive than men. In addition to there being fewer patients with suspicion of cysticercosis over the data analysis period, the proportion of patients seropositive also reduced significantly. Despite these reductions, which are probably associated with improved infrastructure and sanitation within Chandigarh, and despite meat consumption being relatively rare in this area, the extent of cysticercosis in this population remains problematic. Further efforts should be made to reduce transmission of this infection, with particular emphasis on women. Such efforts should follow the One Health concept, and involve medical efforts (including diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers), veterinary efforts directed towards meat inspection and prevention of infection of pigs, and environmental health and sanitation engineers (to minimize environmental contamination with human waste).
A regional, multistate investigation into a June–August 2013 cyclosporiasis outbreak was conducted in Nebraska, Iowa, and neighbouring states. Cases were confirmed on the basis of laboratory and clinical findings. Of 227 cases in Iowa (n = 140) and Nebraska (n = 87) residents, 162 (71%) reported dining at chain A/B restaurants – 96% reported house salad consumption. A case-control study identified chain A/B house salad as the most likely vehicle. Traceback was conducted to ascertain production lot codes of bagged salad mix (iceberg and romaine lettuce, red cabbage, and carrots) served as house salad in implicated restaurants. A single production lot code of salad mix supplied by both a common producer and distributor was linked to the majority of confirmed cases in persons reporting regional chain A/B exposure. The salad mix linked to illnesses contained imported romaine lettuce from two separate single-grower fields-of-origin and ⩾1 additional field from another grower.
During June–August 2013, 25 US states reported 631 cyclosporiasis cases including Nebraska and Iowa where a regional investigation implicated common-source imported salad mix served in two chain restaurants. At least two common-origin growing fields were likely sources of contaminated romaine lettuce. Using producer- and distributor-provided data, we conducted a grower-specific traceforward investigation to reveal exposures of ill US residents elsewhere who reported symptom onset during 11 June–1 July 2013, the time period established in the Nebraska and Iowa investigation. Romaine lettuce shipped on 2–6 June from one of these Mexico-origin growing fields likely caused cyclosporiasis in 78 persons reporting illness onsets from 11 June to 1 July in Nebraska, Texas, and Florida. Nationwide, 97% (314/324) of persons confirmed with cyclosporiasis with symptom onset from 11 June to 1 July 2013 resided in 11 central and eastern US states receiving approximately two-thirds of romaine lettuce from this field. This grower's production practices should be investigated to determine potential sources of contamination and to develop recommendations to prevent future illnesses.
This is the first record of Grammonus robustus from Indian waters. Five specimens measuring 132–233 mm standard length were collected from the by-catch landed by a deep sea trawler from waters 150 to 200 m deep off the Tuticorin coast in the Gulf of Mannar. The detailed morphometric and meristic characters are compared to known G. robustus material.
Four-layer multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) thin films were deposited via dropcasting (1 mg/mL MWNTs and 10 mg/mL SDBS) onto filter papers that vary in pore size (1, 5, 25, and 40 µm) to determine the effect of the underlying substrate structure on the in-plane properties of the films. The films (<100 nm thick) were dried using vacuum filtration, and drying in a 65 °C heater with and without a ceramic heating board. DC resistance of the films ranged from 6 × 103 to 9.3 × 109 Ω. Impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed a low and a high frequency inductive response and two parallel R–C circuits for the more conducting thin films. High resistance films were fit by a single RC circuit with a constant-phase element. The differences in the in-plane electrical responses of the different MWNT films can be explained by the degree of carbon nanotube surface coverage, obtained as a result of using different pore size filter papers. The drying method utilized also affected the CNT network formation and its resultant electrical properties.
We report here on the first dedicated simultaneous imaging and pulsar observations towards the supernova remnant (SNR) G15.4+0.1, the possible counterpart of the very high energy (VHE) source HESS J1818–154. The observations were carried out using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 610 and 1400 MHz. Preliminary analysis of data suggests absence of pulsations towards the centroid of HESS J1818–154, with upper limits of 0.6 and 0.3 mJy at 610 and 1400 MHz, respectively. Analysis of data with a larger beam is in progress, which may confirm the presence of a putative pulsar and its wind nebula if it is offset from the centroid of HESS J1818–154.
Despite accumulating evidence of structural deficits in individuals with
psychopathy, especially in frontal regions, our understanding of
systems-level disturbances in cortical networks remains limited. We applied
novel graph theory-based methods to assess information flow and connectivity
based on cortical thickness measures in 55 individuals with psychopathy and
47 normal controls. Compared with controls, the psychopathy group showed
significantly altered interregional connectivity patterns. Furthermore,
bilateral superior frontal cortices in the frontal network were identified
as information flow control hubs in the psychopathy group in contrast to
bilateral inferior frontal and medial orbitofrontal cortices as network hubs
of the controls. Frontal information flow and connectivity may have a
significant role in the neuropathology of psychopathy.
In this work we present an experimental study where energetic ions were produced in an underdense 2.5 × 1019 cm−3 plasma created by a 50 fs Ti:Sapphire laser with 5 TWs of power. The plasma comprises 95% He and 5% N2 gases. Ionization-induced trapping of nitrogen K-shell electrons in the laser-induced wakefield generates an electron beam with a mean energy of 40 MeV and ~1 nC of charge. Some of the helium ions at the wake–vacuum interface are accelerated with a measured minimum ion energy of He1+ ions of 1.2 MeV and He2+ ions of 4 MeV. The physics of the interaction is studied with 2D particle-in-cell simulations. These reveal the formation of an ion filament on the axis of the plasma due to space charge attraction of the wakefield-accelerated high-charge electron bunch. Some of these high-energy electrons escape the plasma to form a sheath at the plasma–vacuum boundary that accelerates some of the ions in the filament in the forward direction. Electrons with energy less than the sheath potential cannot escape and return to the plasma boundary in a vortex-like motion. This in turn produces a time-varying azimuthal magnetic field, which generates a longitudinal electric field at the interface that further accelerates and collimates the ions.
To explore associations between household food security and home gardening, use of soya and pressure cooker ownership in low-income households affected by HIV/AIDS in Aurangabad, India.
Cross-sectional pilot study which assessed household food security using the validated US Department of Agriculture's food security core-module questionnaire. Questions were added to explore household environment, education, occupation, home gardening, use of soya and pressure cooker ownership. Households with very low v. low food security were compared using logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounding by socio-economic status.
Aurangabad is an urban setting situated in a primarily agricultural dependent area. The study was carried out in 2008, at the peak of the global food crisis.
Adult caregivers of children affiliated with the Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Aurangabad.
All except for one of 133 households were identified as food insecure (99·2 %). Of these households, 35·6 % had to cut size or skip a meal in the past 30 d. Households that cut meal size due to cooking fuel shortages were more likely to have very low food security (OR = 4·67; 95 % CI 1·62, 13·44) compared with households having no cooking fuel shortages. Owning a pressure cooker was shown to be protective against very low food security after controlling for confounding by socio-economic status (OR = 0·27; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·64).
Only pressure cooker ownership showed a protective association with low household food security. Pressure cookers save household fuel costs. Therefore, future interventions should explore pressure cookers as a sustainable means of improving household food security.
Experiments demonstrate the ~77× amplification of 0.5 to 3.5-ps pulses of seed light by interaction with Langmuir waves in a low density (1.2 × 1019 cm−3) plasma produced by a 1-ns, 230-J, 1054-nm pump beam with 1.2 × 1014 W/cm2 intensity. The waves are strongly damped (kλD = 0.38, Te = 244 eV) and grow over a ~ 1 mm length, similar to what is experienced by scattered light when it interacts with crossing beams as it exits an ignition target. The amplification reduces when the seed intensity increases above ~1 × 1011 W/cm2, indicating that saturation of the plasma waves on the electron kinetic time scale (<0.5 ps) limits the scatter to ~1% of the available pump energy. The observations are in agreement with 2D PIC simulations in this case.
The low-emittance design of the NSLS-II (a new state-of-the-art medium energy third-generation storage ring) requires that the uncorrelated vertical RMS motion between the multipole magnets on a girder be less than 25 nm. The stability of the girder–magnet assembly is affected by factors such as ambient vibration, temperature fluctuations and diurnal floor motion in the storage ring. In this paper we discuss the design features of a high-stability girder–magnet assembly for the NSLS-II.
In situ sensors are an important tool for process control, optimization, and documentation, both in the laboratory and industrial environments. Their further application to deposition of CuInxGa1-xSe2 (CIGS) for photovoltaics is particularly important, as record device efficiencies produced in the laboratory have yet to be replicated in manufacturing. This paper provides an overview of the current state of the art of in situ diagnostics for devices based on coevaporated CIGS.