To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae)) is a pest of blueberries (Vaccinium Linnaeus (Ericaceae)). Tephritid flies, including Rhagoletis Loew species, are susceptible to entomopathogenic fungi, but mortality levels depend on life stage targeted. We tested Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) (Clavicipitaceae) strain S54 by application to pupae in the laboratory and using soil drenches in the laboratory and field. We hypothesised that younger (pre-diapause) pupae would be more susceptible to infection than older (post-diapause) pupae. In the laboratory, R. mendax emergence was reduced from 80% in the control to 57–60% with M. anisopliae. Rhagoletis mendax longevity was reduced by two days for both application timings, and mycosed cadavers increased by 9% and 27% with applications to younger and older pupae, respectively, compared to controls. In the field, R. mendax emergence was reduced by 50% with application to younger pupae compared to controls and applications to older pupae. The surfactant Silwet L77 caused reduced R. mendax emergence when pupae were dipped in suspensions. Even though M. anisopliae S54 did not greatly reduce emergence or longevity, infection was successful and younger pupae may be more susceptible than older pupae. Research with other M. anisopliae isolates against multiple life stages should be conducted and effects of soil variables on pathogenicity determined.
The objective of this study is to compare aneuploidy rates between three distinct areas of the human trophectoderm: mural, polar and a region in between these two locations termed the ‘mid’ trophectoderm. This is a cohort study on in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients undergoing comprehensive chromosome screening at the blastocyst stage at a private IVF clinic. All embryos underwent assisted hatching on day 3 with blastocyst biopsy and comprehensive chromosome screening. Biopsied blastocysts were divided into three groups depending on which area (polar, mid, or mural) of the trophectoderm was protruding from the zona pellucida and biopsied. Aneuploidy rates were significantly higher with cells from the polar region of the trophectoderm (56.2%) compared with cells removed from the mural region of the trophectoderm (30.0%; P = 0.0243). A comparison of all three areas combined also showed a decreasing trend, but this did not reach clinical significance, polar (56.2%), mid (47.4%) and mural trophectoderm (30.0%; P = 0.1859). The non-concordance demonstrated between polar and mural trophectoderm can be attributed to biological occurrences including chromosomal mosaicism or procedural differences between embryologists.
The Sulawesi civet Macrogalidia musschenbroekii is endemic to the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, where it is the largest mammalian predator. Limited field data means that little is known about the species’ distribution, habitat preferences, conservation status and needs, but it is believed to depend on primary forest. We conducted camera-trap surveys across the forests of North Sulawesi, including in two of its main protected areas: Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park and Tangkoko Nature Reserve. From 148 camera trap stations and 10,371 trap nights, Sulawesi civets were recorded 17 times at 12 stations, and in almost equal numbers in primary forest, secondary forest and farmland, including the first photographic records from both the National Park and Nature Reserve. We also collected data on the Malay civet Viverra tangalunga, an introduced species of Viverridae and potential competitor. Our records (n = 21) revealed that it is established in secondary forest; it only co-occurred twice with the Sulawesi civet. With a lapse of > 20 years since the last field record of the Sulawesi civet, our findings offer new insight into its status and new enthusiasm within the provincial government for its conservation, which has led to an extension of camera-trap research into neighbouring Gorontalo province.
The first Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for extraterrestrial applications is part of the ChemCam instrument suite onboard the Curiosity Mars rover. ChemCam may be used in a number of operational modes depending on the science questions of interest, including active (with laser) and passive (spectrometers only) modes, and there is important synergy between ChemCam and other payload instruments. Notable discoveries made with ChemCam LIBS data include the characterization of hydrogen in rocks and soils, discovery of boron on Mars, and characterization of other trace elements (Li, F, Rb, Sr, Ba) that were previously never or rarely quantified on Mars, depth-dependent chemical trends on rock surfaces, and a much broader range of bulk-rock chemical compositions than was previously recognized, including highly evolved igneous rocks. In addition to ChemCam, another LIBS instrument is slated to fly to Mars on the Mars 2020 rover mission as part of the combined Raman-LIBS SuperCam instrument.
In wall-bounded turbulent flows, the wall-normal gradient in turbulence intensity causes inertial particles to move preferentially toward the wall, leading to elevated concentration levels in the viscous sublayer. At first glance, wall-modelled large-eddy simulations may seem ill suited for accurately simulating this behaviour, given that the sharp gradients and coherent structures in the viscous sublayer and buffer region are unresolved in this approach. In this paper, a detailed inspection of conservation equations describing the influence of turbophoresis and near-wall structures on particle concentration profiles reveals a more nuanced view depending on the friction Stokes number. The dynamics of low and moderate Stokes number particles indeed depends strongly on the complex spatio-temporal details of streaks, ejections, and sweeps in the near-wall region. This significantly impacts the near-wall particle concentration through a biased sampling effect which provides a net force away from the wall on the particle ensemble caused by the tendency of inertial particles to accumulate in low-speed ejection regions. At higher Stokes numbers, however, this biased sampling is of minimal importance, and the particle concentration becomes inversely proportional to the wall-normal particle velocity variance at a given distance from the wall. As a result, wall-modelled large-eddy simulations can predict concentration profiles with more accuracy in the high Stokes number regime than low Stokes numbers simply by modifying the interpolation scheme for particles between the first grid point and the boundary. However, accurate representation of low and moderate Stokes number particles depends critically on information not present in standard wall-modelled large-eddy simulations.
Dietary indices are widely used in diet quality measurement, and the index-based dietary patterns are related to gastric cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship between different kinds of index-based dietary patterns and gastric cancer risk, we systematically searched four English-language databases and four Chinese-language databases. The quality of studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate the association between gastric cancer incidence and different types of index-based dietary patterns. The odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) of gastric cancer incidence were calculated by regression models in case-control studies and prospective cohort studies, respectively. The studies were pooled in the random-effects model to calculate the summarized risk estimate of the highest quantile interval of dietary indices, taking the lowest as the referent. The dietary indices included different versions of Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and dietary inflammatory index (DII), healthy eating index, Chinese food pagoda score, and food index score. The meta-analysis was carried out for studies on MDS and DII. The combined OR of gastric cancer for the highest MDS versus the referent was 0.42 (95% CI 0.2–0.86), and the combined HR was 0.89 (95% CI 0.68–1.17). The combined OR for DII was 2.11 (95% CI 1.41–3.15). Higher Mediterranean dietary pattern consumption might reduce gastric cancer risk, while higher inflammatory diet pattern consumption might increase gastric cancer risk.
Pediatric long-term care facilities were surveyed to assess infection control and antimicrobial stewardship practices. Policies mandated by the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) were included. Only 40% of sites reported implementing >90% of surveyed CMS policies. The survey also identified several gaps in non–CMS-mandated policies.
Animal disease events can lead to international trade restrictions which can vary in duration, products included, and geographical extent. Accounting for multilateral resistance between trading partners, a general gravity model of trade is estimated with a Hausman-Taylor and a Hausman-Taylor seemingly unrelated estimator to evaluate the trade quantity impact by commodity resulting from highly pathogenic poultry disease events in 24 exporting markets. Commodity specific results show that quantity traded and products demanded during a disease event differ by commodities. Understanding these impacts can better prepare exporters for potential changes in trade quantity given a disease event.
Involuntary mental imagery is elevated among people with bipolar disorder, and has been shown to shape biases in interpretation of ambiguous information. However, it is not clear whether biases in interpretation of ambiguous scenarios can be observed in those at risk for bipolar disorder, or whether involuntary imagery is related to such a bias.
In the present study, we extended a prominent model of bipolar cognition to an at-risk sample. We specifically tested whether positive interpretation bias and involuntary mental imagery are linked to a greater risk of bipolar disorder.
Young adults (N = 169) completed measures of risk for bipolar disorder (the Hypomanic Personality Scale [HPS]), interpretation bias, and involuntary mental imagery.
Higher scores on the HPS were significantly correlated with more positive interpretations of ambiguous scenarios (β = 0.29, p <. 01) and more frequent involuntary mental imagery (β = 0.22, p < .01). There was no evidence of an interaction between interpretation bias and mental imagery in predicting HPS score, β = .04, p = .62.
Further research is warranted to determine if intrusive imagery or interpretation bias influence the development of bipolar disorder over time in those at risk.
Human and animal research both operate within established standards. In the United States, criticism of the human research environment and recorded abuses of human research subjects served as the impetus for the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the resulting Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established key ethical principles to which human research should adhere: respect for autonomy, obligations to beneficence and justice, and special protections for vulnerable individuals and populations. While current guidelines appropriately aim to protect the individual interests of human participants in research, no similar, comprehensive, and principled effort has addressed the use of (nonhuman) animals in research. Although published policies regarding animal research provide relevant regulatory guidance, the lack of a fundamental effort to explore the ethical issues and principles that should guide decisions about the potential use of animals in research has led to unclear and disparate policies. Here, we explore how the ethical principles outlined in the Belmont Report could be applied consistently to animals. We describe how concepts such as respect for autonomy and obligations to beneficence and justice could be applied to animals, as well as how animals are entitled to special protections as a result of their vulnerability.
The hydrodynamic lift velocity of a neutrally buoyant fibre in a simple shear flow near a wall is determined for small, but non-zero, fibre Reynolds number, illustrating the role of non-sphericity in lift. The rotational motion and effects of fibre orientation on lift are treated for fibre positions that induce and do not induce solid-body wall contacts. When the fibre does not contact the wall its lift velocity can be obtained in terms of the Stokes flow field by using a generalized reciprocal theorem. The Stokes velocity field is determined using slender-body theory with the no-slip velocity at the wall enforced using the method of images. To leading order the lift velocity at distances large compared with the fibre length and small compared with the Oseen length is found to be
are the fibre half-length and radius,
is the density,
is the shear rate and
is the viscosity of the fluid. When the fibre is close enough to the wall to make solid-body contact during its rotational motion, a process known as pole vaulting coupled with inertially induced changes of fibre orientation determines the lift velocity. The order of magnitude of the lift in this case is larger by a factor of
than when the fibre does not contact the wall and it reaches a maximum of
for the case of a highly frictional contact and about half that value for a frictionless contact. These results are used to illustrate how particle shape can contribute to separation methods such as those in microfluidic channels or cross-flow filtration processes.